Skip to main content

Full text of "The romance of William of Palerne (otherwise known as The romance of William and the werwolf)"

See other formats


This book is purchased from 

The Schofield Fund 

given in memory of 

William Henry Schofield 

Victoria College, B.A. 1889 

Harvard University, Ph. D. 1895 

Professor of Comparative Literature 

Harvard University, 1906-20. 

Harvard Exchange P rofessor at 

University of Berlin, 1907 

Lecturer at the Sorbonne and 

University of Copenhagen, 1910. 

Harvard Exchange Professor at 

Western Colleges, 1918. 


arlg nglis 

^rrits. |to. 1. 


' '' V 





tltiara 0f Jalem: 






ABOUT A.D. 1340 ; 










[Reprinted 1890, 1898.} 



no. i 






1. The " Extra Series " of the E. E. T. S. 2. 
"William and the Werwolf;" edition of 1832. 3. 
Missing portions supplied from the French. 4. The 
story. 5. Description of the MS. ... ... i 

Preface to the edition of 1832 by Sir F. Madden. (Ke- 

printed.) ... ... ... ... ... vii 

Note on the word " Werwolf ; " by Sir F. Madden ... xxv 

1. Alliterative Eomances of Alexander. 2. The 
Alisaunder in MS. Greaves 60, by the author of William 
of Palerne. 3. Description of MS. Greaves 60. 4. 
The Story. 5. Its origin. 6. On the dialect of the 
poems. 7. On the distinction between " thou " and 
"ye." ... ... ... ... ... xxix 

WILLIAM OP PALERNE ... ... ... 1 

SAUNDER OP MACEDOINE . . ... ... 177 

Notes to " WiUiam of Palerne " ... ... ... 219 

Notes to " Alisaunder " ... ... ... ... 236 

Glossarial Index ... ... ... ... 250 

Index of Names ... ... 324 



1. THE "Extra Series" of the publications of the Early English 
Text Society, of which this is the first volume, is intended to he sup- 
plementary to the ordinary series in such a way as to expedite the 
printing of the whole quantity of work to he printed. It has been 
proposed that it shall "be reserved entirely for reprints and re-editions, 
and this rule will in general he adhered to. At the same time, a 
little laxity of definition must be allowed as to what constitutes a 
reprint. Thus, the editions of " Piers Plowman " (Text A) and of 
" Pierce the Ploughmans Crede," being entirely new, and from 
entirely new sources, have been issued with the ordinary Series, 
though both have been edited before more than once ; whilst, on the 
other hand, more than a thousand lines, never before printed, have 
purposely been included in the present volume, as belonging to the 
same date, and as having been written by the same author as the rest. 

2. Of the two poems here printed, it is the former that has been 
edited before, in a volume of which the title is "The Ancient English 
Romance of WILLIAM AND THE WERWOLF ; edited from an unique copy 
in King's College Library, Cambridge; with an introduction and 
glossary. By Frederick Madden, Esq., F.RS., F.S.A., M.R.S.L., 
Assistant-Keeper of the MSS. in the British Museum. London : 
printed by William Nicol, Shakspeare-Press. MDCCCXXXII." It forms 
one of the "Roxburghe Club" series, and only a limited number 
of copies were printed. 


The thorough excellence of both the text and glossary of this 
edition is known to all who have had the opportunity of access to it, 
and it has always ranked as a contribution of great importance to our 
knowledge of Early English literature. Sir F. Madden justly claims 
to have been one of the first editors who insisted on the necessity of 
strict and literal accuracy, and it is impossible to say how much we 
owe to him, directly and indirectly. Ilis edition is, in fact, almost a 
facsimile of the MS., being printed in black-letter, and with all the 
contractions of the original, a table of these being added to explain 
them to the reader. A copy of it having been provided for my use, 
it was sent to the printer, after I had expanded all the contractions 
by the use of italic letters, numbered the lines, inserted marks of 
punctuation, and added side-notes. Had the proof-sheets been cor- 
rected by this only, the volume would have contained no error of im- 
portance ; but I judged it to be due to Sir F. Madden and to sub- 
scribers to make it absolutely correct (as I hope it now is, in the 
text at least,) by reading the proof-sheets with the MS. itself, to 
which I had ready access through the kindness of Mr Bradshaw, 
Fellow of King's College, and our University Librarian. 1 I have also 
added a few words within square brackets where there are obvious 
omissions ; they are chiefly taken from Sir F. Madden's notes. As 
his glossary contained references to the pages, and our object is to 
have references to the lines of the poem, I have re-written it entirely, 
incorporating with it the more difficult words in the fragment of 
" Alisaunder." For the sidenotes, most of the notes at the end, and 
indeed for the whole volume in its present state, I am altogether re- 
sponsible ; but I consider it as no little gain that Sir F. Madden, 
with very great kindness, has looked over the re vises of the whole work, 
and I am much indebted to him for his suggestions. The glossary is, 
of course, copied from his almost wholly ; but to some illustrative 
notes that are left entirely in- his own words I have drawn special 
attention by attaching to them the letter " M." He has also per- 

May not some of the alleged difficulty of the study of Old English be fairly 
attributed to the shameful inaccuracy of some of the texts ? The portion of 
" William and the Werwolf" printed by Hartshorne is, in places, simply inex- 


mitted the reprinting of his preface to the former edition, and of his 
note on the word " Werwolf " (with fresh additions). 

3. We are also under great obligations to M. Michelant, of the 
Bibliotheque Imperiale at Paris. To him we owe the transcript of a con- 
siderable portion of the beginning of the French version of the poem, 
enabling me to supply the missing portions of the English version at 
pp. 1 6 and 19 23, and further to compare the French with the 
English throughout the first 500 lines ; some of the results of which 
comparison will be found in the " Notes." He even did more ; for 
he secured for us the accuracy of the portions printed by comparing 
the proof-sheets with the MS. Bibl. de L' Arsenal, Belles Lettres, 178, 
from which his transcript was made. 


Most of the details of the story can be gathered from the " Index 
of Names " at the end of the volume, and from the head-lines and 
side-notes, but a brief sketch of it may be acceptable. 

Embrons, King of Apulia, by his wife Felice, daughter of the Em- 
peror of Greece, had a fair son named William. The brother of Embrons, 
wishing to be heir to the throne, bribed two ladies, Gloriande and 
Acelone, to murder the child. But at this very time, as the child was 
at play (at Palermo), a wild wolf caught him up, ran off with him, swam 
the Straits of Messina, and carried him away to a forest near Rome, not 
injuring, but taking great care of him. But while the wolf went to get 
some food for him, the child was found by a cowherd, who took him 
home and adopted him. (Now you must know that the wolf was not a 
true wolf, but a werwolf or man-wolf / he had once been Alphouns, eldest 
son of the King of Spain, and heir to the crown of Spain. His step- 
mother Braunde, wishing her son Braundinis to be the heir, enchanted 
him so that he became a werwolf.) One day the Emperor of Rome, 
going out a-hunting, lost his way, and met with the boy William, with 
whom he was much pleased, and took the child from the cowherd behind 
him on his horse to Rome, and committed him to the care of his own 
daughter Melior, to be her page. William, growing up beloved by 
everybody, attracted, as might have been expected, the love of Melior in 
particular ; who, in a long but amusing soliloquy, concludes that, though 
she is degrading herself to think upon a foundling, she finds it harder 
still not to think of him, and seeks the advice of her dear friend Ali- 
saundrine, a daughter of the Duke of Lombardy. This young damsel 
bids her be at ease, and, having some slight knowledge of witchcraft, 
causes William to dream of Melior, and to fall in love with her hope- 


lessly. All his consolation is to sit in Melior's garden, and he considers 
himself sufficiently fed by gazing at her window the whole day. Worn 
out by this, he falls asleep there, and is found by the two ladies, and, by 
Alisaundrine's devices, the young couple are soon betrothed ; but it has 
to be kept a great secret, lest the emperor should come to hear of it. 
About this time the emperor's lands are invaded by the Duke of Saxony. 
William, knighted for the occasion, is, by his prowess, the chief instru- 
ment of the invader's defeat ; a defeat which the duke takes so much to 
heart that he shortly dies of grief. The emperor thanks and praises 
William greatly, very much to his daughter's delight. But the next 
circumstance is untoward enough. The Emperor of Greece (who be 
it remembered, is William's grandfather) sends an embassy, headed by 
Lord Koachas, to ask the hand of Melior for his son Partenedon. The 
emperor at once accepts the proposal, and the Emperor of Greece and 
Prince Partenedon set out for Rome. William falls ill at the news, but is 
soon recovered by the expressions of devoted constancy which he re- 
ceives from Melior. The Greeks arrive at Rome, and great preparations 
are made ; what is to be done ? Melior and William consult their un- 
failing friend Alisaundrine, who, not knowing what eke to do, steals the 
skins of two white bears from the royal kitchen, sews her friends up in 
them, and lets them out by a postern-gate from Melior's garden, and 
bids them a sad farewell. But they had been observed ; for a Greek, 
walking in this garden, had seen, to his great astonishment, two bears 
walking off on their hind legs, and tells his companions of his adventure, 
for which he is well laughed at, nothing more being thought of it at the 
time. The lovers hurry away till they find a den, wherein they conceal 
themselves, but fear to die of hunger. In this strait the werwolf finds 
them, and brings them sodden beef and two flasks of wine, having 
robbed two men whom he met carrying them. Meanwhile, great are the 
preparations for the wedding, which is to take place at St Peter's church. 
But at the last moment, where is the bride? The Emperor of Rome, 
frantic with rage, questions Alisaundrine, who evades his questions, but 
at last avows her conviction that, if William cannot be found, neither will 
Melior. William is indeed missing, and the Greek's story about the two 
white bears is at once understood, and a hue and cry is raised after them. 
They are not found, and the Greeks return to their own country. The 
lovers, still disguised as bears, and guided and fed by the werwolf, flee to 
Benevento, where they are nearly caught, but escape by the werwolf s help. 
Finding their disguise is known, they dress up as a hart and hind, and at 
last, after a strange adventure at Reggio, cross the Straits of Messina to 
Palermo, the werwolf still guiding them. Palermo is in a state of siege. 
King Embrons is dead, and Felice is queen, but is hard pressed by the 
Spaniards, as the King of Spain has asked the hand of her daughter Florence 
(William's sister) for his son Braundinis, and, on her refusal, has come 
to enforce his claim. Queen Felice has a dream of happy omen, and, 
perceiving the hart and hind, dresses herself also in a hind's skin, and 
goes to meet them, welcoming them and offering them protection, if 


William will deliver her from the Spaniards. Rejoiced at this, William, 
on Ernbrons' horse, and with a werwolf painted on his shield, performs 
marvels, and takes both the King and Prince of Spain prisoners, never to 
be released till the wicked Queen Braunde shall disenchant the werwolf. 
She is sent for, and arrives, and reverses the charm, restoring Alphouns 
to his right shape, for which she is pardoned ; and the Prince Alphouns 
receives great praises for his kindness to William, it being now seen 
that he did but steal him away to save his life from the plots of King 
Embrous' brother. By way of further reward, he is to marry Florence, 
and William is, of course, to marry Melior. William sends a message 
to this effect to Melior's father, who, for joy to hear that she is alive, 
promises to come to the wedding, and to bring Alisaundrine with him. 
At the same time the Emperor of Greece, Queen Felice's father, sends 
Partenedon his son to Palermo to help the queen against the Spaniards ; 
but the prince is not a little chagrined at finding that he has come to see 
Melior, whom he once wooed, and whom he lost at the last moment, 
married to the husband of her own choice. Seeing no help for it, however, 
he submits as well as he can. But there is another disappointed suitor, 
Prince Bratmdinis ; can nothing be done for him ? It is at once arranged 
that he can marry Alisaundrine, and the triple wedding of William 
and Melior, Alphouns and Florence, Braundinis and Alisaundrine, is 
celebrated in one day ; after which, Partenedon returns to Greece, and 
the Spaniards return to Spain. The Emperor of Rome dying, William 
is elected to succeed him as emperor, and is crowned at Rome ; and 
Alphouns, his steadfast friend, who has become King of Spain on his 
father's death, is present at the joyful ceremony. And thus the Queen of 
Palermo lived to see her dream come true, that her right arm reached 
over Rome and her left arm lay over Spain ; for her son was the 
emperor of the former country, and her daughter queen of the latter ; 
nor was the kind cowherd forgotten, for his adopted son gave him an 
earldom, and brought him out of his care and poverty. 

It ought to be remarked that the curious fancies about the enchant- 
ment of Alphouns into a werwolf, and the dressing up of William and 
Melior, firstly in the skins of two white bears and afterwards in the 
skins of a hart and a hind, as also the wearing of a hind's skin by 
the Queen of Palermo, form the true groundwork of the story, and no 
doubt, at the time, attracted most attention. To a modern reader 
this part of the narrative becomes tedious, and one wonders why the 
disguises were kept on so long. But as a whole, the story is well 
told, and the translator must have been a man of much poetic power, 
as he has considerably improved upon his original. For further re- 
marks upon him, see Sir F. Madden's preface, and the "Intro- 
duction to Alisaunder." 



In addition to Sir F. Madden's remarks, I may observe that the 
size of the pages of the volume is about 12 inches by 8, and the class- 
mark is No. 13. The folios have been renumbered, it being ascertained 
that the missing leaves are the first three and the tenth. Thus fol. 1 
of the former edition is now called fol. 4, and fol. 7 is now fol. 1 1 . 
With this slight change, the numbering of the folios in the margin 
furnishes a ready way of comparing the two editions. 1 

The volume consists of two MSS. : 

I. William of Palerne, here printed ; containing 86 leaves (of 
which three are lost) ; 

II. An imperfect copy of the Lives of the Saints, &c., attributed 
to Robert of Gloucester, and containing 

1. A description of bible-subjects for Lent, with the passion of 
Christ, &c. : Begins (fol. 1) 

" Ssint marie dai in Leinte among of er daies gode " 

ends, " Now ihesu for f e swete crois fat f ou were on ydo 

Bring [vs] to f e blisse of h[e]uene * fat f ou vs bou^test to. 

2. Judas. Begins (fol. 32) " Ivdas was a luf er brid fat 
solde to fe rode; " ends " fer we wenej) fat he be." 

3. Pilate, (fol. 34). " Pilatus was a luf er man and come of 
a lufer more ;" ends "fram so deolfol cas." 

4. Seint Marie Egiptiak, (fol. 37 b). " SEint Marie Egipciake 
in egipte was y-bore ; " ends " f oru penauwce fat heo gan lede." 

5. Seint Alphe, (fol. 40 l>). "SEint alphe fe martir fat good 
man was ynow ; " ends " to f e blisse of heuene Avende. AMEN"." 

6. Seint George, (fol. 43). " Sfiint George f e holi man * as we 
findef of him y-write ;" ends "lete vs alle fider wende. AMEN." 

7. Seint Dunston, (fol. 44 b). " Sfiint Dunston was in Engelonde . 
icome of gode more ; " ends " fat auragles f i soule to bere. ALIEN." 

8. Seint Aldelme, (fol. 4G b). " SEint Aldelnie f e confesso?^r 
was man of good line ; " ends ' fat he is on ido. AMEN." 

1 See also the Note at the end of the Glossarial Index. 


9. Seint Austyn, (fol. 47 b). " Sfiint Austyn J>at brou^te cn'sten- 
dom to Engelonde ; " ends " ^if we were wel vnderstonde." 

The last poem is imperfect, but has lost only four lines, which I 
venture here to transcribe from MS. Laud. 108, fol. 31 b, to complete 

41 His day is toward ]>e ende of May for in J>at day he wende 
Out of f is lijf to ihefu crift pat after him J>o sende 
Bidde we ^eorne feint Auftin J>at cn'ftindom so broujte 
Jjat we moten to Jmlke loye come to 3 wan ore louerd uf bou^te." 

The Lives of Judas, Pilate, and Seint Dunston have been printed! 
for the Philological Society, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 1862. 

Of the names scribbled on the margins of the MS., the one which 
occurs most frequently is that of Nicholas Williams, to whom it 
must have belonged in the sixteenth century. We find, on fol. 45, 
the entry, "Nicholas Williams was poysond, but by God's grace 
escaped it. Gloria patri, Amen, by lacon in Salop." . Lacon is a 
township in the parish of Wem, some ten miles due N. of Shrewsbury. 
For remarks upon the dialect of the poems, see the end of the 
" Introduction to Alisaunder," p. xxxvii. 



The Romance of " William and the Werwolf," contained in the 
present volume, is printed from an unique MS. preserved in the 
Library of King's College, Cambridge, and its literary history renders- 
it of more than common interest to the poetical antiquary. It is 
to the memorable Rowleian controversy we are indebted for the 
first notice of this poem in its English dress. F In that singular dis- 
pute, in which Jacob Bryant, Fellow of King's College, and the Rev. 
Jeremiah Milles, D.D., Dean of Exeter, so notably distinguished 
themselves in defence of the pseudo-Rowley and his writings, the 
former, by a piece of good fortune, stumbled on the Romance, and, 
still more fortunately for us, resolved to force it into his service- 


in support of v the antiquity of Chatterton's forgeries. Accordingly, 
in his " Observations," 8vo. Lond. 1781, pp. 14 23, he gives a 
short account of the poem, with a few extracts from it. His argu- 
ment tends to prove it written in a provincial dialect, and for this pur- 
pose he produces a list of words, which he pronounces of a local 
nature. But however profound Bryant may have been as a classic 
scholar, he possessed very little, or rather, no knowledge of the form- 
ation or genius of the old English language. Indeed, his attempt to 
prove Chatterton's poetry the production of the 15th century, is quite 
sufficient to acquit him of any such pretensions. The consequence 
is natural. Nearly all the words considered by him provincial, are 
to be met with in every other writer of the period, and even those of 
rarer occurrence are, for the most part, found in the Scottish alliter- 
ative Eomances of the same century. 1 But the citations made by 
Bryant from this MS. were sufficient at a somewhat later period to 
attract the attention of the kennel of * black-letter hounds ' then in 
full cry after the pothooks of Shakspeare's prompter's book, and 
George Steevens, T believe, applied for permission to inspect it. The 
volume was then in the hands of Dr Glynne, Senior Fellow of King's 
College, who, like Bryant, was a sturdy Kowleian, 2 and he, fancying 

1 Bryant's blunders in explaining these words are marvellous. A few instances, 
which may be compared with the Glossary at the end of this volume, will serve to 
show how little he understood the subject. Thus, he interprets arnd, around ; bourde, 
a public house or shop; bretages, bridges; kud, good; kinne, can; maid, madam; welt, 
held; warder, further; boggeslyche, boyishly ! Many are also copied so incorrectly 
that they can scarcely be recognised, as eni for em, asthis for aschis, gemlych for 
gamlyche, kevily for kenely, komchaunce for konichaunce, wlouJce for wlonke, satheli 
for scathli, neege for neize \nety~], henden for hiezeden [hie%eden~\. feyful forfeizful 
[fei$ful], wyeth for wyez, fayte for fayre, path for paye. And yet this is the man 
who pretended to judge of Chatterton's forgeries, and even correct them by his own 
notions of Rowley's fancied original. We may truly apply to him some of the 
precious lines he wastes his commentary on : 

" "Wordes wythoute sense fulle groffyngelye he twynes, 
Cotteynge his storie off as wythe a sheere ; 
Waytes monthes on nothynge, & hys storie donne, 
Ne moe you from ytte kenne, than gyf you neerebegonne." 
p. 69. Ed. Tyrwhitt. 

2 Dr Glynne bequeathed to the British Museum the original parchments fabri- 
cated by Chatterton, which now remain a ' damning proof,' were any wanted, of the 
imposture. They present a series of the most contemptible and clumsy forgeries. 


that an examination of the book might not assist the claims of Rowley 
to originality, very prudently locked the treasure up, and there if 
slumbered till it was once more brought to light by the Rev. C. H. 
Hartshorne, about the year 1824. 1 By permission of the Provost, 
about 560 lines of the commencement were copied, and they form a 
portion of a volume intitled " Ancient Metrical Tales," published in 
1829, 8vo., pp. 256 287. Of the inaccuracy of this transcript I 
shall say nothing, as it will sufficiently appear by comparison with 
the text now printed. 

Having thus briefly stated the mode in which this MS. became 
known to the public, the next point of inquiry will be the author of 
the poem in its present shape } and here, I regret to add, no inform- 
ation can be gained. All we know on the subject is derived from 
the writer himself, who tells us, he translated it from the French at 
the command of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford. These are 
his words, at the end of the first fytte or passus : 

Thus passed is the first pas of this pris tale, 
And 36 that loven and lyken to listen ani more, 
Alle wi^th on hoi hert to the hei} king of hevene, 
Preieth a pater noster prively this time, 
For the hend Erl of Herford, sir Humfray de Bowie, 
The king Edioardes newe, at Glouseter that ligges, 
For he of Frensche this fay re tale f erst dede translate, 
In ese of Englysch men, in Englysch speche. (fol. 3.) 
And at the end of the poem, in similar but in fuller terms : 
In thise wise hath William al his werke ended, 
As fully as the Frensche fully wold asJce, 
And as his witte him wold serve though it were febul 2 . . . . 
But faire frendes, for Goddes love, and for ^our owne mensk, 

MSS. Add. 5766. A.B.C. Alas, for the shade of Rowley ! [For specimens of 
these poems, and critical remarks upon them, see Warton, Hist. English Poetry. 
xxvi. W. W. S.] 

1 Weber has, indeed, pointed it out as one of those Romances worthy of public- 
ation, but he never saw the MS. itself. See Metr. Rom. Introd. p. Ixviii. 

[ 2 Sir F. Madden did not quote these first three lines in this place (though he 
quoted them farther on, see p. xxii) ; but it is worth while to observe that they tell 
us the poet's own Christian name, which (like his hero's) was William. W.W.S.] 


3e that liken in love swiche thinges to here, 

Prei^eth for that gode Lord that gart this do make, 

The hende Erl of Hereford, Hum/ray de Boune ; 

The gode king Edwardes doubter was his dere moder ; 

He let make this mater in this maner speche, 

For hem that knowe no Frensche, ne never understood] : 

Biddith that blisful burn that bou^t us on the rode, 

And to his moder Marie, of mercy that is welle, 

3^/' the Lord god lif, ml he in erthe lenges, 

And ivhan he wendes of this world, welthe with-oute ende, 

To lenge in that liking joye, that lesteth ever more. (fol. 82.) 

It has been the more necessary to quote these passages at length, in 
order to correct the absurd mistakes of Bryant, who, not understand- 
ing the phrases, " at Glouseter that ligges" and " ferst dede trans- 
late," nor the import of the line, " }if the Lord god lif," &c., has 
supposed, first, that the Earl himself had made a prior translation to 
the one before us, and secondly, that he was dead and buried at Glou- 
cester, when the second version was undertaken ! It is scarcely 
necessary to point out, that the words " ferst dede translate," only 
mean first caused to be translated, and are strictly synonymous with 
" gart this do make," and " let make." Then, as to the Earl's lying 
dead at Gloucester, the Poet can have no such meaning, for at the 
conclusion of the Eomance he begs his hearers to pray to God and 
the Virgin to give the Earl "good life," and after his decease, 
eternal felicity. The line simply means, resident or dwelling at 
Gloucester, 1 and although the term to ligge was in subsequent times 
more often used in the sense understood by Bryant, yet there is no 
reason, in the above instance, to depart from its original and obvious 

1 In the 21 Edw. 3, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, obtained the royal 
license to embattle his Manor- Houses in the Counties of Gloucester, Essex, Middle- 
sex, and Wiltshire. In the former of these only one mansion is mentioned, that of 
Whitenhurst, or Wheatenhurst, situated about eight miles south from Gloucester, 
and it is very probable that this is the spot alluded to in general terms by the Poet. 
"We know, moreover, that the Earl was not buried at Gloucester, but at the Augus- 
tine Friars, in London, which he had himself re-edified in 1354. See Dugdale, 
Baron, i. 184 ; Rudder's Gloucest. p. 813; and Stowe's Survey, p. 185. 


The nobleman thus alluded to was the sixth Earl of Hereford of 
the name of Bohun, and third son of Humphrey de Bohun, fourth 
Earl of Hereford, and Elizabeth Plantagenet, seventh daughter of 
King Edward the First ; consequently he was nephew to King Edward 
the Second, as intimated in the poem, and first cousin to King Edward 
the Third. He succeeded to the earldom at the age of twenty-four, on 
the death of his brother John without issue, 20th Jan., 1335-6, and 
died, unmarried, 15th Oct., 136 1. 1 We are, therefore, enabled to fix 
the date of the composition of the English Eomance with sufficient 
accuracy, nor shall we greatly err, if we refer it to the year 1350. 
This will agree extremely well with the scanty notices transmitted to 
us of De Bohun's life, which, like most of those relating to the 
belted barons of this chivalric period, are chiefly of a military char- 
acter. 2 Yet it may be doubted whether, as a soldier, the Earl of 
Hereford was at any time distinguished, and whether he may not 
have been confounded by Eroissart with his brother, the Earl of 
Northampton. And this conjecture corresponds with the instrument 
preserved in Rymer, 3 dated 12th June, 1338, by which the King 
ratifies Humphrey de Bohun's resignation of his hereditary office of 
Constable of England, in favor of his brother, " tarn ob corporis sui 
iribecillitatem, quam propter infirmitatem diuturnam qua detinetur, ad 
officium Constabularia^ exercendum" &c. We may, therefore, with 

1 Dugd. Baron, i. 184. ; Milles, p. 1072. 

2 In 1337, he was entrusted with the guard of the important garrison of Perth 
in Scotland. (Dugd. Baron, i. 184). Three years afterwards he is said to have taken 
a part, together with his warlike brother, "William de Bohun, Earl of Northamp- 
ton, in the battle of the Sluys, fought in the King's presence, (Froissart, by Lord 
Berners, f. 30. Ed. 1525), and commemorated by Laurence Minot, a contemporary 
poet. The next year, 1341, we meet with him in the magnificent feast and jousts 
held by the King at London in honor of the Countess of Salisbury the same to 
whom the noble Order of the Garter is said to owe its origin (Froissart, f. 46). In 
1342, he was ordered to provide forty men of arms and sixty archers for the King's 
service in Britanny, and to attend the Council at London, to treat concerning their 
wages. (Dugd. Baron, i. 184). In 1346 he accompanied the King into France to 
relieve the town of Aguillon, then besieged by the French, (Froissart, f. 59 b) ; but 
it is not stated by our historians whether he was present at the famous battle of 
Cressy, fought shortly after. In 1359, he again attended the King on a similar 
expedition, (Froissart, f. 100), and nothing further is recorded of him till his death, 
which took place two years afterwards. 

3 Vol. v. p. 52. 


great probability conclude, that the Earl's weak state of bodily health 
exempted him from taking an active part in the warfare of the time, 
although he might have assisted the King with his counsels. To the 
same cause we may doubtless ascribe that love for literature which 
induced him to cause the Eomance of William and the Werwolf to 
be translated from the French, not, as is evident, for his own use, 
since French was then the language of the Court, but for the benefit 
of those persons of the middle class, to whom the French language 
was unknown. By the influence of a similar motive, we possess the 
translations made by Eobert of Brunne at the commencement of this 
century : 

" Not for the lerid bot the lewed, 

For tho that in this land wonn, 

That the Latyn no Frankys conn, 

For to haf solace and gamen, 

In felawschip whanne thai sit samen." 1 

Higden's testimony to the prevalence of French in the education of 
gentlemen's children at that period is very precise, and it became so 
much the fashion towards the middle of the century, that a proverb 
was made of inferior persons who attempted to imitate the practice 
of the higher classes : " Jack wold be a gentylman yf he coude speke 
Frensshe." 2 Trevisa adds, that "this was moche used tofore the 
grete deth [1349], but syth it is somdele chaunged;" which was, 
doubtless, accelerated by the Act passed in 1362, ordering all 
pleadings to be in the English tongue, and much more by the 
popular compositions of Gower, Chaucer, and the author of Piers 
Plouhman. From all these circumstances it wpuld seem most pro- 
bable that the work was executed after the Earl's return from France, 
in 1349, between which year and his second expedition in 1359, he 
appears to have resided on his estates. That this style of composi- 
tion was much admired and encouraged in England during the 14th 
century is apparent from the alliterative Romances still extant of the 
period. But it is very seldom we are indulged with the names of 
the persons by whom or for whom these poems were written, and, in 

1 Prol. to Chron. ap. Hearne, Pref. p. xcvi. 
2 Dcscr. of Brit. c. 15. Ed. 1515. Jul. Notary. 


that respect, the present poem becomes more intitled to notice, from 
its introducing us to a nobleman, whose claims to biography are so 
very feeble, and who would never otherwise have been known as a 
patron of literature. 

The history, however, of the Romance does not conclude here. 
We must next trace it in its original form ; and here, also, we shall 
find some circumstances which render it worthy of attention. The 
origin and progress of French poesy, both of the Trouveres and 
Troubadours, have been successfully illustrated by Fauchet, Roque- 
fort, 1 De la Rue, Raynouard, and others, but, more particularly, by 
the authors of the Histoire Litteraire de la France. From these 
authorities we know that many Romances were composed by the 
Norman poets previous to the year 1200, which subsequently became 
the text-books of the English versifiers of the 14th century. Most 
of these were founded on the two great sources of fiction throughout 
Europe ; the exploits of Charlemagne and his Douze Pairs, and of 
Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, amplified from the 
fictitious histories of Turpin and Geoffry of Monmouth. The chief 
exceptions to this cycle of poetry at the period we are treating of, are 
the Romances of Havelok, Horn, Benoit's Guerre de Troie, Garin le 
Loherain, Alexander, Athys et Porfilias, Florimond, Gerard de 
Rousillon, and, perhaps, some few others composed by Raoul de 
Houdane, and Thiebaut de Mailli, all of which come under the class 

1 When speaking of our English Romances, Roquefort is by no means to be 
relied on. Thus, describing the English Kyng Horn, he says it was composed in 
the 8th or 9th century. He then confounds it with the Frankish fragment of Hilde- 
brand and Hathubrand, published by Eckard, and takes Ritson to task, for saying 
that the French text was the original ; who would not, he writes, have committed 
such an error, if he had consulted MS. Harl. 2253, where the Romance exists in 
Anglo-Saxon ! ! ! The reply is easy. The copy of Kyng Horn in the Harleian MS. 
was written about the year 1300, and it was from this very MS. Ritson published 
his text. The editor of the present volume [i. e. of the edition of 1832] was fortunate 
enough to discover another copy of Kyng Horn in the Bodleian, of the same age, 
which, in many respects, gives preferable readings. M. Roquefort goes on to call 
the Auchinleck MS. a collection of French poetry, &c. See his Dissertation " De 
I'etat de la Poesie Franqoise dans les xii. et xiii. siecles." 8vo. Paris, 1815, pp. 48, 
49. [NOTE. There is a still better copy of Kyng Horn in the Cambridge University 
Library, first printed for the Bannatyne Club by Mr T. Wright, and reprinted by 
Mr Lumby in his edition, published for the E. E. T. S. in 1866. W. W. S.j 


of Romans mixtes. Among these also we are intitled to place our 
Romance of William and the Werwolf, the title of which in the 
original, is, Roman de Guillaume de Paler ne. The popularity of this 
singular tale, (which one would suppose was formed on some 
Italian tradition, picked up by the Norman adventurers in Apulia 
and Sicily), must have been considerable, since in the ancient in- 
ventories of the libraries of the Dukes of Burgundy, taken in 1467 
and 1487, we find no less than three copies of it. 1 At present, the 
catalogues of MSS. in England have been searched in vain for the 
poem, and in Trance, on a similar inquiry being made, only one copy 
has been discovered, preserved in the Bibliotheque de F Arsenal, at 
Paris, 2 and, to all appearance, is the same MS. which was formerly 
at Brussels. 3 By the obliging attentions of M. Van Praet, the dis- 
tinguished Librarian of the Bibliotheque Royale, the Editor is 
enabled to give some account of this unique volume. It is a vellum. 
MS. of a small folio size, consisting of 157 leaves, and written in 
double columns of 31 lines each, towards the close of the thirteenth 
century. It contains the Roman d' Escouffle (fol. 1 77), and the 
Roman du Guillaume de Palerne. The latter commences thus : 

Nus ne se doit celer ne taire, &c., 4 
and ends in the following manner : 

Del roi GuilKawme et de sa mere, 

De ses enfans et de son guerre, (?) 

De son empire et de son regne, 

Trait li estoires ci a fin. 

Gil qwi tos iors fu et sans fin 

Sera, et pardoune briement, 

H gart la contesse Yolent, 

La bonne dame, la Icial, 

Et il descort son.cors de rnal. 

- See a curious volume, intitled "Bibliotheque Protypographique." 4to. Paris, 
1830, pp. 199, 302, 323. 

2 Marked JBelles Lettres, 178. 

3 See the work just cited, p. 323. It is there called of the fourteenth century. 
[ 4 Here Sir F. Madden quotes the first 24 lines, which I omit, as, by the great 

kindness of M. Michelant, of the Bibliotheque Imperiale, I am enabled to give much 
longer extracts; see pp. 16, and 1923, of this book. W. W. S.] 


Gest liure Jist diter et faire, 

Et de Latin en Roumans traire. 

Proions dieu por la bonne dam[e] 

Qwen bon repos en mete lame, 

Et il nous doinst ce deseruir, 

Q?^a boine fin puissons venir. Amen. 

Explicit li Roumans de Guilliaume de Palerne. 

The lady here referred to can be no other than Yoland, eldest daughter 
of Baldwin IV., Count of Hainault, and Alice of Namur. She was 
married, first, to Yves, or Yvon, Count of Soissons, surnamed le Viel, 
who is characterised by an old Chronicler as a nobleman " de grande 
largesse, et sage sur tous les Barons de France." ! On his death, 
without issue, which took place in 1177, she married, secondly, Hugh 
Candavene IV., Count of St. Paul, by whom she had two daughters, 
the eldest of which carried the title into the family of Chastillon. 
By the union of Judith, daughter of Charles the Bold, with Baldwin 
I., Count of Flanders, the Countess Yoland claimed descent from the 
blood of Charlemagne, and by the marriage of her brother Baldwin 
the Courageous with Margaret of Alsace, heiress of Flanders and 
Artois, she became aunt to Baldwin VI., Count of Hainault and 
Flanders, who in 1204 was elected Emperor of Constantinople, 2 and 
to Isabel of Hainault, who, in 1180, shared the throne of Philip 
Augustus, King of France. Such was the splendid alliance of the 
lady to whom our poem owes its origin. In accordance with the 
prevailing taste of the age, we find the Counts of Hainault and 
Flanders distinguished patrons of poesy. Chrestien de Troyes is said 
to have dedicated several of his Romances to Philip of Alsace, Count 
of Flanders, who died in 1191, 3 and Baldwin V., Count of Hainault, 

1 Du Chesne ; Hist, de la Maison de Chastillon, fol. Par. 1621. Preuves, p. 33. 

2 The author of the analysis of this Romance, in the Nouv. Bibl. des Romans, t. ii. 
p. 41, who copies from the printed prose version, hereafter to be noticed, makes a 
singular mistake, by confounding the Countess of St. Paul with Yoland, sister of the 
Emperor Baldwin, and wife of Peter de Courteney, who was subsequently, in her 
right, Emperor of Constantinople, and died in 1221. He says also, that the 
Countess Yoland found the Romance among the papers of her nephew after his 
death [1205], but this is a mere invention of the writer himself, and contradicted 
by the original text. 3 Hist. Litt. de la France, sin. 193. 


having found at Sens, in Burgundy, a MS. of the Life of Charlemagne, 
gave the work at his death [1195] to his sister Yoland (the same 
lady above mentioned), who caused it to be translated into French 
prose. l We have once more to lament that the author of our original 
(most probably, a native of Artois,) should have concealed his name, 
but the time of its composition may be assigned between 1'178, the 
probable date of her marriage with the Count of St. Paul, and the 
year 1200. The Count died at Constantinople before 1206, and 
Yoland did not, in all probability, survive him long. She was, cer- 
tainly, alive in 1202, as appears from an instrument in Du Chesne. 
This Eomance may therefore be ranked among the earliest of those 
composed at the close of the 12th century, and it is surprising it should 
have been overlooked by Roquefort and the Benedictines. 

At a much later period, apparently, at the beginning of the 16th 
century, this poem was converted into French prose. Three editions 
of it are known to book-collectors ; the first printed at Paris, by 
Nicolas Bonfons, 4to Hit. goth. ; 2 the second at Lyons, 1552, by 
Olivier Arnoult, 4to ; 3 and a third at the same place (probably a re- 
print) by the widow of Louis Coste, s. a. about 1634. The ' traduc- 
teur,' in a short preface, tells us he obtained the original by gift of a 
friend, and finding the language to be "romant antique rimoye, en 

1 Ib. xiii. 386. Fauchet, Eecueil de 1'Origine de la Langue Fran9oise, fol. 
Par. 1581 ; p. 34. 

3 Copies of this exist in the British Museum, and in Mr Douce' s library. In 
the former there is a note in the handwriting of Kitson, who supposes it to have 
proceeded from the press of Nicholas, the father of John Bonfons, whose son Nicholas 
printed from about 1550 to 1590. The title is as follows : " L' Historic du noble 
preux $ vaittant Cheualier Guillaume de Palerne. Et de la belle Melior. Lequel 
Guillaume de Palerne fut filz du Roy de Cecille. Et par fortune $ merueilleuse 
auenture deuint vacher. Et finablement fut Empereur de Rome souz la conduicte dun 
Loupgaroux filz au Roy Dtspagne." The text is accompanied with wood-cuts. This 
volume is noticed both by Du Verdier, t. iv. p. 169, Ed. Juvigny, and Bibl. des 
Romans, t. ii. p. 245, but neither of these writers mention the author. [NOTE. 
Besides these three, there is a fourth edition, printed at Rouen by Louys Coste 
(about 1620 ?), of which there is now a copy in the British Museum (class-mark 
125130). It is in Roman type, not black-letter, and seems to be merely copied 
from the first edition. A search for a particular passage shewed that both prose 
versions omit the portion contained in 11. 2449 2567. W. W. S.] 

3 See Dr Dibdin's Tour, vol. ii. p. 337, who describes a copy of this, and the 
later edition, in the Bibliotheque de 1' Arsenal. 


XV 11 

sorte non intelligible ne lisible," lie turned it into modem French, with 
some additions of his own, for the assistance of those who might wish 
to read it : " Car en icelle lisant," he adds, "pourra Ton veoir plu- 
sieurs faictz d'armes, d'arnours, & fortunes innumerables, & choses 
admirables, q' aduindrerct au preux & vaillant cheualier Guillaume 
de Palerne, duquel 1'histoire port le nom." He afterwards adverts to 
the Countess Yoland, and her nephew Baldwin, Emperor of Constan- 
tinople, who was slain by the infidels at the siege of Adrianople, in 
1205. And adds : "Pour 1'hoTmeur de laquelle & de si haut empereur 
pouuows facillement accroistre les choses au present liure contenues." 
Whether the story will appear quite so credible at the present day is 
rather questionable. The French bibliographers are silent as to the 
author of this prose version, and Dr Dibdin's sagacity seems to have 
failed him here. But at the end of the volume is an acrostic of 
twelve lines, the first letters of which form the name of Pierre 
Durand, who, no doubt, is the compiler. Any further information 
respecting him I have been unable to obtain, unless he is the same 
with the Pierre Durand, Bailli of Nogent le Rotrou, en Perche, men- 
tioned by Lacroix du Maine, who adds, that he was an excellent 
Latin poet, and composed many inedited verses both in Latin and 
French. ! No notice is supplied of the period at which he lived. It 
was, most likely, from this prose translation, that the imperfect analysis 
of the Romance was borrowed, printed in the Nouvelle Bibliotlieqiie 
des Romans, torn. ii. pp. 41 68, 12mo. Par. an. vi. [1808] where it is 
placed in the class of " Romans de Feerie," although professedly ex- 
tracted from a MS. of the 14th century. 

By the assistance of Durand's version we are enabled to judge of 
the accuracy of the English versifier, since they both translate from 
the same text, and it is surprising how closely the latter has adhered 
to his original. Another advantage gained from it is to supply the 
hiatus which, unfortunately, occur in tbe English poem. To avoid 
the prolixity of the prose author, the substance of the passages want- 
ing, is here annexed : 2 

1 Bibl. Francises, torn. ii. p. 272; ed. 1772. He is said also to have had an 
(enigma or rebus in the front of his house, which seems to indicate the same taste 
which prompted the composition of the acrostic cited above. 

[ 2 These missing passages are supplied in this re-edition from the original rimed 
French version. W. W. S.] 


" There was formerly a King of Sicily, named Ebron, who was 
also Duke of Calabria and Lord of Apulia ; rich and powerful above 
all other princes of his time. He married Felixe, daughter of the 
Emperor of Greece, and not long after their union, they were blessed 
with a son named William, the hero of the present story. The infant 
was intrusted to the care of two sage and prudent ladies, named 
Gloriande and Esglantine, who were chosen to superintend his 
nurture and education. But the brother of King Ebron, foreseeing 
that his succession to the throne would be now impeded, soon formed 
a resolution to destroy the boy, and, by means of promises and bribes 
so wrought on the governesses, that they at length consented to a plan 
by which both the Prince and King were to be put to death. At that 
time the Court was held at the noble city of Palerne [Palermo], ad- 
joining to which was a spacious garden, abounding with flowers and 
fruits, in which the King was often accustomed to take his recreation. 
But one day, when Ebrons was walking here, accompanied by the 
Queen and the Prince (then about four years old), attended by the 
two governesses, an event took place which turned all their joy into 
the deepest consternation and grief. For, whilst the King's brother 
and the two ladies were holding a secret conference how to carry 
their project into execution, a huge werwolf, with open jaws and 
bristled mane, suddenly rushed forth from a thicket, at which the 
ladies were so terrified, that they swooned away, and the rest fled, 
leaving the child alone, who was immediately carried off, without 
injury, by the beast. The King ordered pursuit to be made, but in 
vain, for the swiftness of the animal soon enabled him to distance 
his pursuers ; to the great distress of the monarch and his court. The 
Aver wolf bore the child away to a place of safety, and thence, pursu- 
ing his course night and day, at length conveyed him to a forest, not 
far from the city of Borne, where he remained some time, taking care 
to provide what was necessary for his sustenance ; and having dug 
a deep pit, and strewed it with herbs and grass for William to sleep 
on, the beast was accustomed to fondle the boy with his paws in the 
same manner a nurse would have done." 

Here commences the English Eoniance, which, with the excep- 
tion of a folio (or 72 lines) missing between ff. 6 7, proceeds 
regularly to the end. This second defect occurs at the close of the 
Emperor's speech to his daughter Melior, and the text again begins 
with Melior's reproaches to herself for loving William. What in- 
tervenes may be easily supplied, even from fancy, but in the prose 
Romance we read as follows : 

"The Emperor's daughter received the infant, which proved of so 
gentle a disposition, that it seemed to have been bred at court all its 
fife-time. It was soon clothed in dresses of silk and velvet, and 



became the plaything of the fair Melior. ' Et alors,' says the writer, 
* le faisoit mout beau veoir : car en toute la court ny auoit si bel en- 
fant que luy, ne si aduenant. Sobre estoit en son manger & boire, 
facilemens fut apprins a seruir les dames a tables ; a tons ieux, & a 
deuiser & a dire ioyeuses sornetes a tous propos.' But above all, 
William studied how best to serve his lady and mistress Melior, 
whom he loved above every one else. As he advanced in age he 
began to share in the chivalrous exercises of the time ; to bear arms, 
ride on the great horse, and practise various feats of strength, all for 
the love of Melior, his * mie ' ; and so great a favourite was he with 
all the ladies and demoiselles, that Melior heard of nothing but his 
praises. The Emperor, too, was so fond of William, as to keep him 
constantly by his side. In the mean time, the Princess would often 
withdraw to her chamber to dwell secretly on the personal attrac- 
tions and graceful demeanor of William, and was at length so pierced 
by love's keen arrow, that she could not refrain from sighing, and 
desiring to hold him in her arms. But then again, considering with 
herself, that a lady of her noble birth ought not to bestow her affec- 
tion on any one but a Knight of her own rank, she often vainly 
endeavoured to drive William from her thoughts." 

The remaining part of la belle Melior's soliloquy will be found in 
our poem, and the translation is sufficiently naive to be interesting 
even to those who may, in general, despise the simple language of 
our old Eomances. 

The tradition developed in this story, and which forms its chief 
feature, namely, the transformation of a human being into a wolf, 
but still retaining many of the attributes of his nature, has been so 
learnedly and ably discussed by the author of the Letter annexed to 
the present remarks, 1 as to render any additional illustration unneces- 
sary. But it may not be improper here to suggest, that the belief in this 
notion in the southern provinces of Europe may have been partly 
derived through the medium of the Northmen, among whom, as ap- 
pears from various authorities, it was very general. A curious story 
of a were-bear in Eolf Kraka's Saga is quoted by Sir Walter Scott, 2 
which has some slight features of resemblance with our werwolf, and 
it is singular, that this metamorphosis should have been accomplished 
by striking the person transformed with a glove of wolf-sldn. In the 

1 [In the Edition of 1832, a Letter by the Hon. Algernon Herbert, addressed to 
Lord Cawdor, on the subject of "Werewolves, was annexed to the Preface. W. "W. S.] 

2 Border Minstr. ii. 110, ed. 1803. [The story, condensed, is given in S. 
Baring-Gould's Book of Werewolves, pp. 21 27. W. W. S.] 



Volsunga Saga, also, cap. 12, we read of the similar change of Sig- 
m und and Siufroth into wolves. 1 In general, the transformation was 
supposed to be accomplished, as in our Romance, by the aid of 
certain magical unguents. 2 With regard to the supposed form of 
these werwolves, and whether they differed from those of natural 
wolves, I have searched many writers, without much success, but 
Boguet informs us, that in 1521, three sorcerers were executed, who 
confessed they had often become Loupsgaroux, and killed many 
persons. 3 A painting was made to commemorate the fact, in which 
these werwolves were each represented with a knife in his right paw. 
This picture, we are told, was preserved in the church of tke Jaco- 
bins, at Pouligny, 4 in Burgundy. One distinctive mark, however, of 
a werwolf is said to have been the absence of a tail, 5 yet this does 
not seem to correspond with the vulgar notions on the subject, since 
in the wooden cut prefixed to the prologue of. the prose translation 
of this Romance, representing the werwolf carrying off the infant 
Prince of Palermo, there certainly appears a tail of due proportions. 
On the style in which this poem is written, and its peculiarities of 
language, it is needless to dwell long. The history of our allitera- 
tive poetry has already been illustrated by Percy, Warton, and Cony- 
beare, and the principle on which it was composed, even to so late a 
date as the middle of the 16th century, is sufficiently known. 6 The 

1 Biorner's Kampa-Daeter, fol. 1737. [See S. Baring-Gould's Book of Were- 
wolves, p. 18. W. W. S.] 

2 See Discours des Borders, par Henry Boguet, 12mo. Lyon, 1608. 2de ed. pp. 
363, 369; Verstegan's Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 4to. Antv. 1605, p. 237; 
Jamiesorfs Dictionary, in v. Warwolf, and Nynauld's treatise De la Lycanthropie, 
8vo., Par. 1625, where several of these ointments are described. 

[ 3 Another account says two sorcerers, named Pierre Bourgot and Michel Ver- 
dung. See A Book on Werewolves, by S. Baring-Gould, p. 69.] 

4 Boguet, p. 341. Wierus de Prastigiis, lib. v. c. 10. 

5 Boguet, pp. 340, 361. [A little girl described a werwolf as "resembling a 
wolf, but as being shorter and stouter ; its hair was red, its tail stumpy, and the 
head smaller than that of a genuine wolf." See the story in S. Baring- Gould's 
Book on Werewolves, p. 91. W. W. S.] 

6 See Essay in the "Reliques of English Poetry, vol. ii. ; Warton' s Hist, of 
Engl. Poetry, vol. ii. 10, 8vo. ed. ; Whitaker's Introductory Discourse to Piers 
Plouhman, and Conybeare's Essay on Anglo-Saxon Metre, prefixed to the Illustra- 
tions of Anglo-Saxon Poetry, 8vo., Lond. 1826. [In the new edition of Bp Percy's 
Folio MS. by Hales and Furnivall, Percy's Essay has been replaced by a fuller and 
longer one by myself, to which I beg leave to refer the reader. W. W. S.] 


lines in the poem consist of an indeterminate number of syllables, 
from eleven to thirteen, but sometimes more or less, which, like Piers 
Plouhman, and other compositions of this class, may be .divided into 
distichs, at the caesural pause, so as to give them the Saxonic char- 
acter on which they are all formed. Thus, for instance : 

Hit bi-/el in that /orest, 

there /ast by-side, 
There woned a wel old cherl, 

that was a couherde, 
That /ele winterres in that /orest 
jfoyre had kepud, &c. 

It adds, however, to the value of this Romance, that we havo ill it 
the earliest specimen of unrimed alliterative metre yet discovered ; 
for of the other pieces of this kind extant, there is not one which 
may not be placed subsequent to Piers Plouhman, composed after 
the year 1362. 1 It is also matter of satisfaction to be able to fix the 
date of this work prior to the period which produced such writers 
as Gower and Chaucer. We can now trace the English language 
step by step from the year 1300, since the writings of Robert of 
Gloucester, Robert of Erunne, Robert Davies, William of Shore- 
ham, 2 Robert Rolle, and Laurence Minot, lead us up to the precise 
period when our poem was composed, and which forms the connect- 
ing link with Langland and the subsequent writers. Without decid- 
ing with Bryant, that our Romance betrays very distinctly a provincial 
dialect, we may accede to his conjecture of its author being, probably, 
a native of Gloucestershire, or an adjoining county ; although the 
orthography by no means betrays that decided western pronunciation 

1 Mr Conybeare is certainly mistaken in assigning the Romances of Sir Gawayn 
and Alexander to the 13th century, as I shall endeavour to show in another place. 
[See Sir F. Madden's notes to Sir Gawayn. See on the other hand my "Intro- 
duction to Alisaunder," (p. xxx), which poem is now found to be somewhat earlier 
than "William of Palerne." W. W. S.] 

2 The poems of this writer, who nourished from 1320 to 1340, are preserved in 
an unique MS. belonging to Alexander Henderson, Esq., of Edinburgh, who in- 
tends, at some period or other, giving them to the public. \The Religious Poems of 
William de Shoreham were edited for the Percy Society by T. Wright, M.A., Lon- 
don, 1849. The MS. is now MS. Additional 17376 in the British Museum. 

w. w. s.i 



which characterises the poems ascribed to Robert of Gloucester. Of 
his ability as a poet we ought on the whole to form a favorable 
judgment; and when we consider the fetters imposed on him by the 
metre he adopts, and by the closeness of his translation, we may 
readily forgive the repetitions he abounds in, as well as the somewhat 
tedious minuteness of his narrative. There are some lines, such as 
for instance these : 

And than so throli thou^tes thurlen myn herte, 
That I ne wot in the world where it bi comse ; 

and again, 

So many maner minstracie at that mariage were, 

That when thei made here menstracie, eche man wende 

That heven hastili and erthe schuld hurtel to gader ; 

which would seem to mark the author capable of better things. But 
the poet shall plead his own apology, in some lines at the close of the 
.Romance : 

In this wise hath William al his werke ended, 

As fully as the Frensche fully wold aske, 

And as his witte him wold serve, though it were febul ; 

But though the metur be nouyt mad at eche marines paye, 

Wite him nouyt that it wrou^t, he wold have do beter 

$if is witte in eny wei^es wold him have served. 

It would seem from this, as if the alliterative form of alexandrine 
verse had not yet become popular, and was, in fact, but lately intro- 
duced. It is worth observing also, that the number of French words 
here introduced, will serve to exonerate Chaucer from the charge 
made against him of debasing the English language by Gallicisms. 
Such a remark could only have come from one ignorant of what 
early English literature owes to our continental neighbours. 

There are some minuter details respecting the grammatical con- 
struction of the poem, which perhaps deserve notice, such as the use 
of the present tense for the past, as ashes, arise, bere, seweth, &c., for 
asked, arose, bore, sewede, &c., the use of the singular for the plural 
(if, indeed, it be not a contracted form of the plural, which I am in- 
clined to believe, like childer from childereri), in the instances of daie, 


dede, burgeys, bere, &c., for dates, dede-s, burgeyses, beres, &c. ; but 
the fact is, these are not peculiarities, but authorised by usage, and 
many similar forms are retained, even at present, in familiar convers- 
ation, particularly among the lower classes. 

It only remains to give a brief description of the MS. from which 
the present poem has been transcribed. It is a moderate-sized folio, 
written on vellum soon after the middle of the 14th century, and 
consisting of 130 folios, 82 of which are occupied by the Romance. 
A quire is wanting at the commencement, and a single leaf shortly 
after. The text is disposed in single columns, of 3 6 'lines in a page, 
and the writing is in a remarkably distinct, but rather thick and 
inelegant, letter, with small blue and red initials. 1 .... 

At the conclusion of the Romance, f. 86, is written in a hand of 
the early part of the 16th century as follows : 2 " Praye we all to that 
heaven kinge that made all y e world off nowght to pardon the solle 
of humfray boune, that was erlle of herford, for hys grete dylygens 
and peyns takynge to translate thys boke owt off freynche In to 
englys ; to y* entent to kepe youythe from ydellnes, [he] hathe sete 
furthe thys goodly story, wher apon we showld bestow our tym apon 
the holy day, & suche other tymes when we haue lytle or nothynge 
a doyng elles, & In so doynge ye may put awey all ydell thowghte-5 
& pensyffnes [of] harte, for the wyche traueyll pray we all to that 
heuyw kynge to graunt hym eternall lyf for hys good wyll." The 
rest of the volume is occupied by a portion of the Metrical Lives of 
the Saints, composed in the reign of Edward the First, and written 
in a different and rather earlier hand. The lives are those of Judas, 
Pilatus, Seint Marie JEgiptiak, Seint Alphe, Seint George, Seint 
Dunston, Seint Aldelme, and Seint Austyn? There are several other 

p I here omit the words " A fac-simile of the first seven lines is subjoined," 
which are followed by the fac-simile itself. The marks of abbreviation are ex- 
plained further on ; see p. xxiv. A peculiarity of the MS. is that the initial letter of 
every line is separated from the rest by a slight space, as in Sir F. Madden' s edition. 
The central metrical pause is nowhere marked by a dot. I am responsible for the 
insertion of these, which will, I believe, be found to assist the reader. W. W. S.] 

[ 2 These words were clearly suggested by the concluding lines of the poem, 
and it was hence, perhaps, that Bryant adopted the idea that Sir Humphrey trans- 
lated the French himself. W. W. S.] 

[ 3 There is a poem preceding Judas, and belonging to the same series. See the 
first lines, &c., on p. vi. W. W. S.] 


perfect copies of these curious legends in existence. With respect 
to the history of this MS. volume before it was presented to King's 
College Library, I could gain no information, nor even the name of 
the donor. There are several names scribbled on the margins, but 
all of a late period, and of no importance. 

The Romance has been printed, as nearly as possible, in exact ac- 
cordance with the MS., and not the slightest liberty has been taken, 
either with the punctuation or the orthography. It is, in short, as 
near a fac-simile of the original as could be imitated by typography. 
But for the convenience of those unacquainted with the mode of 
contracting words in old MSS., a list of the abbreviations is placed 
at the end of these remarks. The Glossary has been compiled with 
much care, and rendered as comprehensive as possible, but with all 
due regard to avoid unnecessary prolixity. Only those words are 
illustrated which appeared absolutely to require it : it being deemed 
in other cases sufficient to mark the immediate derivation of the term. 

The Editor, in conclusion, has to express his thanks to the Rev. 
George Thackeray, D.D., Provost of King's College, for his permis- 
sion to copy the MS. ; and also to Martin Thackeray, Esq., M.A., 
Vice Provost; John Heath, Esq., M.A., Dean; and George Crauford 
Heath, Esq., M.A., Bursar of the College, for their very obliging 
attentions during the residence made among them. 


British Museum, January 6th, 1832. 


Q , con or com, as Qseil, Qfort [conseil, comfort]. 

?, er, above the line, as J)id'e, daung f , man', s'ue, wint'res, ]>'e, 
gou'ne, v'aly [jridere, daunger, maner, seme, winterres, J?ere, gouerne, 
veraly]. After p', re, as p'stely [prestely]. 

ihc, Ihesus.* 

p, per or par, as pile, ptizes, spe [perile, parties, spere]. 

[* See note to L 692. W. W. S.] 


p, pro, as ^fite, pue [profile, proue]. 

q, quod [qwoo 1 ]. 

! , ri, above the line, as p^ice, c j ft [prmce, cn'st]. 

w , ra, above the line, as fm, gee, py [fram, grace, pray] some- 
times a, as Willm [WilKam]. * 

f ^, ur, above the line, as mjje, tne, 6 [nmrfe, twrne, our]. 

The simple stroke over a letter denotes the absence of m or n, as- 
su, hi, houd [sum, hiw, hoiwd]. 


(Reprinted, with additions, from the edition of 1832.) 


THIS term has the same meaning, and is compounded of the same- 
elements, as the \vK-av6p<DTroG of the Greeks. From the high antiquity 
of the tradition respecting werewolves, and its having been current 
among the Celtic as well as Gothic nations, we find the expression in 
most of the dialects formed from each of the parent languages, and all 
corresponding to the signification above affixed of man-wolf, i. e. a wolf 
partaking of the nature of man, or, in other words, a man changed, by 
magical art, into the temporary form of a wolf. All the northern lexi- 
cographers agree in this interpretation, as applied to the Su.-G. warulf, 
Teut. werwolf j wahrwolf, Sax. werewulf, Dan. varulf, Belg. waer wolf,weer 
wolf, Scotch, warwolf, werwouf, &c., but as the very learned and ingeni- 
ous author of the Letter addressed to Lord Cawdor on the subject of 
Werewolves, prefixed to the present poem, [i. e. in the edition of 1832,] 
has called their united opinion in question, it may be worth while to 
discuss more fully the truth of the usual derivation. It is true, that the 
hypothesis of Mr Herbert, which deduces the first part of the phrase 
from the Teutonic wer, bellum, (whence the French guerre, and the Dutch 
were have been formed) may be, in some measure, countenanced by the 
similar compounds of wcer-boda, a herald, were-man, a soldier, were-wall, 
a defence in war, &o., as well as by the instance of a warlike machine 
made by King Edward the First, called war-wolf, and rightly interpreted 
by Matthew of Westminster lupus belli, p. 449, the ludgare or loup de 
guerre of Peter Langtoft, vol. ii. 326. But in conceding thus much, it 

[* The mark really is a roughly written a, and means an abbreviation wherein 
a occurs, commonly ra or ia. W. W. S.] 


must be remarked, that all these latter terms are used in a military sense, 
and could not otherwise be interpreted. They bear no analogy what- 
ever to the were-wolf of our Poem, which, supposing we receive it in the 
sense contended for by the author of the Letter, viz. a wolf of war, con- 
veys no distinct or very intelligible meaning. On the other hand, the 
plain, obvious signification of man-wolf is consonant to the fabulous 
tradition of the phrase, and to the genius of the languages in which it 
has been adopted. Only one example of this word in Anglo-Saxon has 
been found. It occurs in the ecclesiastical laws of King Canute, ap. 
Wilkins, p. 133, 26, where, after describing the duties of Pastors of 
the Church, the text proceeds : " thaet syndon bisceopas and msesse- 
pivootas, the godcunde heorda bewarian and bewerian sceolan, mid 
wislican laran, thaet se wodfreca were wulfto swithe ne slyte, ne to fela 
ne abite of godcundre heorde," i. e. " Such are the bishops and priests, 
who shall guard and defend the holy flock with their wise doctrine, that 
the furious were-wolf may not too greatly tear or lacerate the members 
of it." Here the term is applied to the Devil, not, as Wachter remarks, 
" quod Diabolus sit lycanthropos, sed quod homines rapiat et occidat ; " 
and the metaphor is evidently drawn from the story of the metamor- 
phosis of a man into a wolf, and subsequent attacks on his own race. 
The derivation from wer, or wera, a man, does not, as the author of 
the Letter supposes, rest on slight authority. One glance at Lye, who 
has nearly three columns filled with instances, would satisfy him in this 
respect. It is the Gothic wair (Luke viii. 27, ix. 14), Su.-Goth. war, 
Isl. ver, Teut. wer, Francic uuara, Celtic Gur, Gwr, or 7r, Irish fair, 
fear, Latin wr, Barb. Lat. bar-o, Span, var-on, and French bar-on ; all of 
which may be referred to a primitive root, expressive of existence. But 
an unquestionable evidence in the case before us is that of Gervase of 
Tilbury, who wrote in the reign of Henry II., when the Saxon language 
had suffered no very material change, and who, assuredly, must be allowed 
to know the meaning of his own maternal tongue. He writes thus : 
" Vidimus enim frequenter in Anglia per lunationes homines in lupos 
mutari, quod hominum genus Gerulfos Galli nominant, Angli vero 
werewlf dicunt ; were enim Anglice virum sonat, wlf, Hpum." Otia Imp. 
ap. Scriptt. Brunsv. p. 895. The modern French express the term by 
loupgarou, concerning which it is truly said by Wachter, " rnire nugantur 
eruditi." The sum of these nugce may be found collected in Menage, 
and the Dictionnaire de Trevoux ; to which may be added the conjectures 
noticed in the Godum Astronomico-Poeticum of Ccesius, p. 295. But the 
etymology of the Saxon, Teutonic, and Suio-Gothic phrase will here 
equally well apply. One of the Lays of Marie, an Anglo-Norman 
poetess, who wrote about the middle of the thirteenth century, is 
founded on a Breton fable of a werwolf, and she thus alludes to the ap- 
pellation : 

" Bisclaueret ad nun en Bretan, 
Garwaf, 1'apelent li Norman ; 


ladis le poeit hume oir, 

E souent suleit auenir, 

Humes plusurs garual deuindrent, 

E es boscages meisun tinclrent ; 

Garualf cet beste saluage," &c. 

MS. Harl. 978. f. 152. b. 1 

Roquefort (who has taken some liberties in printing this passage) justly 
observes, that the Norman Garvalf or Garwaf is derived from, and the 
same with, the Saxon and Teutonic term. It may, indeed, have been 
brought by the Normans from Scandinavia, for in Verelius I find 
" Vargulfur, Brett. Str. \_BrettaStreinglekr Roberti Abbatis~\ Biselaretzli'od, 
Lycantropos. Som loperwarg." Index Scytho-Scand. fol. 1691. WLeuce 
lie has derived the second term, is not clear, nor is it elsewhere ex- 
iplained, but it appears the same with the Bisclaveret of Marie (whose 
writings could not have been known to Verelius), which is supposed by 
Ritson, Metr. Rom. iii. 331, to be a corruption of Bleiz-garv, loup 
.-sauvage, for which, in more modern times, the natives of Britanny used 
Den-bleiz, homme-loup. See Rostrenen and Pelletier. Garv or Garo, is 
explained in these writers, cipre, cruel, yet there is great reason to doubt 
whether when coupled with bleiz it has not, like the Norman garou, 
guaroul, been borrowed from a Gothic source. That loup is superfluous, 
and that garou of itself expresses man-wolf is evident from the passages 
in Gervase of Tilbury and Marie, and may be confirmed by the follow- 
ing authorities. " Warou, loup-garou." Diet. Roman, Walon, &c. 4to. 
Bouillon, 1777. " Warou, warous, warrou, Garou, espece de loup." 
Roquefort. So, in a MS. Life of the Virgin, quoted by Charpentier, in 
.his Supplement to Du Cange, 

" De culuevre nous font anguile, 

Aignel de Waroul & de leu." 

And in the life of St Bernard, Opp. 2, p. 1288. " Transiens autem per 
quandam villam audivit ab incolis ejusdem loci, duas feras immanissi- 
inas, qua3 uuigo varol-i [appellebantur], in nemore proxime dessevire." 
In the same manner the Scotch have formed their Wurl, Wroul, and 
Worlin, as appears from Jamieson. Roquefort also gives us the term in 
another shape, " Loup-beroux" but this again is nothing more than the 
Teut. Bcerwolf, homo-lupus, from lar, vir, which is only a dialectical 
variation of Wer. A similar instance of retaining a pleonastic interpret- 
ation is presented in the word luke-warm, where warm is an adjunct of 
no real utility, since luke means warm by itself, and was anciently so 
used. For more minute details respecting the etymology here adopted, 
the philologist is referred to Ihre, Wachter, Kilian, and Jamieson. 

Mr Herbert has remarked, at p. 42 of his letter, that "among the 
Erse or Gael of Erin, the notion of lycanthropy was prevalent ; we 

1 In Thoms's " Lays and Legends," 1834, is a translation of this Lai dt 


read of their voracious cannibalism on the ocular and undeniable tes- 
timony of St Jerome, and another author pretends that a certain 
Abbot in the district of Ossory had obtained from heaven a decree 
that two persons of that district (a married couple) should every 
seven years be compelled to leave the country in the shape of wolves, 
but, at the end of those years, they might if yet living return to 
their homes and native shape, and two other persons were condemned 
in their place to the like penalty for another seven years. J. Brompton, 
Chron. p. 1078." In the Latin Poem "de rebus Hibernie ad- 
mirandis," of the 12th or 13th century, preserved in the Cotton MS. 
Titus D. xxiv (and printed in the Reliquice Antiquce, ii. 103), are 
some lines descriptive of the werwolf, from which we learn that at 
that period there were men in Ireland who could change themselves 
into wolves and worry sheep, leaving their real bodies behind them ; 
and (as in the traditions of other countries), if they happened to be 
wounded, the injury would also appear on their bodies. 1 

Allusion is also made to a similar story in Malory's Morte 
<? Arthurs, where mention is made of " Sir Marrok the good knyghte, 
that was bitrayed with his wyf, for she made hym seuen yere a 
wenvolf" Morte d'Arthure, lib. xix. c. xi. ; ed. Southey, ii. 385. 

In the "Maister of Game," a treatise on Hunting, composed for 
Henry the Fifth, then Prince (I quote from MS. Sloane 60), is the 
following passage. 

1 Sunt homines quidam Scottorum gentis habentes 

Miram naturam, raajorum ab origine ductam, 

Qua cito quando volunt ipsos se vertere possunt 

Nequiter in formas lacerantum dente luporum, 

TJnde videntur oves occidere s;cpe gementes ; 

Sed cum clamor eos hominum, seu cursus eorum 

Fustibus aut armis terret, fugiendo recurrunt. 

Cum tamen hoc faciunt, sua corpora vera relinquunt, 

Atque suis mandant ne quisquam moverit ilia. 

Si sic eveniat, nee ad ilia redire valebunt. 

Si quid eos Isedat, penetrent si vulnera quseque, 

Vere in corporibus semper cernuntur eorum ; 

Sic caro cruda hacrens in veri corporis ore 

Cernitur a sociis, quod nos miramur et omnes. (Rel. Ant. ii. 105.) 
Cf. Spenser, View of the State of Ireland, ed. Todd, p. 522 (Moxon, 1856) ; and 
O'Brien, Round Towers of Ireland, p. 468. 


Speaking of the Wolf (foL 43) 

"And somme ther ben ... that eten children and men, and eten 
non other fleische from that tyme that thei hen acharmed with mannes 
fleisch. For rather thei wolden he deed. And thai hen cleped 
werewolves, for that men schulden he war of hem. 1 And thei hen so 
cawtelous, that whenne thei sailen a man, thei haue an holding vppon 
hem or the man se hem. And jit, if men se hem, thei wol come 
vpon him gynnously, that he ne he take and slayn. For thei can 
wonder wel kepe hem from any harneyse that any man hereth," &c. a 


1. THE fragment of the Romance of Alisaunder at the end of 
this volume is now printed for the first time from MS. Greaves 60 (in 
the Bodleian Library), where it was discovered by Sir Frederick 
Madden. There are no less than four MSS. containing fragments in 

1 An odd etymology ! This sentence is quoted by Halliwell, in his Dictionary 
of Archaisms, s. v. A-charmed, from MS. Bodley, 546. 

[ 2 It seems unnecessary to enter into further details concerning this curious 
superstition ; for the reader may consult Mr Herbert's Letter (which is too diffuse 
to be reprinted here) ; or, if that be not easily accessible, may refer to " The Book 
of Were- wolves," by S. Baring-Gould, M. A., which the author defines as being " a 
monograph on a peculiar form of popular superstition, prevalent among all nations, 
and in all ages." The following references to a few of the most interesting pas- 
sages may be useful. Herodotus, bk. iv. c. 105 (in which the Neurians are said to 
change themselves into wolves once a year for a few days) .; Virgil, Eel. viii. 95- 
99 ; Ovid, Met. i. 237 (where Lycaon, King of Arcadia, is changed by Jupiter into 
a wolf) ; a story from fetronitts, quoted at length both by Herbert (p. 7), and 
Baring-Gould (p. 11) ; Olaus Magnus, Historia de Gent. Septent. Basil, lib. xviii. 
c. 45 ; Gervase of Tilbury, Otia Imperialia, Dec. i. c. 15, p. 895 ; Camden, Britan- 
nia, vol. iv. p. 293, ed. 1806 ; King James L, Dsemonologie, L. iii. p. 125 ; &c. See 
also Thorpe's Northern Mythology. In the present poem, the chief instrument of 
Alphonse's re-transformation is a ring (1. 4424). The following quotation (which 
I render into English from the German) may serve to illustrate this : " By help of 
a magic girdle or ring men could change themselves and others into the forms of 
beasts ; into wolves, bears, horses, cats, swans, geese, ravens, and crows. The most 
notorious and perhaps the oldest of these changes is that into the Werwolf or loup- 
garou. Even this might be classed amongst the instances of Rune-magic (Sunen- 
zaubers), for runic characters may have been scratched upon the girdle or ring, or 
magic formularies may have been repeated whilst putting it on." Karl Sim- 
rock, Handbuch der Deutschen Mythologie ; Bonn, 1855 ; p. 537. The latter 
method was the one adopted by Queen Brauudins (1. 4433). W. W. S.] 


alliterative verse upon this subject, of which two are merely different 
copies of the same poem. The four fragments are these : A, that 
contained in MS. Greaves 60; B, that contained in MS. Bodley 264, 
which relates to Alexander's visit to the Gymnosophists ; C, that in 
MS. Ashmole 44 ; and D, a second copy of the same poem as C, in 
MS. Dublin. D. 4. 12, beginning at a later place, and ending at 
an earlier one. Of these, A, B, and C seem to be distinct from 
each other, and by different authors, the last bearing traces of a 
northern, the former two of a western dialect. The two latter are 
printed at length in " The Alliterative Eomance [? Romances] of 
Alexander," ed. Eev. J. Stevenson, printed for the Eoxburghe Club, 
1849. They are, however, of different dates, for the Ashmolean 
MS. can hardly be older than about A.D. 1450, and " there seems 
no reason to conclude that the poem is anterior to the date of the 
MS. from which it is printed," as Mr Stevenson justly observes. 
Fragment B is probably older. It is bound up with the splendid 
French MS. of Alexander, one of the chief treasures of the Bodleian 
library. Sir F. Madden says of it, 1 that " the writing of this portion 
is of the reign of Henry the Sixth, 2 nor is there any reason to 
believe the poem itself very much earlier than the year 1400." It 
treats at length of Alexander's visit to the Gymnosophists, and of the 
letters that passed between him and Dindimus, " lord of Bragmanus 
lond," a subject which is introduced much more briefly in Passus 
xviii. of fragment C. But fragment A, which is now only found in 
a copy evidently written in the sixteenth century (the original MS. 
having been lost), is not only older than both these, but may fairly 
claim to be the oldest existing specimen of English alliterative verse, 
unmixed with rime, and of the usual type, since the Conquest. 3 
This point is, moreover, easily ascertained in the manner following. 

, 2. In the first place, it was conjectured by Sir F. Madden, from 
internal evidence, that it was written by the author of William of 
Palerne ; and nothing can be stronger than the internal evidence, if 

1 See notes to Sir Gawayne,ed. Madden; Bannatyne Club, 1839 ; p. 304. 

2 May it not be even a little earlier ? 

3 Seinte Marherete, written before A.D. 1200 in a more negligent metre, is here 


it be weighed with sufficient care. The resemblance in the language, 
style, and method of versification is extraordinary ; there is the same 
" run " upon certain words and phrases, and we even find (what we 
should hardly have expected to find), lines almost identical in their 
expression in the two poems. If we find in William of Palerne 
(which poem I shall briefly denote by Wenvolf) the phrase, 

" J>at Jjei nere semli serued & sette at here ri^ttes " (1. 4906), 
we can match this from. Alisaunder, 1. 980, by the phrase, 

" As soone as jjei were sett & serued too-rightes ; " 
and it would be difficult to discover two lines more closely related 
than are these : 

" It betid in a time tidly thereafter " (Alia. 974), and, 
"But jjanne tidde on a time * titly fer-after" (Werw. 1416). 

But even such coincidences as these are less convincing than the 
peculiar recurrence of certain phrases, such as to waite at a window 
(see note to Alis. 1. 760), doluen and ded (see note to Alis. 1. 1026), 
medtye ni$t (see note to Alis. 1. 817), liuand lud (see note to Alis. 1. 
992), and the like ; and also the curious, yet evidently uninten- 
tional, resemblance in such lines as, 

" He wend to haue lau^t Jjat ladi loueli in armes " 
(Werw. 671) ; and 

" As that Ladie, with loue too lachen in armes " (Alis. 199) ; 
or again, in 

" But lete him in nis blisse & his burde alse, 
& touche we ferre as J?is tale forjjeres" (Werw. 5396) ; and, 

" But lete hem liue in lisse at oure lordes wille, 
Of J>e rich emperour of rome redeliche to telle" ( Werw. 5466) ; 

as compared with 

" Now let wee j)is lued lengen in bliss, 

And sithe myng wee more of j>is mery tale " (Alis. 44). 
Indeed, it seems useless to adduce many further proofs ; for, if any 
reader has any lingering doubts upon the subject, he may convince 
himself by trying to rewrite a portion of the glossary ; for, in construct- 


ing this, the language of the poems is .at once found to be identical, as 
far as the subject-matter permits it. It may be noted, too, that the 
dialect is the same \ e. g. one curious characteristic of the " Werwolf" 
is the plural imperative in -es, which reappears in 7cares=c&ie ye (Alis. 
563), and in hairus = Jcaires = go ye (Alis. 6 2 3) ; also present participles 
both in -and and -ing are found in both poems. 1 Assuming then that 
these poems are by the same author and, consequently, that our 
poet, known to us only by the name of William, has the credit of 
being the earliest writer (as far as we know at present) in the usual 
alliterative metre the question still remains, which poem did he 
write first ? On this point I have, myself, no doubt, feeling sure that 
the " Alisaunder " is the older poem. It is very curious to remark 
how often it presents fuller inflexions and older forms, and this, too, 
in spite of the fact that we have only a late sixteenth-century copy 
of it, whilst of the other poem we have a MS. two centuries older. 
Most noticeable among these are the infinitives in -en, such as lachen, 
thinken, &c., and in many other cases we find -en where in the other 
poem we more commonly find -e.' 2 The numerous cases where in the 
" Alisaunder," the final -e is omitted, can be accounted for by the fact 
of the MS. being a late copy. " And this is the right account to give ; 
for the preservation of the -en ending shews that the final -e's should 
have been preserved also. Besides this, the spelling of the MS. pre- 
sents one very curious mark of antiquity, viz., the use of the letter 
D or ft to represent Th or tli ; see note to 1. 33 on page 236. I know 
of no instance of the use of this letter in a verse composition 

1 A comparison of the metre of the poems affords a test of much suhtlety, and re- 
quiring much care and patience. The details are tedious : I can only say here that 
I have considered this, and believe their general structure of versification to he 
identical, and to have, at the same time, some peculiarities that are not common to 
all alliterative poems. They differ, e. g., from Pierf Plowman, though that too was 
written by a William, and not long afterwards. 

Hence also the reason for printing the two poems together, viz. because of 
their common authorship, is at once apparent ; and both poems gain by it. The 
language of the "Werwolf" is often well illustrated by that of the "Alisaunder," 
whilst, on the other hand, an editor can never be so well fitted to edit the latter 
poem accurately as at a time when he happens to know hundreds of lines of the 
former by heart. 

2 The only instance of '- used as a prefix to a verb in the infinitive, occurs in 
Alis. 1. 607. 


(excepting here) later than about A.D. 1300, in MS. C.C.C. 444, 
containing the " Story of Genesis and Exodus," edited by Mr Morris 
for the E. E. T. S. in 1865. There is yet another point which may 
have some weight, viz., that our author must surely have produced 
something of importance before he was selected by the Earl of Hereford 
to translate a poem of such length as " Guillaume de Palerne ; " and 
that something was really expected of him, from his known reputa- 
tion, seems to be implied by his apology for himself and his versifi- 
cation at the end of the latter work (Werwolf, 11. 55215526). If 
this be thought likely, if his skill in translation was a known fact, it 
may have been t^at his reputation was due to his "Alisaunder," as to 
the length of which, in its original condition, we know nothing more 
than this, viz., that the 1249 lines still preserved represent but a 
very small fraction of the whole story. 

3. It is necessary to describe the MS. Greaves 60 somewhat 
further. It is a small and shabby-looking MS., about 8 in. by 6, 
apparently bought to be used as a note-book or exercise-book, as it 
contains notes upon Virgil's ^Eneid, Terence's Andria, &c. ; and the 
English romance was afterwards copied out wherever there was a 
blank space for it, which accounts for there being only three lines of the 
text on fol. 7. The English occupies fol. 1 b 6 a, part of fol. 7, fol. 
7b8l,M. lla, partoffol. 115, fol. 12a 16 a, fol. 165 20a (which 
portion is scored at the side, as being out of place), and fol. 21 a 24 1). 
The last two portions require to be transposed, and then 20 a comes 
last, fol. 206 being blank. Even when this is done, a portion is lost 
between fol. 24 & and fol. 166 (which I have supplied from a Erench 
prose text), and another portion (probably a large one) is lost at the 
end. On the fly-leaf is, besides other things, " Ye schoole of Khetorik, 
or Ye skyll too speake well : deuised and made by H. G." This and 
a title about a " compendium of Virgil's ^Eneid,"* are scratched 
through, and the following written below in the same hand 
"Badulphws de Sto Albano eiusdem fani Albani monaclms et Abbas ex 
porapeio, Trogo, Origine, Josepho, Isidore, Beda, et alijs hanc historian! 
de Eebws gestis Alexandri Macedonis edidit; obijt anno domini 
MCLI, in eodera coenobio sepult?^, sub stephano Anglorura rege. 
Balaews." Assuming, for convenience, that H. Gr. are the scribe's own 


initials, we see that H. G. has merely copied the above title from Bale,, 
and that there is not any necessary connection betweenit and the poem 
which he partly copied out. Nevertheless, the clue was worth fol- 
lowing up, and I found that a MS. in Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, No. 219, has for its title " Incipit hystoria regis Macedonum,. 
Philippi filiiqwe eitis Alexandri Magni excepta (sic) de libnV 
pompeii, trogi, orosii, iosephi, ieronimi, solini, augustini, bede, & 
ysodori." It is a Latin MS., beautifully written in a hand of the- 
fourteenth century, containing the history of Alexander in four books,, 
and followed by the letters of Alexander to Dindimus, and of Dindimus 
to Alexander. That our poet made use of this compilation is very 
probable; he says (Alls. 1. 458) that he translates from Latin books, 
and the principal of these seem to have been, (1) the compilation of 
Eadulphus ; (2) the history of Orosius ; and (3) the " Historia Alex- 
andri de prcdiis" The two former supplied him with the more his- 
torical part of his story, such as the particulars about Eurydice, 
Philip, Byzantium, &c. ; the latter supplied him with the legendary 
portion. He seems to have considered them all equally veritable, 
and to have turned from one to the other at pleasure, as I have 
pointed out in the notes. Of the various Latin forms of the legend, 
the "Historia de prceliis" as it may conveniently be called for dis- 
tinctness, 1 is evidently the one he has most closely followed. It is 
also evident that the writer of the poem preserved in MS. Ashmole 
44 followed the very same original, and it is interesting to com- 
pare the two translations, and to observe how far the exigencies of 
the metre have caused them to vary. Returning to " H. G." after 
this digression, a few remarks must be made upon his method of 
copying the poem. He seems to have done it upon the whole very 
carefully, though he has sometimes misread his original (writing 
kipen for ktyen, ferkerd for ferked, and the like), and, in particular,, 
has left out a large number of the final -e's, besides occasionally omit- 
ting whole lines. In several cases, he has modernized or modified 
the spelling, and in many instances has given us both the forms, as, 
e. g. in 1. 767, where we have liche with ke over the che, thus rightly 

1 It may be known by the initial words " Sapiewtissimi egiptii scientes- 
mewsuram terre," &c. I have used the printed copy of 1490. 



explaining liche as meaning like. All the variations of importance 
are noticed in the foot-notes. The handwriting is peculiar, but not 
uncertain, though he at times used a straight horizontal stroke like a 
hyphen to denote an m or an n, joining it on to the letter following. 
Over many of the long vowels he has made a circumflex, writing 
"soule" in 1. 41, "fone" in 1. 83, "gc A )se" in 1. 409. As this seemed 
to be a mere freak of his own (for it is sometimes wrongly introduced), 
I have not noticed it. The only other point of interest is that he 
marked all the harder words by underscoring them, evidently with 
the view of finding out their meaning. The list of these has some- 
importance, for we may conclude that such words were so far obsolete 
about the time of James I. as to be unintelligible to a man interested 
in our older literature. It is on this account that I subjoin the list, 
in alphabetical order, referring the reader to the Glossarial Index for 
further information. It is as follows, omitting a few which seem to 
have been marked for some other reason. Alosed, Bed, Bent (1. 219), 
Beurde, Chees, Cofly, Deraine, Derie, Fete, Fode, Fonde, Frotus, 
Gamus (read Gainus,) Gist, Gome, Graithes, Grathly, Gremjpe, Hende t 
Hendely, Hote, Ki\>e, Kith, Lache, Laught or Laulit, Lelich, Mensk- 
full, Of-soulite, Pris, Purlich, Queme, Rigge, Rink or Renk, JRode, 
Segges, Spedly, StigJitlich, Swtye, Trie, To-rilites, \)ristliclie, firoliche, 
Ungome, Watte, Wowes, Wus, Teeme. Nearly all of these were cer- 
tainly as unintelligible to most men two hundred and fifty years ago- 
as they are now, though some may exist in provincial dialects. 
Several of them may have been unintelligible even a century earlier. 


The contents of the fragment may be briefly described thus. It 
commences with a mention of Amyntas, and his sons Alexander and 
Philip. Philip ascends the throne of Macedonia, conquers Larissa 
and Thessalonica, weds Olympias, sister of the King of Molossis, 
takes Methone, and helps the Thebans against the Phocians ; all of 
which is from Radulphus, Orosius, and like sources. This portion 
includes 11. 1 451. Then begins the legend, from the " Historia de 
preliis," occupying the portion in 11. 452 899 ; and telling how 
Nectanabus, King of Egypt, fled in disguise from his own country 


for fear of the Persians, and, coming to Macedonia, beguiled Queen 
Olympias by his magic arts, and, personating the god Ammon, 1 be- 
came the father of Alexander. He also appeared before Philip's 
army in the guise of a dragon, and, fighting for him, greatly discom- 
fited the Lacedaemonians and Phocians. Next, after an historical 
account (11. 900 954) of the occupation of the Pass of Thermopylae 
by the Athenians, and of Philip's treachery and cruelty towards the 
Thebans, we return to the legend (11. 955 1201) and learn how 
Philip greeted Olympias, how Nectanabus appeared once more as a 
dragon at a feast given by Philip, and how Philip was one day sur- 
prised to find that a bird had laid an egg in 'his lap, out of which 
issued a serpent which, after awhile, tried to re-enter the egg-shell, 
but died before it could do so ; an omen that Alexander would, die 
before he could return to his own land. Next Alexander is born, 
and carefully educated. One evening he goes out with Nectanabus to 
view the stars, and, hearing the magician say that he feared he would 
die by the hand of his own son, drowns him in a ditch to prove him 
a liar; but the drowning man cries out that he has told the truth. 
Next follows the story of the taming of Bucephalus, which bears 
some points of resemblance to the story of the taming of King 
Ebrouns' horse by William of Palerne (see p. 107). In the last 
paragraph the poet returns to historical details, and begins to narrate 
the siege of Byzantium by Philip, at which point the poem abruptly 

5. This is not the place to discuss the long and difficult ques- 
tion of the " Alexander Eomances." Roughly speaking, the form of 
the story here adopted I speak of the legendary portion is derived 
from the Greek text known as the Pseudo-calUsthenes, of which the 
best MS. is the one now numbered 1711 in the Imperial Library at 
Paris, beginning <l Ol cro^^Taroi. AiyuTrnoi 6ewv diroyovoi, K.T.\. " J 
but I have referred in the notes to another MS. (Supplem. No. 113) 
in the same collection, as a portion of this latter one has been printed. 1 

1 " A dragon's fiery form belied the god ; 
Sublime on radiant spires he rode, 
When he to fair Olympia prest," &c. 

Dry den ; Alexander's Feast. 
1 See notice on p. 236. 


'The three principal Latin versions hence derived are (1) that by 
Julius Valerius ; (2) the " Itinerariurn Alexandri " (relating to Alex- 
ander's wars) ; and (3) that by the Archpresbyter Leo, which is also 
known as the " Historia de preliis." With the second of these we 
have here nothing to do. The first begins " ^gypti sapientes, sati 
genere divino," &c. ; the third begins " Sapientissirni Egyptii, 
scientes mensuram terrse," &c. The portion supplied to complete the 
story at p. 209 is from a French version, as contained in MS. 7517 
in the Imperial library. I have already said that our text follows 
the third rather than i\iQ first of these Latin versions. 

For further information, see Zacher, Pseudo-callisthenes, Halle, 
1867 ; the editions of Julius Valerius by Angelo Mai (Milan, 1817), 
and Karl Muller (Paris, 1846) ; the Old High German version edited 
by H. Weismann (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1850), the second volume 
-of which, in particular, contains much information ; the introduction 
to Kyng Alisaunder in Weber's Metrical Romances, &c. The edition 
called " Li Romans d'Alixandre, par Lambert li Tors et Alixandre 
de Bernay," ed. H. Michelant, and published by the Literary Society 
of Stuttgart in 1846, has not much to do with our present poem, as 
it declares JSTectanabus not to have been Alexander's father. I have 
already enumerated the alliterative romances extant in English. 
Besides these there are, in rimed metre, the " Kyng Alysaunder" 
printed by Weber, and other poems referring, not to the infancy of 
Alexander, but to his acts and death, such as, e. g., " The Buik of 
the most noble and vailzeand Conquerour Alexander the Great," 
printed at Edinburgh for the Bannatyne Club in 1831, being a reprint 
from The Romaunce of Alexander, containing the Forray of Gad- 
deris, first printed at the same place by A. Arbuthnot in 1580. 
There is also a fragment about the death of Alexander in "Ancient 
Metrical Romances from the Auchinleck MS."; Abbotsford Club, 
1836 ; and there may be others, for I have not thought it necessary 
to make further search. 


The spelling of the "Alisaunder" being uncertain owing to the 
lateness of the MS., it is not necessary to say more about its dialect 


than has been said already. The following remarks refer, therefore,, 
to the "Werwolf." 1 

The plurals of nouns generally end in -es, but there are several 
plurals in -us, such as dedus; in -is, as bestis (1. 181), and tdlis ; in 
-ys, as buschys (21) ; in -en, as stepchilderen, eiyyen (eyne, eyes) ; and 
even in -esse, as bodiesse, lordesse (4539), hei^resse (4778), with 
which should be compared the curious spelling antresse for antres or 
aunteres = she ventures. The plural of hors is the same as the sin- 
gular ; the plural of fo is "both/on (ox f one) and/os. Also ken, ldn r 
and Tcyn occur for Tcine. The genitive singular ends commonly in -es, 
but sometimes in -is, as in godis (266), goddis (254) ; cf. goddes 
(340). We also find the genitive forms fader, moder, doubter, 
William, Marie, sonne. 

As regards adjectives, we may note the comparatives herre, nerre 
(higher, nearer), and the superlatives frelokest and manlokest, the 
former of which is used adverbially. The endings -ly and -liche are 
used both for adverbs and adjectives, and without any distinction. 
Eche a is used for each; selue sometimes has the sense of very 
(1149) ; whilst wiche a answers to the German was fur, what sort of 
a, as in 1. 3354. ]5e and j>a are used sometimes for \at ; tyis as well 
as fyise is used to mean these ; ]>o to mean those; \ilk& is used in the 
plural, and swiclie is used to mean such. For /, the forms are i, y, 
ich ; for thou, we have ]pou, ]>ow, ]>ouj ; pi. 30 in the nominative, 
3020, 301*3, ow (1. 106) in the dat. and accusative. The third personal 
pronoun is he, gen. his, is, or hise ; dat. and ace. hym, him : feminine, 
sche, che, $he (and hue in the " Alisaunder ") ; gen. dat. and ace. her, 
hir, here, hire ; neuter, hit, it ; ace. hit, it. Plural nom. Tpei, ]>ai, 
\ey ; gen. here, her ; dat. liem (and once Ipaim) ; ace. hem. Min is a 
possessive pronoun, as min hert, min avowe. The pronoun of the 
second person is often joined on to the verb, as in artow, Jcnowestoiu, 
bestow, seidestow, schaltow or schalstow, findestow, ivitow or wittow ; 

1 I apologize for the slip-shod name here given to the poem, and which is here, 
and elsewhere throughout the volume, used for brevity's sake, and because it cannot 
be mistaken. It is an abbreviation of " William and the Werwolf," the title used, 
by Sir F. Madden in the former edition. Strictly, however, the true title is 
William of Palerne. 


and often also to the word \at, as \cdou or \atow. Ho is used for 
who, ho-so for who-so, wlios for whose, wham for whom. 

But the most noticeable and distinctive endings are found amongst 
the verbs, and I pass on to them as being of more interest. The in- 
finitive ends in -en or -e, but occasionally also in -y or -ye, as deseuy, 
wonye; cf. derie in Alls. 1240. In the present tense, 2nd person, we 
iind both-es and-es; the former occurring frequently, as in lcu]>est (603), 
Jcomest (330) ; examples of the latter are trestes (970), Imoices (1174). 
'They seem to be used indifferently, for tellest and trestes occur in the 
same line, and hast in 1. 604 is followed by ]>ow has two lines lower. 
In the same way, we find grettes and mensTcfulles written for grettest 
and mensTif attest, showing that the pronunciation of the t was very 
slight. Besides which, the vowel may have been pronounced thickly 
or indistinctly, thus accounting for such a form as clepus (249). In 
the 3rd person singular, we find -es, as in lenges (961) ; -is, as in hentis 
(907) ; and -us, as in sittus (446) ; as well as -e\, as in Tsiwwfy (559). 
In the 3rd person pi. we have -un, as in clepun ; -en, as in \urlen ; -e, 
as in singe ; -us, as in tellus (198) ; -es, as in calles (239), longes 
{360). The following are examples of the past tense singular ; strong 
verbs, gaf, $ald, founde, sei^e, lad, dede, horn, rod, lep, aros, &c. ; 
weak verbs, grette, lerde, pleide, clipte, praide, clepud, &c. The 
plural generally ends in -en or -e, but the -e is occasionally dropped. 
Examples are blesseden, gretten, sewede, come, told (1366). But we 
.should especially observe the endings of the imperative mood plural, 
which besides the ending -eth, as in preieth (164), sende]) (2068), 
wite\> (2069), troiue]> (2112), frequently takes the ending -es, as in 
listenes, gretes, mornes, standes, awakes, fodes, leses, leues, &c. It is 
worth notice, further, that the very same word takes both forms ; for 
we find both preieth and prei^es (which, however, is written prei^ed, 
5529), listenes and lustenefy, and gretes in 1. 355 is followed by gretefy 
in 1. 35 9. ! We should also especially note the forms of the present 
participle, which ends in -and, as deland, wepand, glimerand, Hand, 
ligand, Jourande, liuand ; in -end , as touchend, henend, lastend, slepend, 
hotend, braundissende ; occasionally in -inde, as lorfctnde, efldnde, 

1 So also lenfyes, 4348 ; leng)pe)p, 4353. 


gapind; and sometimes in -ing. Here again, the same word takes all 
the forms ; for we find sikande, &ikand, sikende, sikinde, and siking. 
The more usual form seems to be in -and, "but the pronunciation of 
the a seems to have been obscure, and we may consider the usual 
ending to be 'nd ; for if we throw the accent on the first syllable, it 
is not easy to enunciate the unaccented vowel very clearly. Examples 
of past participles are slawe, side, slayn, schapen, bi-hold, portreide, 
gladed, maked, take, arise (1297), lore (1360), lore, seie, sei^en, 
y-charged, y-clepud. The ending -e in the infinitive is sometimes 
dropped. For the forms of the auxiliary and anomalous verbs, see 
the glossary; s.v. Ben, Can, Dar, Mot, Mow, Out, Sclial, Thort, 
Wite, WoL Here also numerous forms occur ; e. g. the present 
plural of to be is ben, bene, bu]>, arn, and aren. 

The word tie often coalesces with the verb following ; hence nis 
(ne is), nas (ne was), nere (ne were), natli (ne hath), nadde (ne 
hadde), nel (ne wil), nold (ne wold), not (ne wot), nist (ne wist). 

A few peculiarities of spelling may be noted. The sh sound is 
denoted both by sch and ch ; hence cliamly, chold, cliortly, are put 
for scliamly, sclwld, schortly. Also scheche is written for seche. C 
sometimes takes the place of s, as in piece, sece, wice. Wli is written 
for w, as in wliar (were), and widens. Th is sometimes used where 
we should expect t, as in the Romans of Partenay ; thus wtythli is 
put for wi$tli, mi$th is used to mean (7) might. V is sometimes 
found for a final u, as in nov, hov, inov. H occurs at the beginning 
of words where it should not, as in hordere, hende (end), held (eld, 
old age). JVis prefixed to ei$, ones, o\er, &c., thus forming nei$, nones, 
no^er, in places where it really belongs to the word preceding. ])e is 
joined sometimes to the word following, as in femperour, \er\e, \ende. 
For the careful and exact manner (exact, probably, because the scribe 
did it without thinking and as a matter of course), in which nay is 
distinguished from no, and ^e from $is, see the Glossarial Index. For 
the distinction between \ou and $e, see p. xli. 

In what part of England, then, was the poem written 1 The 
forms seem to be mainly West Midland, with admixture both of 
Northern and of Southern ones. The frequency of the imperatives 
in -es, and other indications, lead Mr Morris to call it a specimen of 


Shropshire dialect, 1 whilst Sir F. Madden subscribes to the opinion of 
Bryant, that it may belong to Gloucestershire ; and, indeed, Gloucester 
is the only place which is mentioned in it. There is also, perhaps, 
some significance in the fact that the MS. contains, besides " William 
of Palerne," some poems that have been attributed to Robert of 
Gloucester. In either case, we are sure of the locality within the 
compass of a county or two, and may, I think, call it West Midland 
without error, though the exact border between the West Midland and 
Southern cannot be expected to be very clearly denned. It may be 
remarked that both Gloucester and Wheatenhurst (where Sir Hum- 
phrey de Bohun's mansion was situated) lie close to the important 
river Severn, and it is possible that the dialect of that part of 
Gloucestershire may have been affected by that circumstance, just as 
we often trace the influence of the Danish element near our sea-coasts. 
The real difficulty consists in this, that it is hard to account for the 
use of the Northumbrian plural-ending -es at a place situated so far 
to the South. A comparison of the vocabulary with the glossary of 
Shropshire words in Hartshorne's Salopia Antigua shewed less re- 
semblance than I had expected to find ; yet it may be useful to men- 
tion that his list contains (and sometimes illustrates) the following 
words in particular, viz. : Bell (vb.), Chall (= Chaul), Clip, Clout, 
Cratch, Delue, Dever, Earn (Erne), Gain (cf. Gaynest), Haws, 
Heps (Hepus), Hye (to hasten), Lap (vb.), Learn (to teach), 
Litherly (Lifyerly), Mase, Pill (vb.), Rin, Shows, Sike, Stive, Thirl, 
Twinne, War. 


The distinction between the use of thou and ye (with their ac- 
companying singular and plural verbs) is so well kept up throughout 

1 Compare Audelay's poems (in the Shropshire dialect), ed. J. 0. Halliwell, for 
the Percy Society. It may be said that, if the scribe of "William of Palerne" 
lived in Gloucestershire, he may yet have been a Shropshire man ; but this argu- 
ment loses in force if it has to be often appealed to in cases of difficulty. We must 
first try to reconcile the evidence we possess, before rejecting any portion of it. In 
the present instance, the MS. is a very good one. It may be confidently expected, 
however, that something tolerably definite may be known about English dialects at 
no very distant period, and the present question may be then more easily decided. 


these poems that it would not be well to lose so good an opportunity 
of pointing it out. It was one of those niceties of speech which it 
was the poet's especial business to observe. The clearest way of 
pointing out the distinction is to tabulate the best examples of it. 

P. 13. The child, addressing the emperor, uses ye, you, &c. 
P. 14. Emperor to child tlwu ; child to his (supposed) father ye; 
emperor to cowherd thou. P. 16. Cowherd to child thou. P. 29. 
Alexandrine to Melior ye; Melior to Alexandrine thou. P. 30. 
Melior to William thou. Pp. 37 39. Alexandrine to William, 
and William to Alexandrine thou. P. 43. William to emperor, and 
lords to emperor ye. P. 50. Messengers to Melior ye. P. 57. 
Melior to William, after betrothal ye. P. 73. One emperor to 
another thou. P. 80. Melior to William, in excitement thou. P. 
81. Melior to William, in submission ye. P. 92. Melior to 
William, after escaping peril thou. P. 96. Priest to queen ye. 
P. 104. Queen to her handmaid thou; handmaid to queen ye. 
P. 105. Queen to William, begins with ye in the conventional phrase 
" }e me saye," but otherwise uses thou, until she has virtually abdi- 
cated in William's favour, after which she uses ye, p. 113, and espe- 
cially note 11. 3954,3955. P. 126. William, now of high rank, to 
his prisoner, a king thou. P. 129. The captive king to the queen 
-ye. P. 134. King to William (asking) ye ; William to the king 
{granting) thou. P. 136. Messengers to the Queen of Spain ye; 
but in relating William 's message, containing rebukes and violent 
threats, they change to thou. P. 142. Queen to her step-son thou; 
but in putting a polite question 30 (1. 4460). P. 144. Alphouns 
to William, uses the conventional phrase " crist mot $ou saue " but 
otherwise uses thou. He is answered by William with ye, expressing 
the utmost deference, and asking him who he is. This is sufficient to 
show that thou is the language of a lord to a servant, of an equal to 
an equal, and expresses also companionship, love, permission, defi- 
ance, scorn, threatening ; whilst ye is the language of a servant to a 
lord, and of compliment, and further expresses honour, submission, 
entreaty. Thou is used with singular verbs, and the possessive 
pronoun thine ; but ye requires plural verbs, and the possessive your. 
In the " Alisaunder " we find the same usages. The Prince of Persia 


calls the King of Egypt ye ; the king scornfully replies with thou. 
The same Kectanabus, who " speaks lordly," and is too proud k> call 
Queen Olympias Madam, and will only call her Lady, audaciously 
addresses her as thou, but there are in one or two places exceptions 
which shew a corruptness in the text. She replies with thou, as a 
lady should who would preserve her dignity. As for Alexander, he 
coolly uses thou to everybody, and especially to his father, 1. 1198, 
and his mother, 1. 1103. Besides the insight we thus get into our 
forefathers' ways of speech, this investigation may serve to remind us 
editors that we are not to mistake you for tyou, as in some MSS. is 
easily done, and that the frequent interchange of the forms is the re- 
sult, not of confusion, but of design and orderly use. 

In the present edition, every variation of spelling has had its 
own references assigned to it in the Glossary, at the cost of no small 
amount of labour ; I hope this may prove of use to the student of 
our old English orthoepy. 


SINCE 'William of Palerne' was printed in 1867, the whole of 
the French poem, mentioned at p. iii, 3, has been edited by M. 
Michelant, and can now be compared with the English version. 

This edition was printed for the Societe des Anciens Textes 
Fran<?ais; Paris, 1876. The French Romance was originally written 
between 1188 and 1227, and contains 9600 lines. The MS. is in 
the Arsenal library at Paris (Belles Lettres, no. 178). 

See also 'Sprache und Dialekt des mittelenglischen Gedichtes 
William of Palerne,' by Dr. A. Schiiddekopf, Erlangen, 1886 ; Eo- 
senthal's remarks on Alliterative Poetry in Anglia, i. 414 ; and the 
comparison of the French and English versions of the poem by M. 
Kaluca, in Englische Studien, iv. 197. 

In my preface to ' Alexander and Dindimus,' p. xi, I have shewn 
that it has been proved by Dr. Trautmann that my former view as 
to the authorship of the fragment of Alisaunder, printed in the 
present volume, is incorrect. The * Alisaunder ' fragment is not by 
the same author as William of Palerne ; whilst, on the other hand, 
it is by the same author as the fragment called 'Alexander and 
Dindimus.' See further in the same preface. 


Page xxix. See also Werwolf in fares' Glossary, and the 
numerous references to lycanthropia in Burton, Anatomy of Melan- 
choly, Part I, sect. 1, mem. 1, subsect. 4. 

P. 42, 1. 1069. Dr. Morris points out that ouergart occurs as a 
substantive, meaning arrogance, in Seinte Marharete, ed. Cockayne, 


p. 1C, 1. 13. See also Castle of Love, ed. Weymouth, 1. 993, and 
Ormulura, 1. 8163. Oucr-gart also occurs as an adjective, meaning 
arrogant or overweening. "For tho God seih that the world was so 
over-gart" i. e. for when God saw that the world was so over- 
weening; Political Songs, ed. Wright, p. 341, 1. 391. Hence ouer- 
gart gret may well mean overweeningly or excessively great, very 
large. See Mr. Cockayne's note at p. 106 of Seinte Marharete. 

P. 84, 1. 2520. Mr. Wedgwood explains cayreden by turned, 
i. e. charred, and thinks that we here have the etymology of to char. 
But cayreden cannot well mean charred in this passage, but only 
' carried.' The use of cay r en for carien, to carry, is curious, but not 
without authority. See P. Plowman, B. ii. 161, where most MSS. 
have fatiren, but two MSS. have carien; and all the MSS. have 
carien in the same, A. ii. 132. 

P. 169; lines 5346, 5347, 5348 of William of Palerne rime 
together. This was, no doubt, unintentional. 

In 1. 396 of Alisaunder, the reading hem is necessary to the 


Halde. Add pp. hold, 902, 2006, 3243, 5242 ; holden, t217. 
Half. Add behalf, 4831 ; pi. balnea, sides, t344. 
Hap. Add pi. happes, tl07, t385. 
After Haue add Hauntes, pr. s. F. practices, t815. 
Malskrid. We find also, in the very old glossary (8th century) 
printed in Wright's Vocabularies, vol. ii, p. 108, the entry 
* Fescinatio, malscrung ' ; where Fescinatio appears -to be an 
error for fascinatio, a bewitching. 

By an unfortunate mistake on my part, the following notes by 
Sir F. Madden reached me too late for insertion in the Glossary. 

" Nones. See Glossarial Remarks on La$amon, v. 17304, voL iii. 
p. 492 ; and the Glossary to Syr Gawayne, in v. Nonez. 

"Peter. See the Glossary to Syr Gawayne, in v. Peter, where 
other instances are given." 

im jof f alcrw ; 


sift % rtarlf. 

[Three leaves being lost at the beginning of the MS., their place is here sup- 
plied from the French Text.] 

[Nus ne se doit celer ne taire, 

sil set chose qui dole plaire, 

kil ne le desponde en apert ; 

car bien repont son sens et pert, 

qui nel despont apertement 

en la presence de la gent. 

por ce ne voel mon sens repondre, 

que tot li mauvais puissent fondre ; 

et cil qui me vaurront entendre, 

i puissent sens et bien aprendre. 10 

car sens celes qui nest ois, 

est autresi, ce mest avis, 

com maint tresor enferme sont, 

qui nului bien ne preu ne font ; 

tant comme il soient si enclos, 

autresi est de sens repos ; 

por ce ne voel le mien celer. 

ancois me plaist a raconter 

selonc mon sens et mon memoire, 

le fait dune anciene estoire, 20 

[No one should keep it to himself or be 

If he knows something that will plaase, 

But should declare it openly; 

For he hides and loses his knowledge 

Who does not declare it openly. 

In the presence of people 

Wherefore I will not hide my knowledge 

That all the wicked may come to naught : 

And that those who would fain hear me 

May be able to learn knowledge and what 

is good. 
For knowledge hidden and unheard 

Is just like, in my opinion. 
Many treasures that are shut up. 
Which do good or advantage to no one ; 
Just as they are when thus enclosed, 
So is it with concealed knowledge; 
Wherefore I will not conceal mine. 
Thus it pleases me to recount 
According to my knowledge and memory 
The event of an ancient story. 


qui en Puille jadis avint 
a .i. roi qui la terre tint. 

Li rois embrons fu apeles ; 
mult par fu grans sa poestes ; 
bien tint em pais sa region, 
et mult par fu de grant renon. 
moilher avoit gente roine, 
gentix dame de franche orine ; 
et fille a riche empereor, 
qui de Gresse tenoit lounor. 30 

Felise avoit a non la dame ; 
mult fu amee en son roiame. 
navoient cun tot seul enfant, 
petit tousel, ne gaires grant, 
de .iiii. ans ert li damoisiax, 
qui a merveilles estoit biax. 
Guilliaumes ot lenfes a non, 
mais la roine tout par non 
lot a .ii. dames commande, 
quele amena de son regne. 40 

Gloriande est lune noumee, 
Acelone ert lautre apelee. 
celes le commande a garder, 
a enseignier et doctriner, 
moustrer et enseignier la loi, 
comme on doit faire fil a roi. 
en eles sest asseuree, 
mais traie est et enganee, 
et deceue laidement ; 
mult porres bien oir comment. 50 
T i rois Embrons .i. frere avoit, 
H a cui li regnes escaoit ; 
et cil douna tant et promist, 
et tant porchaca et tant fist 
as gardes qui lenfant gardoient, 
que dit li ont quil locirroient, 

That happened once in Apulia 

To a king who ruled the land. 

The king was named Embrons ; 

Very exceeding great was his power; 

He governed well his country in peace, 

And was of exceeding great renown. 

He had to wife a beauteous queen, 

A gracious dame of noble origin ; 

And who was daughter to a rich emperor, 

Who ruled the dominion of Greece. 

i'elice was the lady's name ; 

She was much loved in her kingdom. 

They had but one only child, 

A little lad, not very tall. 

The prince was four years old, 

And was marvellously fair. 

William was the child's name, 

But the queen very specially (?) 

Has entrusted him to two ladies 

Whom she brought from her own country. 

One is named Gloriande. 

The other was called Acelone. 

To these she entrusts him, to keep him, 

To teach and instruct him, 

To shew and instruct him the law. 

As one ought to teach a king's son. 

In them she confided. 

But was betrayed and defrauded 

And deceived shamefully ; 

You shall very soon hear how. 

King Embrons had one brother, 

To whom the kingdom would fall ; 

And he bribed and promised so much. 

And so contrived and managed 

With the guardians who kept the child, 

That they have told him they would kill it. 


et le roi meisme ensement. 

ja ont porquis lenherbement 

dont il andoi mort recevront, 

se Diex nel fait, li rois del mont. eo 

TT^n Palerne orent sejorne, 

*-* un mois entier en la cite, 

entre le roi et la roine. 

desous le maistre tor marbrine, 

ot .i. vergier merveilles gent, 

tot clos de mur et de cyment ; 

si ot mainte sauvage beste. 

.i. jor par line haute feste 

i viiit esbanoier li rois, 

si chevalier et si borjois ; 70 

et maint baron i ot venu, 

la roine meisme i fu. 

celes qui lenfant ont en garde, 

(cui male flambe et maus fus arde !) 

lont mene avoec lautre gent ; 

mais por ce ne le font noient 

que sel seussent la dolour, 

qui de lenfant avint le jor. 

Par le vergier li rois ombroie, 
et la roine, a mult grant joie. 80 
mais ne sevent com lor grans dex 
lor est presens devant lor ex. 
lenfes florietes va cuellant, 
de lune a lautre va jouant. 
atant esgardent la ramee, 
saut un grans leus, goule baee, 
a fendant vient comme tempeste ; 
tuit se destornent por la beste ; 
devant le roi, demainement, 
son fil travers sa goule prent, . so 
fttant sen va ; mais la criee 
fu apres lui mult tost levee. 


And the king himself at the same time. 
They have already provided the poison 
From which they will toth receive death, 
If God, king of the world, permits it. 
In Palermo they have dwelt, 
A whole month in the city, 
With the king and the queen. 
Beneath the chief marble tower 
Was an orchard wondrously fair, 
All enclosed with walls and mortar ; 
There was many a wild beast there. 
One day, on a high festival, 
The king came there to divert himself. 
His chevaliers and his burgesses ; 
And many a baron had come there, 
The queen herself was there. 
Those who have the child in charge, 
(Whom evil flame and evil fire burn !) 
Have brought him along with the rest ; 

But they would have done nothing of the 

Had they but known the sorrow 

That happened that day because of the 

In the orchard the king shades himseil, 

And the queen, wtyh very great joy. 
But they know not how their great grief 
Is present to them, before their eyes. 
The child goes gathering flowers, 
And playing from one to the other. 
Just then they look at the bushes, 
A huge wolf, with mouth open, leaps in, 
Comes in at the opening like a tempest; 
All turn aside to avoid the beast ; 
Before the king, noiselessly, 
He takes his son across his mouth, 
And then makes off; but the cry 
Was very soon raised after him. 


lievo li dels, lieve li cris 
del fil le roi qui est trais. 
la roine souvent sescrie, 
" aidies, aidies, Sainte Marie ! 
maisnie au roi, que faites vos ? 
ja me morrai sil nest rescous ! " 

Li rois demande ses chevax, 
et fait monter tous ses vassax. 100 
toute la vile si esmuet, 
cascuns i keurt plus tost quil puet. 
li rois le siut a esperon, 
le gart acaingnent environ ; 
mais li leus ert fors saillis, 
a la campaigne sestoit mis ; 
lenfes souvent sescrie eVbrait, 
li rois lentent qui apres vait. 
garde sel voit monter .i. mont, 
de tost aler sa gent semont, no 

donques se par efforcent tuit, 
li leus a tout lenfant sen fuit. 
fuit sen li leus, et cil apres, 
qui del ataindre sont engres. 
desi au far le vont chacant, 
il saut en leve a tout lenfant. 
le far trespasse, perdus lont 
li rois et cil qui o lui sont ; 
ensi sen va en tel maniere 
a tout lenfant la beste fiere. 120 

li rois arriere sen retorne, 
mult a le euer et triste et morno, 
de -son enfant qua si perdu ; 
a la cite sont revenu. 
T a roine maine tel duel, 
-*-* morte voudroit estre, son vuel ; 
pleure sovent, et crie, et brait, 
a la beste son til retrait. 

The plaint arises, the cry arises 

Of the son of the king that is borne away. 

The queen oftentimes exclaims, 

" Aid me, aid me, Holy Mary ! 

Ye household of the king, what do ye ? 

Now I shall die if he he not rescued ! " 

The king calls for his horses, 

And makes all his vassals mount. 

All the town is in commotion, 

Every one runs as quickly as he can. 

The king follows the wolf on the spur, 

Watches him, encircling (him) around. 

But the wolf had leapt far away, 

And betaken himself to the plain ; 

The child oft cries out and wails; 

The king, who goes after him, hears him. 

Ho looks and sees him mount a hill, 

Summons his men to come quickly. 

Then all hasten on very fast, 

The wolf flees away with the child. 

The wolf flees away, and they alter him, 

Who are very desirous of reaching him. 

Unto the Far [Straits of Messina] they chase 

He leaps into the water with the child. 

He crosses the Far, they have lost him. 

The king and they who are with him ; 

Thus in such a manner, flees away 

The wild beast with the child. 

The king returns back, . 

Very sorrowful and sad at heart, 

For his child whom he has lost ; 

To the city have all returned. 

The queen makes such a mournhiK, 

She would fain be dead, had she her will ; 

She weeps often, and cries and wails, 

And demand} back her child from the beast. 


" fix, clous amis," fait la roine, 

" tendre bouche, coulor rosine, iso 

chose devine, espiritex, 

qui cuidast que beste ne lens 

vos devorast ! dix, quel eur ! 

lasse ! por eoi vif tant ne dur ? 

fix, on sont ore ti bel oel, 

li bel, li simple, sans orguel 1 

tes frons li gens, et ti bel crin, 

qui tuit sambloient fait dor fin ? 

ta tendre face, et tes clers vis 1 

ha cuers ! por coi ne me partis? HO 

quest devenue ta biautes, 

et tes gens cors, et ta clartes 1 

tes nes, ta bouche, et tes mentons, 

et ta figure, et ta facons, 

et ti bel brae, et tes mains blanches, 

tes rains beles, et tes hanches, 

tes beles jambes, et ti pie ; 

lasse ! quel duel et quel pechie ! 

ja devoies tu estre fais 

por devises et por sourhais ! iso 

or es a leu-garoul peuture, 

li miens enfes, quele aventure ! 

mais je ne cuit, por nule chose, 

beste sauvage soit si ose, 

qui ton gent cors ost adamer, 

plaier, sane faire, ne navrer ; 

ne cuit que ja dame dieu place, 

ne que tel cruaute en face ! " 

Ensi la dame se demente, 
ensi por son fil se gaimente, ico 
ensi le ploure, ensi le plaint, 
niais tant le castoie et constraint 
li rois, que tout laissier li fait 
la dolor quele maine et fait ; 

" Son, sweet love," saith the queen, 

" Tender mouth, rosy colour, 

Thing divine and spiritual, 

Who could believe that beast or wolf 

Could devour you ? God ! what fortune ! 

Alas ! wherefore live I or last so long ? 

Son, where are now thy beautiful eyes, 

So beautiful, so innocent, without pride ? 

Thy fair forehead, and thy lovely hair, 

Which seemed all made of fine gold ? 

Thy tender face, and thy clear looks ? 

Oh heart ! wherefore hast thou not left me ? 

What is become of thy beauty, 

Thy sweet body, and thy fairness ? 

Thy nose, thy mouth, and thy chin, 

And thy form and fashion, 

And thy fair arm, and thy white hands, 

Thy fair reins and thy thiglis, 

Thy fair legs, and thy feet; 

Alas ! what sorrow and what fault ! 

Thou oughtest only to have been made 

For pleasures and for desires ! 

Now art thou food for the werwolf. 

My child ! what a mischance ! 

But I cannot believe, on any account, 

A wild beast would be so daring 

As to hurt thy tender body, 

To wound it, make it bleed, or tear it: 

I cannot believe that it would please our 

Lord God, 
Or that He would do such cruelty to it." 

Thus the lady is iu despair, 
Thus she laments for her son, 
Thus she weeps, thus she complains for him. 
But the king so corrects and restrains her, 
That he makes her altogether leave off 
The grief which she waa continuing and 


Thus the lady becomes tranQuilized. 
But now it is right for me to tell you 
About the wolf that fled with the child. 
So far he carries it both day and night, 
And traverses so much ground, 

ensi la dame se rapaie. 
mais or est drois que vos retraie 
del leu qui o lenfant senfuit ; 
tant la porte et jor et nuit, 
et tante terre trespassee, 

que pies de Eoume en la COntree 170 That in the country near Rome, 

en une grant forest sarreste, 
ou ot mainte sauvage beste. 
la se repose .viii. jors entiers ; 
lenfant de quanques fu mestiers 
li a porquis la beste franche, 
conques de rien not mesestance. 
en terre a une fosse faite, 
et dedens herbe mise et traite, 
et la feuchiere et la lihue, 
que par dedens a espandue. 
la nuit le couche joste soi ; 
li leus-garous le fil le roi 
lacole de ses .iiii. pies, 
si est de lui aprivoisies, 
li fix le roi, que tot li plaist 
ce que la beste de lui fait ;] 

J* at ** apertly was apayed for profite bat he feld, 
& [ Wrou 3 t ] * buxumly by be bestes wille in wise as it 


In a great forest, he stops ; 
Where was many a wild beast. 
There he rests for eight whole days ; 
Whatever the child had need of, 
The noble beast provided for it, 
So that it had discomfort in nothing. 
In the ground he has made a trench. 
And in it placed and put grass, 
And also fern and herbs (?) 
Which within it he has spread. 
At night, he lies down near him : 
The werwolf embraces the king's son 
With his four feet. 
And so familiar with him 
Is the king's son, that all pleases him. 
Whatever the beast does for him ; J 

An old cowherd 
dwelt in the 

who kept men's 
kine there. 

He came by 
chance to the 
burrow where the 
Child waa. 

TTit bi-fel in J>at forest j)ere fast by-side, 

* \er woned a wel old cherl bat was a coulierde, 4 
bat fele winterres in ]>at forest fayre had kepud 
Mennes ken of be cuntre as a comen herde ; 
& bus it bitide bat time as tellen cure bokes, 
)>is cowherd comes on a time to kepen is bestes 8 
Fast by-side be borw} fere J>e bam was inne. 
j>e herd had wi]> him an hound his hert to li^t, 

1 A verb is evidently wanting to complete the sense. Perhaps 
we should read, "And wrouzt buxumly by the bestes wille, &c." M. 


12 He sat with his 
dog, and clouted 
his shoes. 

The child lay hid 
in the den. 

forto bayte on his bestes wanne f ai to brode went. 
f e herd sat fan wif houwd a}ene f e hote sunne, 
Nou^t fully a furlong * fro fat fayre child, 
clou^tand kyndely his schon as to l here craft falles. 
fat while was f e werwolf went a-boute his praye, 
what behoued to fe barn * to bring as he n^t. 16 

)>e child fan darked in his den * dernly him one, 
& was a big bold barn & breme of his age, 
For spakly speke it couf e tho & spedeliche to-wawe. 
Lonely lay it a-long in his lonely denne, 20 

& buskede him out of f e buschys * fat were blowed 


& leued ful louely fat lent grete schade, 
& briddes ful bremely on J>e bowes singe, 
what for melodye fat f ei made * in f e mey sesoun, 
fat h"tel child listely lorked out of his caue, 
Faire floures forto fecche fat he bi-fore him seye, 
& to gadere of f e grases fat grene were & fayre. 
& whan it was out went so wel hit him liked, 
f e sauor of f e swete sesoura * & song of f e briddes, 
fat [he] 2 ferde fast a-boute * floures to gadere, 
& layked him long while to lesten fat merf e. 
f e couherdes hou?id fat time * as happe by-tidde, 
feld foute of f e child and fast f ider fulwes ; 
& sone as he it sei} sof e forto telle, 
he gan to berke on fat barn * and to baie it hold, 
fat it wax nei$ of his witt wod for fere, 
and comsed fan to crye * so kenly and schille, 
& wepte so wonder fast wite f ou for sothe, 
f at f e son of f e cry com to f e cowherde euene, 
fat he wist witerly it was f e voys of a childe. 
fan ros he vp radely * & ran f ider swif e, 
& drow him toward f e den bi his dogges noyce. 
bi fat time was f e barn * for bere of fat hourcde, 

IMS. "afto." 

2 Read, that it ferde," or " he ferde." M. 

Lured by the 
birds and by the 
fair flowers. 

28 he came out and 
gathered flowers, 
and played 

32 The dog tracked 
him, and began to 



[Fol. 4 &J 
The child was 
frightened, and 
cried out. 

The cowherd 
followed the child 
to the den, 


drawe him in to his den ' & darked f er stille, 44 

& wept euere as it wolde a-wede for fere ; 
& euere f e dogge at f e hole held it at a-baye. 

ana looked in. & whan fe kouherd com fid[er]e l he koured lowe 

to bi-hold iii at f e hole whi his hoiwd berkyd. 48 
f anne of-saw he ful sone fat semliche child, 
fat so loueliche lay & wep * in fat lof li caue, 

He saw the child clobed ful komly for ani kud kinges sone. /t&P" 

lying there in 

clothes of gold. I n gode clofes of gold a-grefed ful riche, 52 

wif perrey & pellure pertelyche to f e ri^ttes. 
f e cherl wondred of fat chaiwce & chastised his dogge, 

He rebuked his bad him blinne of his berking & to f e barn talked, 

the child to come acoyed it to come to him * & clepud-hit oft, 56 

& foded it wif floures & wif faire by-hest, 
& hi^t it hastely to haue * what it wold ^erne, 
appeles & alle f inges fat childern after wilnen. 

The child came so, forto sen al be sobe so faire be cherl Closed. 60 

out, and he took 

it in his arms, fat f e child com of f e caue * & his criyiige stint. 
fe cherl ful cherli fat child tok in his armes, 
& kest hit & clipped and oft crist fonkes, 
fat hade him. sent f o sonde swiche prey to finde. G4 

and took it home wi^tliche wif f e child * he went to his house, 
and bi-tok it to his wif ti^tly to kepe. 
a gladere wommora vnder god no n^t go on erf e, 

she asked the fan was f e wif wif f e child witow for sof e. 68 

child its name, , -in-,..,,,,. ,, 

and it said, sche kolled it ful kindly --and askes is name, 

& it answered ful sone & seide, " william y hi^t." 
fan was f e godwif glad and gan it faire kepe, 
fat it wanted nou3t fat it wold haue, 72 

[Foi.5.] fat fei ne fond him as faire as for here state longed, 
children oftheir & ^ e ^ ei& r, be ye sure for barn ne had fei none 
own, brou^t forf of here bodies ; here bale was f e more. 

^ Ut 8 ^ ly ^ ai Sei(ie ^ e cllilcl ' sclml(i weld al here g Q(iis 5 
Londes & ludes as eyer after here lif dawes. 77 

but from f e cherl & f e child * nov chaunge we oure tale, 
1 Read " thidere." M. 


For i wol of f e werwolf a wile nov speke. 

TTThanne f is werwolf was come * to his wolnk l denne, 
' & hade bro^t bilfoder * for fe barnes mete, 81 
fat he hade wonne with wo * wide wher a-boute, 
fan fond he nest & no nei3 * for nou3t nas f er leued. 
& whan f e best f e barn missed so balfully he g[r]innef , 2 
fat alle men vpor* molde. no mi3t telle his sorwe. 85 
For reuliche gan he rore & rente al his hide, 
& fret oft of f e erf e & fel doun on swowe, 
& made fe most dool fat man mijt diuise. 88 

& as fe best in his bale f er a-boute wente, 
he fond f e feute al fresh where forf f e herde 
hadde bore fan barn beter it to 3eme. 
wijtly f e werwolf * fan went bi nose 92 

euene to f e herdes house & hastely was fare, 
fere walked he a-boute f e walles * to winne in sijt ; 
& at f e last lelly * a litel hole he findes. 
fere pried he in priuely and pertiliche bi-holdes 96 
hov hertily f e herdes wif hules fat child, 
& hov fayre it fedde & fetisliche it baf ede, 
& wroujt wif it as wel * as 3if it were hire owne. 
fanne was fe best blif e i-nov for fe barnes sake, 100 
For he wist it schold be warded wel fanne at f e best. 
& hertily for fat hap * to-heuene-ward he loked, 
& f roliche f onked god mani f ousand sif es, 
& seff en went on is way * whider as him liked ; 104 
but whiderward wot i neuer witow for sof e. 
ak nowf e 36 fat arn hende * haldes ow stille, 
& how fat best ferwe bale * was brou3t out of kinde, 
I wol 3ou telle as swife trewly fe sofe. 108 


When the 
werwolf returned, 
he found the nest. 
but no eygy in it. 

He roared, rent 
his hide, and 

Scon he found the 
cowherd's track, 

and went to his 

Looking through 
a hole, he saw 
how well the 
child was being 

and thanked God, 
and went his way. 

Listen and hear 
how he became a 

Werwolf was he non wox of kinde, [Foi. s &.] 

He was of noble 
ac komerc was he of kun fat kud was ful nobul ; birth, for his 

For f e kud king of spayne * was kindely his fader. O f Spain. 
1 Sic in MS ; read wlonk ? Cf. 11. 468, 1634. 2 See note. 



This king's first 

and he married 

the daughter of 

the prince of 

a lady skilled in 

witchcraft, named 


she, seeing her 

stepson's boauty 

never be king. 


harm her stepson, 

anointed him 

bad his wit 

he gat him, as god $af grace on his ferst wyue, 112 

& a t jj e burf of fat barn f e bold lady deyde. 

sif f en fat kud king so * bi his conseyl wrout, 

another wif bat he wedded a worchipful ladi, 

f e princes doubter of portingale * to prone f e sof e. 116 

but lelliche fat ladi in ^oufe hadde lerned miche 


For al f e werk of wicchecraft wel y-nou^ che 00113 f e, 
nede nadde ^he namore * of nigramauncy to lere. 
O f coninge of wicche-craft * wel y-nouj she cousde, 120 
& brauwde was fat bold quene of burnes y-clepud. 
f e kinges fnrst child was fostered fayre as it ou^t, 
& had lordes & ladies * it lonely to kepe, 
& fast gan fat frely barn fayre forto wexe. 
j> e quene his moder on a time * as a mix f oust, v 
how faire & how fetis it was * & freliche schapen. 

& ^ is ) &ime t 011 ^ sche f 10 ^ ' 1? ai ii} no schuld 
kuuere to be king J?er as J>e kinde eyre, 

whille J?e kinges ferst sone were ]?er a-liue. 

^ an s * u ^ied sche stifly as stepmoderes wol alle, 

to do dernly a despit ' to here stepchilderen ; 

FeJ>li a-mong fonre schore * vnnefe findestow on gode. 

but truly tijt hadde ]?at quene take hire to rede 133 

to bring Jjat barn in bale * botles for euer, 

J>at he ne schuld wi^tli in Jns world neuer weld reaume. 

a no y neme7it anon scne made of so grete strengfe, 136 

bi enchauwme/is of charmes * fat euel chaunche hire tide, 

fat whan fat wommaw f er-wi^t * hadde fat worli child 

ones wel an-oynted f e child wel al a-bowte, 

he wex to a werwolf ' wi^tly fer-after, 140 

al f e making of maw so mysse hadde $he schaped. 

ac his witt welt he after as wel as to-fore, 

but lelly of er likenes fat longef to maw-kynne, 

but a wilde werwolf ne wait he neuer after. 144 

& whanne f is witty werwolf wiste him so schaped, 

he knew it was bi f e craft of his kursed stepmoder, 

24 ,/ 




> " 

& f oujt or he went a-way he wold }if he 

wayte hire sum wicked torn what bi-tidde after. 148 

& as bliue, boute bod he braydes to f e quene, 

& hent hire so hetterly * to haue hire a-strangeled, 

fat hire deth was nei} di^t to deme J>e sof e. 

but carfuli gan sche crie so kenely and lowde, 152 

fat maydenes & mi^thi men manliche to hire come, 

& wolden brusten f e best nad he be f e li^ttere, 

& fled a-way f e faster * in-to ferre londes, 

so fat pertely in-to poyle * he passed fat time, 156 

as fis fortune bi-fel fat i told of bi-fore ; 

f us was fis witty best * werwolf ferst maked. 

but now wol i stint a stounde of fis sterne best, 

& tale of fe tidy child fat y of told ere. 160 

He sought to 
avenge himself, 

and tried to 
strangle her. 

She cried out, and 
he fled, 

and went to 

We now return to 
the child. 

f us passed is f e first pas of fis pris tale, 
& $e fat louen & lyken to listen a-ni more, 
aile wi^th on hoi hert * to f e hei} king of heuene 
preieth a pater noster priuely fis time 164 

for f e hend erl of herford sir humfray de bowne, 
f e king edwardes newe at glouseter fat ligges. 
For he of frensche fis fayre tale ferst dede translate, 
In ese of englysch men in englysch speche ; 168 

& god graunt hem his blis fat godly so prayen ! 

Here ends the 
first Passus. 

Pray for Sir 
Humphrey de 
Bohun, earl of 
Hereford, who 
caused this tale 
to be translated. 

Leue lordes, now listenes of fis litel barn, rhe cowherd's 

wife took care of 
fat f e kmde kowherde-wif keped so fayre. wuiiam, 

$he wist it as wel or bet as $if it were hire owne, 1 72 

til hit big was & bold * to buschen on felde, 

& couf e ful craftily kepe alle here bestes, 

& bring hem in f e best lese whan hem bi-stode nede, 

& wited hem so wisly fat wanted him neuer one. 176 

a bowe al-so fat bold barn bi-gat him fat time, 

& so to schote vnder f e schawes scharplyche he lerned, He leamt to 

fat briddes & smale bestes wif his bow he quelles 

who grew up as a 



[Foi. e 6.] 
and brought home 

conies and hares. 

He had many 

young comrades, 

with whom he 

always shared 

what he shot. 

so plenteousliche in his play fat, pertly to telle, 180 

whanne he went horn eche ni^t * wif is droue of bestis, 

fa com him-self y-charged wif conyng & hares, 

wif feeauna & feldfares and of er foules grete ; 

fat f e herde & his hende wif * & al his hole meyne 1 84- 

f at bold barn wif his bo we by fat time fedde. 

<fc jit hadde fele felawes in f e forest eche day, 


jong bold barnes fat bestes al-so keped. 

& blife was eche a barn ho best mi^t him plese, 188 

& folwe him for his fredom * & for his faire f ewes. 

f or wna t bing willam wan a-day wib his bo we, 

were it fef ered foul * or foure-foted best, 

ne wold f is william neut j r on wif -hold to him-selue, 

til alle his felawes were ferst feffed to here paie. 193 

so kynde & so corteys comsed he fere, 

fat alle ledes him louede * fat loked on him ones ; 

& blesseden fat him bare & brou^t in-to f is worlde, 

so moche manhed & murf e schewed fat child euere. 

one day, the 

emperor of Rome 

rode out to hunt, 

and found a 

The emperor lost 

his way in the 


Riding along, he 
chasing a hart, 

Tjit tidde after on a time as tellus oure bokes, 198 

iA ag j,j s fold b arn fog bestes blyfeliche keped, 

f e riche emperour of rome * rod out for to hunte 

In fat faire forest feif ely for to telle, 

wif alle his menskful meyne * fat moche was & nobul. 

fan fel it hap fat f ei foiwde ful sone a grete bor, 

& huntyng wif hound & horn harde alle sewede. 204 

fe emperowr entred in a wey euene to attele 

to haue bruttenet fat bor * & f e abaie sef f en ; 

but missely marked he is way & so manly he rides, 

fat alle his wies were went ne wist he neuer winder. 

so ferforf fram his men fef ly for to telle, 209 

fat of horn ne of hourad ne mijt he here sowne, 

&, boute eny liuing lud left was he one. 

f emperour on his stif stede a sty forf fanne takes 212 

to herken after his houndes of er horn schille ; 

BO komes f er a werwolf rijt bi fat way f enne, 



grimly after a gret hert as bat god wold, 

& chased him burth chaiwce * bere be child pleide, 216 

bat kept be kowherdes bestes * i carped of bi-fore. [Foi. ?.] 

bemperour banne hastely bat huge best folwed He followed 

J r them, but lost 

as stiffuly as is stede * mi^t strecche on to renne ; sight of both. 

but by-ban he com by bat barn & a-boute loked, 220 

be werwolf & be wilde hert were a-weye bobe, 

bat he ne wist in bis world * were bei were bi-come, 

ne whiderward he schuld seche to se of hem more. 

but banne bi-held he a-boute & bat barn of-seye, 224 Then he beheld 

i r> i ,. , ., o f> I- t i William, and 

hov fair, how letys it was & frehche schapen ; wondered at his 

so fair a si$t of seg ne sawe he neuer are, iess> 

of lere ne of lykame * lik him nas none, 
ne of so sad a semblant bat euer he say wib ei3yen. 228 
bemperour wend witerly for wonder of bat child, thinking Mm of 

fairy birth. 

bat fei3bely it were of feyrye for fairenes bat it welt, 
& for be curteys curatenaurace * bat it kudde ]>ere. 


i^tly benne bemperour * wendes him euene tille, 232 wniiam greets 
be child comes him agayn & curtesliche him gretes. 
In hast bemperour hendely his gretyng him ^eldes, 
and a-non rhttes after askes his name, who asks him-nw 

name and 

& of what kin he were kome komanded him telle. 236 kindred. 

be child banne soberliche seide " sir, at ^oure wille 

I wol 3ow telle as tyt trewely alle be sobe. 

william, sire, wel y wot wi^es me calles ; n^J" iam fa m7 

I was bore here fast bi by bis wodcs side. 240 

a kowherde, sire, of bis kontrey is my kynde fader, t c h J r ' herd is my 

and my menskful moder * is his meke wiue. 

bei han me fostered & fed * faire to bis time, 

& here i kepe is kyn as y kan on dayes ; 244 

but, sire, by cnst, of my kin know i no more." 

Avhan bemperour l hade herd * holly his wordes, 

he wondered of his wis speche * as he wel n^t, 

& seide, " bow bold barn * biliue i be praye, 248 

1 Head " themperour." The bar across the p is deficient. M. 



" Go, call the 
cowherd," said 
the emperor. 

" Nay, sir, it may 
turn to his hurt" 

[Fol. 7 b.] 

" Rather, it may 
turn to his 

"I will trust 
your word for 

William tells the 
cowherd that a 
great lord would 
speak with him. 

" Did you tell 
him I was here?" 

" He promised 
your safetj ." 

The emperor asks 
the cowherd if lie 
has ever seen the 

Go calle to me fe cowherde f ow clepus f i fadere, 
For y wold talk [wif] him 1 tifinges to frayne." 
"nay, sire, bi god," qua]) fe barn, "be 36 ri3t sure, 
bi cn'st, fat is krowned * heye king of heuen, 252 

For me non harm schal he haue neuer in his liue ! " 
" ac perauenture Jnirth goddis [grace] 2 to gode may it 


For-])i bring him hider * faire barn, y preye." 255 

" I schal, sire," seide f e child " for saufliche y hope 3 
I may worche on $our word to wite him fro harm." 
" $a, safliche," seide f emperour " so god }if me ioie ! " 
f e child witly f anne wende wif -oute ani more, 
comes to f e couherdes hows * & clepud him sone ; 260 
For he fei^liche wen[d] 4 * fat he his fader where ; 
& seide fan, " swete sir s[o] }ou criste help ! 
Go)> yond to a gret lord fat gayly is tyred, 
& on jje feirest frek for sofe fat i haue seie ; 264 
and he wilnes wi^tli * wif ^ou to speke ; 
For godis loue gof til him swif e lest he agreued wex." 
" what ? sone," seide f e couherde " seidestow i was 

here?" 267 

" $a, sire, sertes," seide j>e child ' " but he swor formest 
fat ^e schuld haue no harm but hendely for gode 
he praide $ou com speke wif him * & passe a-^ein sone." 
f e cherl grocching forf gof wif f e gode child, j 
& euene to f emperour * f ei etteleden sone. \^^ 272 
f emperour a-non ri^t * as he him of-seie, 
clepud to him f e couherde & curteysly seide ; 
"now telle me, felawe, be fi fei^f -for no fing ne 

sei fou euer f emperour * so fe crist help?" 276 

1 The sense and cadence of the line seem to require " with ff 
before " him." M. 

2 Read " thurth goddis grace." M. 

8 MS. for y saufliche y hope, where there seems to be ay too much. 
4 See note. 



" nay, sire, bi crist," qua]? f e couherde " fat king is 

of heuew, 

I nas neuer $et so hardi * to ne^h him so hende 
fere i schuld liaue him seie so me wel tyme." 279 
" sertes," fan seide f emperour " f e sof e forto knowe, 
fat y am fat ilk weijh. i wol wel f ou wite ; 
al f e regal of rome * to ri^tleche y weld, 
f erfore, couherde, i f e coniure & comande att alle, 
bi vertu of f ing fat f ou most in f is world louest, 284 
f atow telle me ti^tly * truly f e sof e, 
whef er f is bold barn be lelly fin owne, 
of er corner of of er kin so f e cn'st help ! " 
f e couherd comsed to quake for kare & for drede 288 
whanne he wist witerly * fat he was his lorde, 
& biliue in his hert be-f out }if he him gun lye, 
he wold prestely perceyue pertiliche him font, 
f er-fore trewly as tyt * he told him f e sof e, 292 

how he him fond in fat forest * fere fast bi-side, 
clothed in comly clof ing for any kinges sone, 
vnder an holw ok f urth help of his dogge, 
& how faire he hade him fed * & fostered vij winter, 
"bi cn'st," seide f emperour "y con fe gret fonke, 297 
fat f ou hast [seide] l me f e sof e of f is semly childe, 
& tine schalt f ou nou$t fi trawayle y trow, at fe 


ae wend schal it wif me * witow for sof e, 300 

Min hert so harde wilnes to haue f is barne, 
fat i wol in no wise * f ou wite it no lenger." 
whan f emperour so sayde * sof e forto telle, jJjb/*** ' 
f e couherde was in care i can him no-f ing white. 304 
ac witerly dorst he nou^t werne f e wille of his lord, 
but grauwted him goddeli on godis holy name, 
Forto worchen his wille as lord wif his owne. 
whan william f is worf i child wist f e sof e, 
and knew fat f e cowherde * nas nou^t his kinde fader, 

1 Read " thou hast seide me the sothe." M. 

" Nay, sir, at no 

" Know that I 
am he ; 

and I command 
you to tell me the 

Is this child 
yours ? " 

[Fol. 8.] 
The cowherd 
began to quake, 

and told him all 
the truth. 

" I thank you for 
telling me true ; 

the child shall go 
with me." 

The cowherd 
grieved, but dared 
not refuse. 



William began 

to lament sorely, 

and said, 

"i know not my 

birth nor my 

destiny, and am 

much beholden to 

this man and his 

"Cease from thy 

[Foi. s 6.] 

" thou shall 

requite thy 


The cowherd then 



to be no teller of 
to take the part 

of poor men, 

and to be faithful 

lesson which 

the cowherd had 

learnt from his 

}ie was wi^tliche a-wondered * & gan to wepe sore, 

. . ,_ 

& seide saddely to hun-self sone f er-after, 
"a ! gracious gode god ! * 0113 grettest of alle ! 312 
Moch is f i mercy & f i mi^t f i menske, & f i grace ! 
now wo t f neuer in f is world of wham y am come, 
ne what destene me is di$t but god do his wille ! 

, ., , . / -i oi/ 

ac wel y wot wittffly wif-oute am faile, 316 

to f is ma/i & his meke wif most y am holde ; 
For f ei ful faire han me fostered & fed a long time, 
fat god for his grete mi^t al here god hem 3eld. 319 
but not y neuer what to done * to weride f us hem fro, 
fat han al kindenes me kyd * & y ne kan hem ^elde ! " 
" hi stille, barn," quaf f emperour * " blinne of f i sorwo, 
Por y hope fat hal pi kin * hastely here-after, 323 

^if pou wolt ^eue pe to gode * swiche grace may ]>e falle, 
hat alle bi frendes fordedes faire schalstow quite." 
" 2a, sire, quaj) ]?e couherde, " }if crist wol fat cas 

may tyde, 

& god lene him grace to god man to worf e." 
& fcan as tit to be child * he taiut bis lore. 328 

& seide, " f ou swete sone * sef f e foil schalt hennes 


whanne f ou komest to kourt amo/zg f e kete lordes, 
& knowest alle f e kuf fes * fat to kourt langes, 
bere fe boxumly & bonure fat ich burn fe loue. 332 
be meke & mesurabul * nou^t of many wordes, 
be jio tellere of talis but trewe to f i lord, 
& prestely for pore men prefer f e euer, 
For hem to rekene wif f e riche * in ri^t & in skille. 336 
be fei^tful & fre * & euer of faire speche, 
& seruisabul to fe simple * so as to fe riche, 
& felawe in faire manere as falles for f i state ; 
so schaltow gete goddes loue * & alle gode mennes. 340 
Leue sone, f is lessouft me lerde my fader, 
fat knew of kourt f e f ewes for kourteour was he kwg, 
& hald it in f i hert now i f e haue it kenned ; 

fe bet may fe bi-falle f e worse bestow neuere." 344 


|<%e child weped al-way wonderliche fast, 

J but f emperour had god game of fat gomes lore, 

& comande l f e couherde * curteysli and fayre, 347 

to heue vp fat hende child bi-hinde him on his stede. 

& he so dede deliuerly f ou}!! him del fou^t, <; 

& bi-kenned him to crist fat on croice was peyned. 

f anne fat barn as biliue by-gan for to glade 

fat he so realy schuld ride * & redeli as swif e 352 

Eul curteisle of f e couherde * he cacces his leue, 

& sef f en seyde, " swete sire i bes[e]che 2 $ou nowf e, 

For godes loue, gretes ofte my godelyche moder, 

fat so faire ha]? me fed & fostered till nowfe. 356 

& lellyche, $if our lord wol fat i liif haue, 

sche ne schal iiou3t tyne hire trauayle * treuly for sof e. 

& gode sire, for godes loue also gretef wel oft 

alle my freyliche felawes fat to f is forest longes, 360 

han pertilyche in many places pleide wif ofte, 

hugonet, & huet fat hende litel dwerf , 3 

& abelot, & martynet hugones gaie sone ; 

& f e cn'sten akarin fat was mi kyn fere, 364 

& f e trewe kinnesman * f e payenes sone, 

& alle of er frely felawes fat f ou faire knowes, 

fat god mak hem gode men for his mochel grace." 

of f e names fat he nemned f emperour nam hede, 368 

& had gaynliche god game * for he so grette alle 

of his ccwpers fat he knew so curteysliche & faire. 

& fan be-kenned he f e kouherde to cn'st & to hal 


& busked forf wif fat barn bliue on his gate. 372 
f e kouherde kayred to his house karful in hert, 
& nei^ to-barst he for bale for f e barnes sake. 
& whan his wiif wist wittow for sof e, 

1 In 1. 236 we have " komanded ;" but see the note. 

2 MS. " befche." Read " beseche." M. 3 See note. 


The emperor tells 
the cowherd to 
set William on 
his horse, 

and the child was 
pleased to think 
he should ride 

William bids the 
cowherd farewell, 

and sends a 
message to his 

and to his old 

[Pol. 9.] 
and Huet, Abelot, 
Martynet, and 

and all the rest. 

The emperor then 
rides away. 

The cowherd goes 
home, very 


how fat child from here warde was wente for euer-morc, 
and his wife i> er n i s ma n on bis mold * bat mht half telle 377 

weeps most 

bitterly. f e wo & f e weping fat womman made. 

sche wold haue sleie hire-self fere sof ly, as bliue, 
ne hade f e kind kouherde conforted here f e betere, 
<fe pult hire in hope to haue gret help f er-of after. 381 

NO more of them but trewely of hem at fis time f e tale y lete, 

of f emperour & f e bold barn to bigynne to speke. 

The emperor 

finds hie men, 

and the spoil 
which they had 

All wondered at 
seeing the child, 

whicn, said the 
emperor, " God 
had sent him." 

[Fol. 9 &.] 

He rides to Rome, 
and alights at his 

Now the emperor 
had a dear 

of the same age 
as William, 

named Melior. 

To her care the 
emperor com- 
mends William, 

T ordes, lustenef her-to }if 3011 lef f inkes ! 384 

** f emperour blif e of f e barn * on his blonk rides 

Fast til fe forest, til he fond al his fre ferd, 

fat hadde take fat time moche trye game, 

bof e bores & beres fele hors charge, 388 

hertes & hindes & of er bestes manye. 

& whan f e loueli ludes * seie here lord come, 

f ei were geinliche glad & gretten him faire, 

but alle a-wondered f ei were * of f e barn him bi-hinde, 

so faire & so fetyse it was * & freliche schapen ; 393 

& freyned faire of f emperour whar he it founde hadde. 

he gaf hem answere a-gayn fat god it him sent, 

of er- wise wist non where he it founde. 396 

fan rod he forf wif fat rowte in-to rome euene, 

& euer fat bold barn * by-hinde him sat stille. 

so passed he to f e paleys and presteliche a-li^t, 399 

& william fat choys child in-to his chaumber ledde. 

a dere damisele to dorter f is emperour hadde f anne. 

of alle fasouw f e fairest * fat euer freke sei^e, 

& witerly willmm & ^he were of on held, 

as euene as ani wijt schuld attely bi aijt. 404 

& fat menskful mayde melior was hoten, 

a more curteyse creature ne cunnyngere of hire age, 

was nou3t f anne in f is world fat ani wijt knewe. 

f emperour to fat mayde mekliche wendef , 408 

& william fat worf i child wif him he ladde, 

and seide, " dere doubter y do f e to wite, 



his meeting with 
the child, 

I haue a pris presant to plese wib bi hert. saying he has 

brought her a 

haue here fis bold bam * & be til him meke, 412 rich present; 

& do him kepe clenly for kome he his of gode ; 

1 hent bis at hunting * swiche hap god me sent ;" 

& told here banne as tit treweli al be sobe, 

how he hade missed is mayne & malskrid a-boute, 416 relating to her 

the whole story 

& how be werwolf wan him bi * wib a wilde hert, about the 

& how sadly he him sewed * to haue slayn bat dere, 

til bei hadde brou^t him fere * bat barn bestes kept, 

& how sone of his sei^t be bestes sebben ware ; 420 

& how be couherde com him to & was a-knowe be sobe, 

how he him fond in bat forest ferst, fat faire child, 

& how komeliche y-clobed for ani kinges sone ; 

& how be kouherde for kare cuwzsed to sorwe, 424 the cowherd's 

whanne he wold wif be child wende him frorame j 

& how boldely fat barn bad f e couherde f anne 

to grete wel his gode wiif & gamely ber-after 

alle his freliche felawes bi-forn as i told. 428 

" & f er-fore, my dere doubter " f emperour seide, 

" For mi lof loke him wel for lelly me f inkes, 

bi his menskful maneres * & his man-hede, 

fat he is kome of god kin to crist y hope ; 432 

and William's 
messages to his 
step-mother and 

" Love him well, 
for I suspect he 
is of noble kin; 

[The next folio (Fol. 10) being lost, 
the French 

[car mult par est et biax, et gens, 
de cors, de vis, et de faiture. 
encor orrons, par aventure, 
de quex gens est estrais et nes. 
ma douce fille, or retenes 
lenfant que je vos amain ci." 
" ce soit la vostre grant merci," 
dist meliors, " biau sire chiers, 
je le retieng mult volentiers." 
puis prent lenfant et si lenmaine, 10 
en la soie chambre demaine, 

its place is here supplied from 

For he is very fair and handsome 

In body, in face, and in fashion. 

We shall yet hear, peradventure, 

Of what kin he is descended and born. 

My sweet daughter, now take care of 

The child whom I here bring you." 

" Great thanks are due to you for this," 

Said Melior, "fair father dear; 

I take care of him very willingly." 

Then she takes the child and leads him awy- 

Brings him into her chamber, 



uns dras li a fait aporter, 
sel fait vester et conreer. 

Quant des dras fu apareillies, 
et a sa guise fu chaucies, 
or fu si gens et si tres biax 
et si apers li damoisiax, 
con ne recourast son pareil, 
desos la clarte du soleil, 
de sa biaute, de sa semblance, 
et meliors, qui tant ert france, 
li a fait par .i. sien sergant 
aporter le mangier devant. 
et cil manga qui fain avoit, 
or revient auques a son droit. 
por cou se il est fix de Roi, 
nest desonors, si com ie croi, 
sil sert a cort dempereor, 
et pucele de tel valor 
com meliors estoit la bele. 
ensi remest o la pucele 
GmHiaumes, com poes oir ; 
mult se paine de li servir 
et des autres tous ensement. 
mult si acointe belement, 
si com li horn qui nestoit mie 
norris en cort nentre maisnie, 
mais auques le prueve nature, 
et il sor tote creature 

Sentente et tot SOn CUer Velt metre 40 G ives attention and puts his whole heart 

a quanque se doit entremetre. 
nus damoisiax de nul service 
a cort si haute ni si riche. 
fTlant i a lenfes son cuer mis, 
J- et tant entendu et apris, 
quancois que fust passes li ans, 
fu il si prex et si sachans, 

Has a robe brought for him, 

And has him clothed and well cared for, 

When he was dressed in the robes, 

And fittingly provided with shoes. 

So gracious and so very fair 

And so frank was the boy, 

That his equal could not be met with. 

Beueath the light of the sun, 

20 For his beauty, for his appearance. 
And Melior, who was so bountiful, 
Caused one of her servants 
To carry a repast before him. 
And he, being hungry, ate it, 
And returned then to his duty. 
Wherefore if he is a king's son 
'Tis no dishonour, as I believe, 
If he serves at the emperor's court 
And (serves) a damsel of such worth, 

30 As was Melior the beautiful. 
Thus remained with the damsel 
William, as you may hear ; 
Much pains he takes to serve her 
And all the others likewise. 
Very excellently he demeans himself, 
Like, indeed, a man who had never been. 
Nourished in court or household, 
But nature also proves him, 
And he, above every creature, 

To whatever he ought to undertake. 
There was no youth, in any service, 
So high and so rich at court. 
The child so gave his attention there, 
And understood and learnt so much, 
That before the year was passed, 
He was so yiudent and so wise, 



quil nest horn qui le puist reprenclre, 

tant i sache garder, nentendre 

de riens nule que veoir sace, 50 

que riens mesprenge ne mefface. 

oi aves pieca retraire, 

que li oisiax de gentil aire 

safaite meisme aparlui, 

tot sans chastiement dautrui ; 

comme vos ci oir poes, 

fiest si Guilliaumes doctrines. 

T?nsi Gmlliaumes est a cort, 

-^ a tos desert que on lounort, 

ne fait riens qui doie desplaire. eo 

mult par est frans et debonnaire, 

servicables, cortois, et prous, 

et mult se fait amer a tous, 

et larges de quanquavoir puet. 

et sachies bien, pas ne lestuet 

a chastoier de ses paroles, 

queles soient laides ne foles, 

mais asises et delitables. 

si set plus desches et de tables, 

doisiax, de bois, de chacerie, 70 

que nus qui soit en Lombardie, 

nen toute la terre de Eome ; 

ma vallet_, fil a liaut home, 

na riche prince natural 

quant Gmlliaumes siet a cheval, 

lescu au col, el poing la lance 

tant par soit de fiere semblance, 

si gens, ne si amanevis ; 

ne sai que plus vos en devis ; 

que tuit samblent a lui vilain, so 

et li lombart et li remain. 

bien samble a tos estre lor sire 

en tot le regne nen lempire. 

That no one could reprove him 

(So well can he take care), nor perceive 

For anything that he could see, 

That he mistook or misdid anything. 

Ye have long ago heard say 

That the bird of gentle hreed 

Learns even by himself, 

Without correction by another ; 

Even as ye here may hear, 

William thus taught himself. 

Thus William lives at the court, 

He deserves that all should honour him, 

And does nothing to displease. 

He is very frank and amiable, 

Serviceable, courteous, and prudent, 

And makes himself much loved by all, 

And (he is) bounteous as far as he is able. 

And know well, there is no need 

To correct him for his words, 

Which are neither rude nor silly, 

But staid and pleasing. 

He knew more of chess and tables, 

Of hawking, of the woods, of the chase, 

Than any one in Lombardy, 

Or in all the territory of Rome ; 

There is no lad, son to a great man, 

Nor rich prince by birth 

(When William sits on his horse, 

Shield on his neck, lance in his fist), 

Can be of such fierce appearance, 

So gracious, nor so dexterous ; 

I know not that I can tell you more about it 

So that all seem plebeian beside him. 

Both Lombard and Roman. 

He seems to be the lord of them all 

In all the kingdom and empire. 



ni a .i. seul, ne bas ne haut, 

a cui il soit, de ce me vant(?), 

des biens, de lui que la gens conte ; 

chascuns en fabloie et raconte. 

tous li pueples, communement, 

et lempereres ensement 

li porte honor, aime, et tient chier 90 

comme le fil de sa moillier ; 

et quant il va en esbanoi, 

toudis maine GuilKemwe o soi ; 

en grant afaire ou en besoing 

tos jors iva, soit pres ou loing. 

et cil del regne denviron, 

li grant signor et li baron, 

por lamor a lempereor, 

laiment et portent grant honor, 

et plus encor por sa franchise, 100 

dont chascuns tant le loe et prise. 

et ke diroie des puchieles, 

des dames et des damoisieles 1 

certes, et se diex me doinst joie, 

ne cuit que nule qui le voie 

ne qui son los oie retraire, 

tant par i soit de haut afaire, 

bele, cortoise, ne prisie, 

nestraite de haute lignie, 

ne sage, orgeilleuse, ne cointe, no 

qui ne vausist estre sa-cointe ! 

"Mult a boin los par la contree, 

""* par tot en va sa renoumee. 

si fut a cort .iii. ans tos plains 

Guilh'awTwes entre les Remains, 

com vos dire maves oi, 

forment crut et bien enbarni ; 

et devint gens li damoisiax, 

et fors et aformes et biax ; 

There is no one, low or high, 

Who possesses whereof I boast (?) 

The virtues, which people relate of him; 

Every one speaks of them and tells them. 

All the people, in common (honour him), 

And the emperor, in like manner, 

Honours, loves, and holds him dear 

As the son of his own wife ; 

And when he goes out for amusement, 

He always takes William with him; 

In great affairs, or in case of need, 

Always he goes there, whether near or far. 

And those of the country round about, 

The great lords and barons, 

For love of the emperor, 

Love and greatly honour him, 

And still more for his bounty, 

For which every one praises and esteems him. 

And what can I say of the maidens, 

Of the ladies and the damsels ? 

Certes, so God give me joy, 

I believe there is none who sees him 

Or bears his praise told, 

Of however great consideration she may be. 

However fair, courteous, and estimable. 

However noble by birth, 

However wise, proud, or clever, 

But she wishes to be his love ! 

He has great good praise in the country, 

Everywhere spreads his renown. 

Thus at the court three full years 

Was William, among the Romans, 

As ye have heard me tell, 

Well grown and of good stature ; 

And the youth became gracious, 

And strong and of fine form and fairr 



de la chambre est merveilles bien ; 120 In the chamber he is \ery admirable ; 

les puceles sur tote rien, 

por sa franchise et sa valor, 

li portent mult tres grant honor. 

Quant meliors la debonaire 
ot del vallet le los retraire, 
et les grans biens qui en lui sont, 
et voit quil na si bel el mont, 
ne damoisel de sa valor, 
fil de roi ne dempereor, 
ne de si boine renoumee, 
trestot son cuer et sa pensee 
tot maintenant vers lui atorne. 
or est si tres pensive et morne 
quele nentent a autre chose, 
son cuer reprent et blasme et chose, 
et dist so vent, " cuers ! que as tu 1 
quas tu esgarde ne veu, 
que tout mi oel moustre ne fait, 
qui mas embatue en cest plait ? 
que je ne sai que puisse avoir, 
ne quel error me fait doloir, 
ne plaindre plus que je ne suel. 

The maidens above everything, 
For his frankness and his valour, 
Accord him very great honour. 
When Melior the amiabl* 
Hears the praise of the lad told, 
And the great goodness that is in him, 
And sees there is none in the world so fair, 
No youth of his worth, 
(Whether) son of king or of emperor, 
130 Nor any of such good renown, 
Soon her heart and her thought 
Very quickly turns she towards him. 
Then she is so very sad and sorrowful, 
That she minds nothing else. 

She reproves and blames and rebukes her 

And says often, " Heart, what hast thou ? 

What hast thou beheld or seen 
For mine eye shews or tells me nothing 
That has cast me into this debate ? 
140 So that I know not what is the matter, 
Nor what fault makes me grieve, 
Or complain more than I am wont. 

Diex ! quex maus est dont tant me Oh God ! what evil is & l thus s^eve for, 

qui S1 me fait esteildillier ?] That makes me thus move restlessly? 

& sef f e sike i & sing samen to-gedere, 

& melt nei^h for mournyng & moche ioie make. 

Min hert hoi i haue now for al fat hard y fele, 

saue a fers feintise folwes me oft, 436 

& takes me so tenefully to telle al f e sof e, 

fat i mase al marred for mournyng nei^h hondes, 

but redelicne in fat res f e recuuerere fat me falles, 

as whan i haue ani hap to here of fat barne, 440 

[Fol. 11.] 
I sigh and sing 

A faintness often 
seizes me. 

For wham myn hert is so hampered 

& aides so 

I recover when I 
hear of that 



flower of 

I have portrayed 
him within my 

and would not 
scrape out his 
portrait for all the 

Since it is so, I 
am wrong to 
blame my heart. 

I ought rather to 
blame my eyes. 

Yet my eyes are 
my heart's 


[Fol. 11 ft.] 
My sight can do 
no harm, unless 
my heart assent. 

My sight only 
does his duty. 

fat flour is of alle frekes of fairnes and mi^t. 
prince is non his pere * ne in parades non aimgel, 
as he semes in mi si^t * so faire is fat burne. 444 

I haue him portreide an paynted in mi hert wi|>- 


fat he sittus in mi si$t me f inkes euer-more. 
& faire so l his figure is festened in mi ^out, 2 
fat wij> no coyntise ne craft ne can y it out scrape. 448 
& be marie, Jjou^h i mi^t to mengge al f e soj>e, 
I ne wold nou^t for al f is world so wel it me likes, 
j>ei$h i winne wif mi werk f e worse euer-more ! 
so gret liking & loue i haue fat lud to bi-hold, 452 
fat i haue leuer fat loue fan lac al mi harmes. 
Nou certes, sef f e it is so to seie f e trewf e, 
f ann haue y had gret wrong myn [hert] so to blame, 
For eni werk fat he wrou^t seffe i wol it hold, 456 
ne wold i it were non of er al f e world to haue. 
whom schal i it wite but mi wicked eyi^en, 
fat lad myn hert f rou$ loking f is langour to drye 1 
nad f ei [ben, i ini^t] boute 3 bale haue schaped ; 460 
redeli bi resoun f erf ore hem rette i mai mi sorwe." O^ 
but f anne f ou^t che fat f rowe * in f is selue wise, ~l~** 
" Min ei3en sorly aren sogettes * to serue min hert, 
& buxum ben to his bidding as boie to his master ; 464 
eke wite i al f e wrong f e werk of mi ei3en, 
& f ou3h sertes, so may i nou3t by no sof e ri$t ; 
For seffe i knowe fat mi sijt is seruawt to mi hert, 
& alle my nof er wolnk wittes to wirchen his hest. 468 
For f ou3h i sette my sijt sadly on a f ing, 
be hit better of er broun beter of er worse, 
Mi sijt may in no maner more harme wirche, 
but 3if myn hauteyn hert f e harde a-sente. 
eke sof ly my sijt * is soget to my hert, 
& dof nou3t but his deuer as destine wol falle. 


i so faire (?) 2 j, ut (?) 

* MS. " nad J>ei i am a boute." See note. 


fan has my hasty hert holly f e wrong, 

him wol i blame & banne but he my bales amende, 476 

fat haf him so strangly set * in swiche strauwge burne, 

fat wot neuer in f is world whennes fat he come, 

but as mi fader him fond in f e forest an herde, 

keping me/mis kin of f e kuntre a-boute. 480 

what 1 ? fy ! schold i a fundeling for his fairenesse tak 1 ? 

nay, my wille wol nou;t a-sent to my wicked hert. lin s for his 

fairness ? 

wel kud kinges & kaysers krauen me i-now, 
,i I nel leie mi loue so low now at fis time ; 484 [ ^ e i 

desparaged were i disgisili }if i dede in fis wise, 
I wol breke out fram fat baret * & blame my hert." 

Oche iurned here fan tijtly to haue slept a wile, 487 f 

*J & seide sadly, of hire hert sche wold seche ame^dis sighs, and says, 

For sche so wrongly had wrou^t but wi;tly f er-after, 

sche seide sikinde to here-self in fis selue wise. 

" now witterly ich am vn-wis & wonderliche nyce, l^my^rt 

fus vn-hendly & hard * mi herte to blame. 492 so - 

to whom mi^t i me mene amendis of him to haue, 

sef f e i am his souerayn mi-self in alle f ing ? twerS^ ? t8 

nis he holly at my hest * in hard & in nesche ? 

& now, bi crist, i knowe wel for al my care newe, 496 

he wrou^t neuer bot my worchepe ne wol nou^t, i leue. 

I se wel he haf set him-self in so nobul a place, ^uSin a th 

fat perles of alle puple is preised ouer alle, noble P 1 * 06 - 

of fairnesse of facioun and frely f euwes, 1 500 

For kurteysie, vnder krist is king ne kud duk. 

& f ou3h he as fundeling where founde in f e forest wilde, ^ere^oumUhT 

& kept wif fe kowherde kin to karp fe sobe, surely he was of 

noble birth. 

eche creature may know * he was kome of gode. 504 

For first whan f e fre was in f e forest fouwde in his I F L 12 -3 

In comely clof es was he clad for any kinges sone. His clothes and 

his manners 

wnan he kom first to fis kourt * bi kynde fan he schewde, proved it. 
1 A line lost here ? 


his manors were so menskful a-mende hem mi^t none, 
& sef f e forsof e til f is time non vn-tetche he ne wrou^t, 
"but haf him bore so buxumly fat ich burn him preysef , 

AII men honour & vch a burn of f is world * worchipef him one, 

Kinges & kud dukes kene kni^tes and other, 512 
f ou^h he were komen of no ken but of kende cherls, 
{Jk *t as i wot witterly so was he neuere ! 

^ut wif worchepe i wene i mi^t him wel loue. 

since then he ia & sef f e he so perles is preised * ouer princes & of er, 516 
& eche lord of f is lond * is lef him to piece 
For most souereyn seg & semlyest of f ewes, 

i did wrong to f anne haue i wited alle wrong * f e werk of myw herte, 
For he has don his deuere dignely as he out. 520 
he het me most wor)>i of wommew holde in erf e, 
Kindely Jmrth kinrade of cristen lawe ; 

For, in truth, my For-f i niyn herte hendely has wrou}t in his dedes 

well; and could to sette him-self so sadly * in fe soueraynest burne 524 

better. \^ ^ QV ^ S *& an i lond of alle hides preised, 

I ne wot neuere in f is world what wise he rni^t betere 
wirche for me in f is world my worschipe to saue. 
For }if eny man on mold more worf i were, 528 

Min hert is so hauteyn fat herre he wold. 

lamaonyi & for i so wrongely 1 haue wroiut * to wite him, me 

blamed my 3 J 

heart, greues ; 

I giue me holly in his grace as gilty for fat ilk, 

& to mende my misse * i make myn a-vowe. 532 

I wol here-after witerly wif-oute more striue, 

and win work all wirche holly mi hertes wille to harde & to nesche. 

its will 

henceforth. & leye my loue on fat lud lelly for euere. 

to god here i gif a gift it gete schal neuer of er, 536 
wile him lastef f e liif * my loue i him grante." 

A nd whan sche so was a-sented sche seide sone after, 
Alas 1 1 fear this "** sadli sikand & sore for sorwe atte here herte, 

' " Alias! i trowe fis bitter bale botlesse wol hende ! 540 

1 MS. worngely." 



For i not in f is world l how fat worf i child 
schal euer wite of my wo wif -oute me selue. 
nay ! sertes my-selue * schal him neuer telle ; 
For fat were swiche a wo}!! * fa neuer wolde be mended. 
For he mi^t ful wel * for a fol me hold, 545 

& do him lof e mi loue * }it haue y leuer deie ! 
nay ! best be]) it nou^t so * }if better mi^t bi-falle, 
Ich mot worche of er wise $if i wol out-spede. 548 
what, i suppose f e selue ^if it so bi-tidde 
fat i wrou3t so wodly & wold to him speke, 
fat were semlyest to seye to saue my worchep 1 
3if i told him treuli my tene and myn anger, 552 
what liif for longyng of loue i lede for his sake, 
He wold wene i were wod or witerly schorned, 
or fat i dede for despit * to do him a schonde ; 
\ ~/^ & 1?^ were a schamly schenchip to schende me euer. 
what }if i saide him sadly * fat i sek were, 557 

& told him al treuly f e entecches of myn euele 1 ^ 
he knowef nou^t of fat kraft * bi krist, as i trowe, 
wherfore he ne schold in no wise wite what i mente ; 
but whanne i hade al me mened no more nold he seie 
but " serteinly, swete damisele * fat me sore rewes." 
f anne wold mi wo wex al newe, 
& doubel is now mi duel * for i ne dar hit schewe. 564 
alias ! whi ne wist fat wi^h * what wo fat me eyles, 
what sorwes & sikingges i suffer for his sake ! 
I sayle now in f e see, as schip boute mast, 
boute anker or ore or ani semlyche sayle ; 568 

but hei3h heuene king to gode hauene me sende, 
ojjer laske mi liif daywes * wif-inne a litel terme." 
f us fat maiden meliors * in mornyng fa liuede, 
& hit held hire so harde i hete f e for sof e, 572 

& schorttily wif -in seuei^t * al hire slep sche leues, 
here mete & al merthe sche missed in a while, 
& seccleled in a seknesse f e sof e for to telle, 
1 MS. " world J>is ;" instead of " Jris world." 

[Fol. 12 &.] 

for I will never 
tell him my love. 

He, might think 
me foolish. 

Or suppose I did 
speak to him, 

and told him my 

he would tfcink 
me mad, or that 
I mocked him. 

Or suppose I 
said I am sick ; 

he would not 
understand me. 

My grief would 
only bo doubled. 

1 sail in the sea / 

like a mastless / 

ship, without Cy 

anchor, oar, or i 

Thus Melior 

She sickened and 


[Fol. 13.] 

and her colour 

fat f er nas leche in no lond fat liif hire bihi3t, 1 576 
3 it couf e non by no craft knowen hire sore ; 
but duelfulli sche dwined a-waie bof e dayes & nijtes, 
& al hire clere colour comsed for to fade. 

Melior-8 farourite 

was Alexandrine, 
daughter of the 
duke of 

who said to her, 
"Tell me the 
cause of your 
sickness ; 

I may be able to 
help you." 

" Dear cousin," 
said Melior, 
comfort to me. 

I will tell you all 
my grief. 

|-%anne hadde f is menskful melior * may denes fele 580 

* a-segned hire to serue * & to seuwe hire a-boute ; 

but amowg alle f e maidenes most sche loued one 

fat was a digne damisele to deme al f e sof e, 

& komew of hire oune kin h[er]e 2 kosin ful nere, 584 

of lumbardie a dukes doubter ful derworf in wede, 

& fat amiabul maide alisaundrine a-hi3t. 

& from f e time fat melior * gan morne so strong, 

fat burde was euer hire bi busy hire to plese, 588 

More fan ani of er damisele so moche sche hire louede. 

& whan sche 8613 here so sek sche seide on a time, 

" Now for marie, madame f e milde quene of heuene, 

& for fat loue fat 36 loue leliest here in erfe, 592 

Sei3th me al 3our seknesse & what so sore 3ow greiiis. 

30 knowen icham 3our kosyn & bi krist of heuene, 

3ut bi cas of cunsail ful wel can ich hele, 

& be tristy and trew to 3ow for euer-more, 596 

and help 3ow hasteli at al 3oure hele to gete, 

jif 36 saie me 3oure sores & ich se what may gayne." 

whan melior fat meke mayde herd alisauwdrines 


sche was gretly gladed of hire gode bi-hest, 3 600 

& wif a sad sikyng seide to hire f anne ; 
" a ! curteyse cosyne crist mot f e it jelde 
of f i kynde cumfort fat f ow me kuf est nowf e, 
f ow hast warsched me wel * wif f i mede wordes. 604 
I jiue me al in f i grace * to gete me su?ft hele, 
as f ow me here has be-hi3t of mi harde peynes ; 
now wol i telle f e my tene wat so tide after. 

1 Here follows the catchword' jit couj?e." 2 MS. 
3 This line and the next are transposed in the MS. 




serteynly f is seknesse fat so sore me greues 608 

Is feller fan any frek fat euer }it hadde. 

& ofter fan [ten] l times hit takef me a-daye, 

& [ix.] l times on fe ni^t nou^t ones lesse ; 

and al comes of a froly f ou3t fat firles min hert ; 612 

I wold meng al mi mater ^if i mi^t for schame. 

ac wond wold ich nou^t to f e witow for sof e, 

ay whan ich hent f e haches fat so hard aren. O^ 

It komses of a kene fou$t fat ich haue in hert 616 

of william fat bold barn fat alle burnes praisen ; 

nis no man vpow mold fat more worchip winnes. 

him so propirli haue i peinted & portreide in herte, 

fat me semes in my sijt he sittes euer meke. 620 

what man so ich mete wif or mele wif speche, 

Me f inkes euerich f rowe fat barn is fat of er ; 

& fele times haue ich fonded to flitte it fro foi^t, 

but witerly al in wast fan worche ich euer. 624 

f er-for, curteise cosynes * for loue of crist in heuene, 

Kif e nou^ f i kindenes & konseyle me f e best ; 

For but ich haue bote of mi bale bi a schort time, 

I am ded as dore-nail now do al f i wille ! " 628 

[FoL 13 6.] 
It comes from a 


of a thought 
about that 
William, whom 
all praise. 

Every man I 
speak to seems to 
be William. 

Counsel me, 
cousin, or I am 
as dead as a 

l<%anne alisauwdrine a-non after fat ilk, 
wax gretly a-wondered & wel hire bi-f ou$t, 
what were hire kuddest comfort * hire care to lisse ; 
& seide f anne til hire softily sone f er-after ; 632 

" a ! madame, for marie loue mornes no lenger ! 
nis it no sekenes bote fat * so sore ^ou^ eiles, 
I schal furth craft fat ich kan keuer ^ou i hope, 
Mow i geten a grece fat i gaynli knowe ! (***? 636 
haue ^e sleiliche 2 it seie & a-saide ones, 
& feled f e sauor & f e swetnesse fat sittes in f e rote, 
hit schal veraly furth vertue do vanisch ^our soris ! " 
ofer-wise wold sche nou^t wissen here ladi 640 

bi what maner che ment last sche were a-greued. 
1 See note. MS. " 3e it fleiliche it." 

Alexandrine was 
amazed, and said,, 

" Mourn not, I 
will heal you. 

I know of a herb 
whose virtue can. 
cure you." 


Meiior thanked j>an bat melior ful mekeli bat mayden yanked, 

her, and prayed . r 

her to get it. & preide hire pnuek wif pitous wordes, 

to gete hire fat gode gras as sone as sche mi^t. 644 
& alisauftdrine a-non answeres and saide, 

she said she " Madame, I wol do mi mi^t wif-oute more speche." 
[FoL^H.] f anne J>is maiden melior gan menden here chere, 

fus was ferst here sad sorwe sesed fat time. 648 

Alexandrine alisandrine algate ban after fbatl browe 

planned how to 

let wmiam know bi-f ou$t hire ful busily * howe best were to werche, 
to do willmm to wite f e wille of hire lady, 
properly vnparceyued for reproue after. 652 

Ful conyng was sche & coynt & couj>e fele Binges, 
Y- of charmes & of chau[V]temews to schewe harde castis ; 

and, by her craft, g bimh be craft bat sche coube to carpp be sobe, 

as he lay asleep, 

as wilh'am fat worj>i child * on a ni$t slept, 656 

boute burn in his bonr but him-self one, 

l^MUA/ttf. ) W<X4*f>4 

she made him a ful selcojifejsweuehe set sche him to mete ; 

fat melior, fat menskful may mekli al-one 

com ful comliche clad & kneled him bi-fore, 660 

al bi-weped for wo * wisly him fou^t ; 

& sikand ful sadli * seide Jms him tille 
that Meiior came " a ! loueh'che lemman ! loke on me nowj>e ! 
lim, and said, j am ^ e ^ ors> -^Q^ marred man, for J>i sake. 664 

s^JkavA I meke me in ]>i merci for fow me n^t saue ! 
"Oh take me, Leue lord, mi lemman * lacche me in J?i narmes, 

Iov6 in tliine 

anns ! " & wirche wi]> me )>i wille * or witterli in hast 

Mi liif lelly is lorn so loue now me hampris." 668 
Jms William foujt witterly & wi3tly wij> fat ilk, 
as a gome ful glad for fat grace fallen, 

He tried to do so, He wend to haue Iau3t fat ladi * loueli in armes ; jji^ 

pmow* & clipte to him a pulwere & propirly it gretes, ^673 

and welcomes hii worf H for wisseli him f ou^t 
fat it was f e menskful mayde meh'or his ladi ! 

nd awoke, fat puluere clept he cui-teisly & kust it ful ofte, 

& made f er-wif f e most merf e fat ani ma?i schold ; 
but fan in his saddest solas * softili he a-waked. 677 



ak so liked him his layk wip pe ladi to pleie, 

pat after he was a-waked * a ful long prowe, 

he wende ful witerly sche were in is armes ; 680 

ac peter ! it nas but is puluere to proue pe sope. 

but whan he witterly was a-waked he wayted a-boute, 

to haue bi-hold pat burde his blis to encrese. 

panne perceyued he pe puluere * pertely in his armes, 

oper wi}t was non * wip-inne pat chambur. 1 685 

pan brayde he vp of his bed * as burn nei^h amased, 

& loked after pat ladi * for lelli he wende 

pat sche here had hed in sum hurne * in pat ilk time, 

to greue him in hire game as feijh. he gyled were. 

but whan he wist it was wast * al pat he sou^t, 

he gan to sike & sorwe & seide in pis wise : 

"a ! ihesu crist, iustise * now iugge pou$ pe ri^t, 692 

how falsly has fortune * founde me nowpe. 

nas mi menskful ladi * meliors h[er]e-inne, 2 

& lowed hire to be mi lemman & lai in myn armes, 

oper elles sopli, sche seide * pat sche dei schuld? 696 

^is, i-wisse, was it sche * y wot wel pe sope ; 

Metyng 3 mi3t it be non * in no maner wise ; 

so lonely lay pat ladi & ich layking to-gaderes. 

& soply, sop it is a selcoupe, me pinkes, 700 

whider pat lady is went and wold no lenger dwelle." 

panne lep he vp Ii3teli ' & loked al a-boute, -^tC-yvw 

but fe^tly al was fenteme & al was in wast. - 

panne seide he to him-self sikinde ful soft : 704 

" For sope, ich am a mad man now wel ich may knowe, 

Forto wene in pis wise * pis wrong metyng sope. 

Min hert is to hauteyn so hye$ to climbe, 

so to leue pat ladi wold louwe hire so moche, 

pat is an emperours eir and euene his pere, 

to come to swiche a caytif nay, crist it for-bede 

ipat ich more of pat matere so misseliche penke ! 

She was gone ; it 
was only his 

[Fol. 14 b.] 

He looked for her 
in every corner in 
vain, and sighed, 
and said, 

" Was not my 
lady Melior here ? 

It could not have 
been a dream. 



Yet I must be 
mad to think it 
could be true, 

for she is an 
emperor's heiress. 

1 MS. "chanbur." 

8 MS. "heinne." Read 

here inne." M. 8 MS. " Metynt." 



i must be mad to 

think of such a 

[Foi. is.] 

i dare not lay my 

love so high. 

i know neither 

my kin nor my 


and i have no 

friend to speak 

for me." 

For fer nys lord in no lond fat fe liif weldes, 712 

emperour ne kud king knowen so riche, 

fat sof li nere simple i-nou^ fat semly to haue. 

ek witterli am i wod ' to wene swiche a f ing, 


Jmrth a mys metyng * fat swicne a maide wold 1 1 & 
j^eye hire loue so lowe lemmas me to weld. 
nay, ich haue wrou^t al in wast * ac i nel na more 

.,.- M 

Leie mi loue so hei^e * mi ladi for to wilne, 

f ou^h it nere for nou^[t] elles * but for non in erf e 720 

no wot i neuer wisseli of whom i am come. 

Mi-self knowe ich noint mi ken ne mi kontre noiber, 

For-fi me [bi-]houes l f e buxumlier me bere, 

Ofer-wise fan a wi}h fat were wif his frendes. 724 

For ^if ich wrout of er-wise & it were parceyued, 

& knowe were in f is kourt * mi kare were f e more. 

for feibli, frend haue ich non bat [for] 2 me wold speke. 


311 f empe?*our were wif me wrof his wraf f e forto, slake~ 
fer-for mi hauteyn hert bi-houes me to chast, 729- 
& bere me debonureli til better mow bi-tide." 

Yet her image so 

dwelt m his heart, 

j n j,{ g w { se 

wende to haue schaped, 

that it would not 


He left his meat, 

and lay awake by 


and arose in the 

but certes fat semly * sat so in his hert, 732: 

for merf e of fat metyng * of melior fat schene, 
fat heng heui in his hert & so hard cleued 
fat, to winne al f e world a-wai wold it neuer. 
but gan to studie stoundemele so stifly f er-onne, 736* 
fat lelly be a litel while his langure gan wex, 
so fat he momed nei^h mad * & his mete left, 

p f -i . . 

* iorwandref in wo * & wakef i-wisse on m^tes, 
swiche listes of loue hadde lapped his hert, 740 

fat he nist what bote his bale best mi^t help. 
but in his mochel morning ' on a morwe he rises, 
For kare fat kom to his hert & clof ed him sone, 
& whan he geinliche was greif ed he gript his 

1 MS. " houes ; " but see 1. 729, and the note. 

2 Read "that /or me." M. 



as a we'ijh woful he wrapped him fer-inne, 745 

For no maw fat he met * his mornyng schuld knowe. 

fat vnglad gom fan go)? in-to a gardin euene, 

fat was a perles place for ani prince of erf e, 748 

& wynli wij) heie wal l was closed al a-boute. 

fat preui pleyng place to proue f e sof e, 

loyned wel iustly to meliors chamber, 

f ider went willmm euene wittow for sof e, 752 

& vnder a tri appeltre * tok him tid 2 a sete, 

fat was braunched ful brode & bar gret schadue, 

& was euen vnder a windowe * of fat worf eis chaumber, 

For fat wilh'am for wo was bounde so harde. 756 

fat tre so fayre was floured * & so ful leued, 

fat no wi^th mi^t wilham se but ^if he were f e nere. 

ac will[i]am to fe window * witterli mijt sene 

jif meliors wif hire maydenes in meling fere sete. 760 

whan wilHam vnder fat trie tre hade taken his place, 

he set his si$t sadli to fat windowe euene, 

boute flecchinge or feyntise from morwe til eue. 

but oft cumsed his care and his colour chaunge[d], 764 

so sore longed him to se fa semly burde. 

swiche a sorwe he suffred * a seue-ni^t fulle, 

fat neuer maranes mete ne mi$t in his bodi sinke, 

but held him finliche i-fed his fille to loke 768 

on fe mayde meliors chauraber * for wham he s[o] 


euer whan it nei3ed ni3t noy3ed was he sore, 
fan wold he wend to his chamber 3 & gret wo make ; 
but no seg fat him serued mi^t f e sofe wite 772 

whi him was f anne so wo * ne where he was on dayes ; 
non durst for drede * him dernly a-spie, 
but lett him worche his wille * as wel as him liked, 
ac deliuerly was he di3t uch day at morwe, 776 

& feij>li boute felachipe * fond wold he walke, 
& go in-to f e gardyn * his greues for to slake, 

and went into a 

adjoining Melior's 
[Fol. 15 &.] 

He sat beneath 

her window under O~f J 

an apple-tree, 

so thick-leaved 
that he could not 
be seen. 

There watched he 
from morning till 

He ate nothing; 
but was fed with 
looking his fill 
towards her 

None knew why 
he grieved, or 
whither he weiit. 

He went every 
day to the garden. 

1 MS. repeats " wal.' 

2 See note. 

3 MS. "chanber." 



looking towards 
Melior's window, 

and suffered so 
that his colour 

[Fol. 16.] 

One day as he 


he fell asleep. 

Melior's grief had 
been as great as 

and she asked 
Alexandrine if 
she had found the 

" Not yet," she 
said, " but let us 
go into the 

So they went 
down the steps 
into the garden. 

weyj;ende to f e windowe & his wo newene, 

& eike ful mani sif e * and sum time quake ; 

swiche drede & dol * drou^ to his hert, 

lest he ne schold neuer in world * winne fat he 3erned. 

f urth f e sorwes fat he sufred ' sof forto telle, 

al his cler colour comsed forto fade. 784 

Febul wax he & faynt for-waked a-ni3tes, 

ac no wi^t of f is world nri^t wite of his care. 

but fan tid on a time as f is tale minges, 

fat William went til fis gardin his wo fort 2 slake, 788 

& vnder his tri appeltre turned to sitte, 

as wei^h al for-waked for wo vpon ni^tes. 

and as he a-weited to f e windowe wijtly fer-after, 

he slod sli^li a-doun * a-slepe ful harde, 792 

as a wo wery 3 wei3h * for-waked to-fore. 

but menge we now of meliors * fat morned f anne 

as sadli in hire si$t or sorer ^if sche mi^t, 

f e loue of loueli willtam lay hire so nere. 796 

f anne asked sche f is of alisauradrine * as f e hap tidde, 

Ri^t as wilKam woful so was wox a-slepe, 

wher sche hade gete hire gras * fat schold hire greues 


" nay, madame, nou^t ^ut " seide f e maide f anne, 800 
*' f ou^h haue i fele times fonded to finde it ^if i mi3t, 
but ener wrou3t i in wast f e wors haf me liked. 
ac were it 3our wille nowe to worche bi mi rede, 
Go we to f e gardyn to gode may it turne ; 804 

For feire floures schal we finde * of foulen song here, 
& f urth cum fort may cacche swiche happ mai falle, 
to haue f e better hele * at 3oure hom-kome." 
farto fis menskful meliors mekeliche hir graunted, 
Forto worche al hire wille as sche wold deuise. 809 
f anne a-ros sche raddely * & romden ri3t in-fere, 
& gan doun bi a grace * in-to f e gardin euene, J^ 

1 MS. "sufreded." Seel. 1014. 

3 Or, " werjj." 

2 See note. 


boute burde or barn * but hem-self tweyne. 812 

for alisauttdrine anon * atteled fat time, 

& knewe wel bi hire craft fat sche hade cast bi-fore, 

fat fei witterli f anne schold wif wilhY/m mete. 

& whan fe gaye gerles were in-to fe gardin come, 816 where were fair 

Faire floures fei founde of fele maner hewes, flowers, and blithe 

fat swete ! were of sauor & to fe si}t gode ; 

& eche busch ful of briddes fat blif eliche song, 

bof e f e f rusch & f e f rustele bi xxxti of bof e, 820 

Meleden ful merye * in maner of here kinde. 

& alle freliche foules * fat on fat frif songe, t Fo1 - 16 *-J 

for merfe of fat may time * fei made moche noyce, 

to glade wif uch gome fat here gle herde. 824 May time. 

ac meliors for al fat merfe * mornede so stronge, 

so harde hacches of loue here hert hadde f irled, 

fat f er nas gle vnder god fat hire glade mi^t, But nothing could 

but feif li fo[r] febulnesse feynt wax sche sone, 828 who sat down to 

, , . , . rest under a 

fat vnder a semli sikamour sche sett hire to reste, sycamore. 

& fat burde hire by fat al hir bale wiste. 

fan gan Meliors murcge f e meschef fat hir eyled ; 

fat of er comsede to carp of cumfort & ioie, 832 

& ef er muwged of f e mater * fat f ai most louede. 

but alisaurcdrine ber-after * a-non bi a wile, But Alexandrine 

espied William, 

f ederward as willtom was wayted wel 3erne, and said, 

For sche wiste wel y-now where fat he laye. 836 

& f anne seide sche as swif e * to fat semly mayde, 

" Madame, melior, so dere be Marie in heuene, is^me^ne^eep 

Me f inkef ich se a seg a-slepe here bi-side. here > 

whef er he be kni^t or bachiler wot i neuer for sof e, 

ac he semes bi semblant * in sekenes ful harde. 841 u^^eTus'goand 

f er-for, lady, go we loke wat seknes him eyles, 

& what barn fat he be fa in bale lenges." 

fe menskful mayde meliors fan mekliche saide, 844 to J"rseif, 

" a ! madame, melior now mendes 3oure chere, fontls*' MeU r ' 

For y-wisse, 3ond is wilKam fat 36 so wel louef, wiiiiami" 

>MS. "sweto." 



Quickly she ran 

towards him, 

[Foi. ir.] 
would fain have 

kissed him, but 
was afraid of 

sum hard hacohe has he had * & hider com to plei^e 
Forto lissen his langour & lyes here a-slepe, 848 

For f e swete sawour of ])ise semly floures ! " 

"L^aime was bat meftskful meliors muchel y-gladed, 


* & gon fan to fat gome a god pas al boj>e, 

& as tit as fei come him to fe sofe for to telle, 852 

fei sett hem doun softly fat semly be-fore. 

& wanne )> e niayde meliors mi^t se his face, 

sche font f roly in herte fat leuer hire were 

haue welt him at wille fan of f e world be quene ; 

so fair of alle fetures f e frek was, hire fou^t. 857 

<fe fayn sche wold ban in feib haue fold him in hire 


to haue him clipped & kest kenely fat tide, 
| 410 sche dred it to done for ofer derne a-spyes. 

alysau?zdrine fan a-non attlede here f ou^tes, 
Then Alexandrine & whtly wib here whiles * dede william to mete 

caused William f 

to dream, 

that Meiior 

brought him a 

rose, which at 

once cured ham. 

fat fat time him f ou^t fat melior f e hende 

and alysauttdrine al-one com him f o tille, 864 

& f e mayde melior ful mekly him brou^t 

a f u j rea i rose . an ^ re dlv it him takes. 

<fc whanne he in hond hit hade hastely hit semede, 

fat he was al sauf & sound of alle his sor greues. 868 

& for his langor was so lissed swich likyng he hadde, 

& so gretly was gladed fat he gan a-wake. 

He awoke, and in & w han he seh fat semly sitte him bi-fore, 

Amazement knelt J 

before her, and He was al a-wondred and whtly he vp-rises, 

greeted her. 


love,-' said Meiior. 

bear her 8ay 

& kurteyslyche kneling fat komli he grett, 
& afterward alysauradrine as he wel out. 
& f e mayde melior * ful mekly fan saide, 

" Mi 10Ueli SW6te lemmaw ' OUre lord 3 if 

& wilKam fan vnderstod fe word fat sche saide ; 
fat sche him called " leue lemman" it liked so hie hert, 
J^ w ^ er ^7 ne coufe no word * long fer-after spek, 
but stared on here stifly a-stoneyd for ioye, 880 



fat he cast al his colour and bi-com pale, 

and eft red as rose in a litel while. 

so witerly was fat word wounde to hert, 

fat he ferd as a mased man an marred nei} honde, 884 

so louely loue fat time lent him an arewe 

hetterly f urth his hert for fat hende mayde 

cald him " leue lemmas" he les al his 

" dear love," and 
his colour went 
and came. 

Love had shot an 
arrow through 
his heart. 

T) ot alysau?*drine wiste wel ' what fat him eyled, 888 
**' & seide to him soberly f ise selue words : 
" swete wilh'am, seie me now what seknes f e greues ? 
f i faire hewe is al fade for f i moche sore ; 
& $if ich mi}t in ani maner f e amende, y wold." 892 
fan wilh'am wi^tly in f is wise answered, 
sikende ful sadly for sor at his hert, 
" Mi dere gode damisele my def is al 3 are, 
so a botteles bale * me byndef so harde, 896 

nas neuer feller feuer fat euer frek hadde 
for merthe & alle metes * it makes me to leve, 
slepe sertes may [i] nou}t l so sore it me greues. 
&-al fis mochel meschef a meting i wite, 900 

fat me com on a nijt a-cursed be fat time ! 
for so hard hacches haue hold me sef f e, 
fa i not in f e world what is me to rede." 
" now swete," seide alisauradrine " seie me in what 
wise 904 

fat fat hache f e haldes & how it f e takes ? " 
" I-wisse," seide willram " i wol it nou^t layne, 
sum-time it hentis me wif hete as hot as ani fure, 
but quicliche so kene a cold comes f er-after ; 908 
sum time i si3h & singe samen to-geder, 
& fan so froli fortes f urlen myn herte, 
fat i ne wot in f e world where it bi-comse, 
For feifli in my-self y fele it nou^t fanne." 912 

f anne alisaundrine a-non f er-after seide, 
1 Read " may nouzt." M. 

asked him what 
sickness ailed 

[Fol. 17 ft.] 

William answered 
that his was a 
sorrow without 

It was all owing* 
to a dream. 

" Tell me," she 
answered, " hovr 
the pain seizes 

" It sometimes 
comes on as hot 
as fire, and then 
like a keen chill." 


" How was it all 
owing to a 
dream ? " 

"That I will 
never tell you," 
he replied. 

perilous," said 

[Fol. 18.] 

"God help us 
twain ; my sick- 
ness seems like 



"wilh'am, i wold fe pray fatow me woldest telle 
bi what cas al fi care * comsed bi a sweuene 1 " 
"nai sertes, sweting," he seide "fat schal i neue?-, 916 
For no meschef on molde fat me may falle ! 
I haue leuer it layne & f is langour f ole, 
f e^h i for dreeing of f is duel deie at f e last ; 
f er schal [no] wi^th of f e world wite whi it comsed ! " 
Your sickness is f anne seide alisandrine " auntrose is bin euel, 921 

jrilous." said r 

ful wonderliche it f e weues wel i wot fe sof e." 
" ^a i-wisse," seide willmm * " wonderli me greues, 
for my seknes wif my si^tes * sumtime slakes, 
& mani times dof me mourne mor fan to-fore." 
Melior fat milde mayde * in f e mene tyme f ou$t, 
& seide softily to hire-self f ise selue wordes, 
" a ! gracious god grettest of us alle, 
tak hede to fin hond-werk & help now vs tweyne ! 
For sertes, f is same sekenes * mi-self it holdes 
In alle wise as it dof wilHam & wors, as ich wene. 
& fouh ich se fat is sekenes sore hit him haldes, 932 
for pitously he is a-peyred fat perles was to sijt 
of fairnesse and of fasoun * fat ani frek schold haue 
but weilawey ! fat he ne wist * what wo y drye, 
& haue do lelly for is lone a wel long while ! 936 
& but he wi^tly wite y-wisse, y am done ; 
For y dar nou^t for schame * schewe him mi wille, 
but $if he wold in ani wise * him-self schewe formest." 
while Meliors in here maner mened to hire-selue, 940 
alysauwdrine a-non * attlede alle here f ou^tes, 
sche knewe wel bi kuntenaunce of kastyng of lokes. 
fan wi3tly to wilh'am f ise wordes sche sede, 
" I see wel be fi semblant what seknesse fe eyles, 944 
and told William hele bou it neuer [sol hard ! al holliche y knowe, 

she felt sure he 

was in love. fat it ben lestes of loue * fat f e so hard helden ; 

If he only knew 
what I suffer ! " 

perceived all by 
their looks ; 

f ou waltres al in a weih * & wel y vnderstande 
whider f e belaunce bremliest bouwes al-gate. 

1 Read " neuer so hard." M. See the next line. 




and sef f e y se it is so sof li y f e warne, 

I wol a litel and lite] laskit in hast." 

fan william wel vnderstod * sche wist what him eilede, 

& knew al is kqueyne for ou^t he kouf e hide, 952 

he was a-drad to f e def * last sche him dere wold. 

fan sette he him on knes * & soft seyde hire tille, 

" Mercy, menskful mayde for Marie loue of heuene ! 

I gif me al in fi grace * my greues to help, 956 

For f ou mi^t lengf e mi liif }if f e likes sone." 

fan alysaundrine a-non answered & saide, 

" how mi^t i f e help 1 what haue i to f i bote ? " 

"I-wisse," fan seyde wilKam * "i wol no lenger hele, 960 

My liif, my langor, & my dej> lenges in f i warde ; 

but i f e sunner haue socour of fat swete mayde, 

f e comliche creature * fat in f i keping dwelles, 

alle the surgens of salerne ne schul saue mi Hue. 964 

f er-for loueliche ladi in f e lis al min hope, 

f ou mi3t me spakly [saue] [ of er spille $if f i-self likes." 

Then was he sore 
afraid, and krelt 
to her, 

and prayed her to 
help him. 

" How can I help 
you ? " she 

Fol. 18 6.] 
Unless I have 
some comfort 
from you, sweet 
maid, I shall 
surely die." 

A lysauralrine a-non f anne answered & sayde, 
**: "now i-wisse, willmm witow for sofe, 968 

Sef f e f ou sadli hast me said )?e sojje of ]?i cuwsaile, 
& tellest me treuly J?ou trestes to my help, 
}if i mi^t in ani maner mende ])i sorwe, 
but i were busi J>er a-boute to blame i were. 972 

jjer-for certes, be foil sur * sej? it may be no ojjer, 
holliche al min help fou schalt haue sone." 
fan william was gretliche glad * & loueliche hire fonked. 
fan alisauTidrine a-now * as sche wel coufe, 976 

clepud fat mayde meliors * mekeliche hir tille, 
& seide, " a mercy, madame on f is man here, 
fat ne^h is driue to f e def al for youre sake ! " 
" how so for my sake 1 " seide melior f anne ; 980 
" I wraf ed him neuer fat i wot in word ne in dede." 
" no sertes, madame, fat is sof " saide fat ofer, 
1 Eead " spakly saue other spille." M. 

" Since you have 
told me the truth 
and trust me, I 
were to blame not 
to help you. 

You shall have aL 
my help." 

Then Alexandrine 
called Melior to 
her, saying, "Pity 
this man, who is 
near death for 
thy sake ; 



who has 

languished for 

thy love a long 

Take him for thy 

[Foi. 19.] 
"To save his life, 

I will grant him 

my love." 

Then William 

thanked God 


were pledged to 

each other. 

Then they clasped 
other, "and told 

each other of their 



thought she 

" ac he has langured for sour loue a ful long while : 


& but ^e graunt him }our grace him greif li to help, 
& late him be $our lemman lelly for euer, 985 

his liif nel nou^t for langour last til to-morwe. 
j/erfor, comeliche creature for crist fat f e made, 
les nou^t is liif $ut * for a litel wille. 988 

^^ he SQ J el jy j, e l oueg . to l emmm fa m j, ou take." 

fan ineliors ful mekliche to fat mayde carped, 

and seide ful soburli smyland a litel, 

" nou bi god fat me gaf f e gost & fe soule, 992 

* ke P e 3 ut for no creature ' manquellere be clepud, 

aC ^ 6U6r m6 W61>e * e ^ ' a manes ^ to saue ' 

sef f e he for me is so marred & has misfare long, 
ful prestely for f i praire & for ]?e perile als, 996 

j>at i se him set inne and to saue his Hue, 
hferle i graunt him grebli on godis holi name, 

L / 

lelliche mi loue for euer al mi lif time, 

& gif a gift here to god & to his gode moder, 1000 

)?at oj>er lud, whil i Hue schal i loue neuer ! " 

whan willmm herd bise wordes * i hete be forsobe, 

he kneled quikli on knes & oft god Jionked, 1003 

& seide, " god ! fat madest man & al middel-erfe, 

a mi^ti miracle for me * hastow wrou^t noj>e." 

ban meked he him to meliors * on alle maner wise, 

as ]je gladdest gom * fat euer god wrou3t. 

& sche sertes bi hire side fe same him graunted, 1008 

to worche wij> hire al his wille * as he wel liked. 

fan eifer hent ofer * hastely in armes, 

& wif kene kosses kuffed hem to-gidere, 1011 

,. ,, .. 1,1 111 

so fat no mwrf e upon mold no mi^t hem bet haue lyked. 
& tit f anne told eche til ofer here tenes & here sorwe, 
fat sadly for eif ers sake hadden sufficed long. 
fanne alisau?idrine anon attlede be so be, 


^ at ^ re ma ^ stres * }*& man ' no schuld hire noujt 
misse, 1016 

f e^h sche walked a while wide from here si}t, 





for sche trowed trewly to talke f e sof e, 

were sche out of f e weye * fat wilKam wold fonde 

for to pleie in fat place f e priue loue game, 

& to hete here fan 1 to layke here likyng fat time. 

sche gof a-houte in-to f e gardyn for to gader floures, 

& to wayte fat no wei3h walked f er-inne, 

for drede of descuueryng of fat was do fere. 

wilKam wel wif meliors * his wille fan dede, 

& layked fere at lyking al f e long daye, 

til f e suftne was nei3h set sof li, to reste. 

f anne alisaurzdrine at arst * fan antresse hem tille, 

& mekly to meliors " madame," fan sche seide, 

" haue 36 geten f e gras fat i 3ou geynliche hi3t ? 

I trowe trewli he fis time 3our sorwe he passed ; 

eifer of 3ou, as y leue is god leche til ofer, 1032 

alle f e surgyens of salerne so sone ne couf en 

haue 3our langowes a-legget * i leue for sof e." 

fan wilKam wax wi3tly wonderli a-schamed, 

& he & meliors mercy mekly hire criede 1036 

to kuuere wel here cuwseile for cas in fis erf e, 

& f roli hire f onked rnoni f ousand sif es ; 

" For sche hade hrou3t hem of hale * hof e," f ei seide, 

" & i-lengfed here lif mani long 3ere." 1040 

A lisaundrine anon - after fat ilke 
-^*- had meliors manly here merf e fan stinte, 
& seide, " it is so nei3h ni3t fat nedes mote ye parte ; 
I drede me of descuuering * for 36 haue dwelled long." 
"alias! fis mochel meschef" * saide melior fanne, 1045 
" fis day is schorter to si$t * fan it semed euere ! " 
& william seide f e same sof li fat time, 
hut alisaundrine anon * answerede & seide, 1048 

" Make 36 no mourning for 30 may mete eft 
dernli hennes-forf eche day * whan 3ou dere likes ; 
for-f i hasteli hof e hei^e 3011 a-sunder." 

1 Read " & to-gedere fan " (?) But see note. 

and had better 

She went away 
to gather flowers, 
and to watch that 
no one came 

Just before sun- 
set, Alexandrine 

[Fol. 19 b.l 
and asked them if 
they both felt 
they were cured. 

They prayed her 
to keep their 
counsel, and 
thanked her 

She warned 
Melior that it 
was near night, 

who lamented the 
shortness of the 

She reminded 
them that they 
might meet again* 



so they kissed, 

and took leave of 

each other, and 

returned happy, 

qu r ite h curld' e 

William was 

beloved both by 

nch and poor, and 

especially by the 

[Foi. 20.] 

f anne sei} f ei no socour but sunder f anne f ei moste ; 
w ju dipping & kessing bei kaiwt here leue, 1053 

* rr 

& eiber tok tit is way to his owne chau?ftber, 

blisful for f ei were botned of here bales strong, 

sef f en hastely were J>ei hoi & haden alle here wille. 

wif alle listes of loue alle longe ^eres 1057 

priueli vnperceyued f ei pleyed to-gedere, 

fat no seg vnder sunne souched no gile. 

so wel was wilKam bi-loued wib riche & wib pore, 1060 

r r 

so fre to feffe alle frekes * wib ful faire liftes, 

fat f emperour sof li him-self soueraynli him loued, 

& seffe alle ofer seges fat sei^en him wif ei3en; 

& algate alisaundrme at aUe poyntes hem serued 1064 

so sli^liche, Jjat no seg souched non euele, 

but alle gauew god word to gomes fat hem plesede. 

Now it befell that 
the Duke of 
" Saxony made 
war on the 
emperor of Rome. 


and sent mes- 

sengers to all his 


to come to him 

after bi time as f e tale miwges, 
dou^ti duk of saxoyne drow to fat londe 1068 
wif ouer-gart gret 1 ost * godmen of armes, 
wrongly forto werre wif f emperour fat time. 
& wif bobaunce & wif bost brent fele tounes, 
no strengf e him wif-stod of sad stonen walles, 1072 j 
but bet a-doun burwes & brutned moche peple, *& 
so fat duel was to deme f e duresse fat he wrou^t. 
whanne fese tyding were told to f emperour of rome, /0 ^^. 1 V 
he was gretly a-greued 2 no gome fort him blame, 1076 
fat eni wei3h of f e world * schuld werre on his lond. 
his sondes f anne he sente swif e al a-boute 
to alle f e lordes of his land * to lasse & to more, 
fat ou3ten him omage or ani seute elles, 1080 

& warned hem werfore he wi^tly hem of-sent, 
& het hem alle hi^e fider as harde as f ei mi3t, 
wel warnished for f e werre * wif clene hors & armes. 
whanne femperours komauwdmewt * was kud al a- 
boute, 1084 

1 MS. "oiwr gart gret ;" see note. 

MS. "a-greuea. 



Mani was fat bold barn fat busked f ider sone, 

kinges & kud dukes & kni^tes ful gode, 

& of er bold burnes a-boute sexti f ousand, 

alle boutt to batayle in ful bri3t armes. 

and ri^t in-to rome alle f e rinkes drowe, 

to wite f emperours wille how he wirche f ou^t. 

Kings, dukes, 
knights, and men 
came to him, 
60,000 in all; and 
1088 all ready for 

T TThanne wilU'am fat worf i child wist of fat fare, 

was no glader gom fat euer god made, 1092 

he went euen to f emperour * & enys him sayde, 
knelyng on his kne curteysli & faire, 
" Gode sir, for goddis loue grant me a bone ; 
3if me f e ordur of kni^t to go to f is dedus, 1096 

& i hope to heuene king mi help schal nou^t fayle, 
fat i nel manly wif mi n^t meynte[ne] ^our rijt." 
f emperour was gretly glad * & graunted his wille, 
& made him kni3t on the morwe & mo for his sake. 
of proude princes sones dou^ti men toward, 1101 

Fulle foure schore for williames loue, 
& 3af hem hors & armes as an hend lord schold, 
& made wilh'am here wardeyn * as he wel xni^t, 1104 
to gye & to gouerne * f e gay yong kni^tes. 
& whanne f empe[r]ours ost was holli a-sembled, 
he told to-fore f e grete his tene & his harmes, 
how fe duk of saxoyne dede him gret wrong, 1108 
brent his nobul burwes & his burnes quelled, 
& komande hem kendely here cu?iseile to ^eue, 
In what wise were best * to wreke him f anne. 
& alle seide at o sawe * "sire, we $ou rede, 1112 

strecches forf wif ^our ost stintef no lenger, 
& fondes to do f e duk what duresse 36 may. 
hampres him so harde to sum cost fat be drawe, 

When William 
heard of it, he 
was very glad. 

[Fol. 20 6.] 
and prayed the 
emperor to grant 
him a boon, viz. 
to knight him. 

The emperor 
gladly knighted 
both him and 80 
others, making 
William their 

sewes him to sum cite * & a-sege him fere, 
til 36 wif fin. fors f e freke haue wonne." 


The emperor tells 
his men what 
harm the king of 
Saxony has done, 

and asks their 

They advise him 
to pursue the 
duke to some city, 
and shut him up 


hanne f emperour wist wel bfel wille of his cun- They set out. 

* L J well furnished 

with provisions. 



They soon came 
to where the duke 

The duke sends to 

[FoL 21.] 

and challenge the 

The emperor tells 
William of this 

William says he 
hopes they will 
abate the duke's 

Both hosts pre- 
pare for the 

he di}t him deliuerly & dede him on gate 

holly wif al his herde fat he hade a-sembled. 1120 

& wel f ei were warnestured of viiayles i-now, 

plentiuosly for al peple to passe where f ei wold. 

& so harde f ei hi^ed fan i hote f e for sof e, 

fat al fe clene curapanye com to fe place 1124 

nei} fere as f e dou^ti duk duresse so wrou^t. 

to f e duk was it told tit * trewli f e sof e, 

how f emperour wif ost l ' f ider was come, 

to a-wreke him of f e wrong fat fan was wrou^t fere, 

& swife for bobaur^ce & bost burnes he sent 1129 

enuiously to f emperour & egged him swife 

bi a certayne day bataile to a- bide, 

or elles, he sent him to say schortely he wold 1132 

bruttene alle hise burnes & brenne his londes. 

f ise tyding were told to f emperour sone, 

& wi^tly whan he f anne wist willi^m he calle[d], 2 

fat 3ong bold bachiler & bliue him told 1136 

how despitously f e duk of fat dede him warned, 

to be boun be a certayne day batayle to holde. 

sir willmm ful wisly f ise wordes fanne seide, 

" sir, god for his grace graurct ^ou wel to spede, 1140 

to a-bate f e bost of fat breme duke. 

& so hope i wel, sire we schal atte best." 

ful menskfully to f e messangeres f emperour fan seide, 

he wold be boun blef eli f e bold batayle to hold, 1144 

& f ei bliue dude hem forf & f e duk tolde. 

fan bofe parties prestly a-paraylde hem fat time 

of alle tristy a-tir fat to batayle longed, 

& made hem alle merie in fe mene while, 1148 

til f e selue day fat was set sof ly was come, 

& bofe partyes here place pertiliche hade chosen 

In a ful fayre feld \feifly to telle. 

fanne busked fei here batayles on fe best wise, 1152 

1 MS. has a blank space between "ost" and " fider ;" see note. 

2 Read " called." M. 


& whanne f e renkes were arayed redly as f ei wold, 

bugles & bemes men gun blowe fast, S^tl 8 ^ 

& alle maner menstracie fere was mad f anne, blown. 

forto hardien fe hertes of here liei^h burnes. 1156 

panne bi-gan f e batayle breme for f e nones ; The batt1e begin3 - 

Mani strok in litel stourade * sternely was f er ^euen, 

& mani a bold burne sone brou^t of line. 

but schortly for to telle fe schap of fis tale, 1160 

be duk hade be doustiere me?* to deme be sof e, The duke>s men 

were most 

& mani mo jjan pemperour * & pei so manly fou^ten, numerous. 

fat balfully pe ferst batayle pel brutned to def e, 

& fai ful fast for fere gurcne fle fan fat mi^t ; 1164 

but be almaims seweden sadly * & slowe dourc rhtes. CFoi. 21 &.] 

The Almayns 

whan f emperour say fat si^t * his men so i-quelled, prevail against 

him was wonderli wo * witow for sof e. 

ful pitousli fan preiede he to fe prince of heuene 1168 

forto giif him grace his gomes to saue, 

& seide, " hei^h king of heuene for f i holy name, 

ne fauore nou$t so my [fo] [ fat falsly me so marres. 

for god what 2 , i na gult him neuer to gif lam enche- cause> 

soun 1172 

forto wirch me no wrong ne werre on my londe. 
& lord ! he is my lege man lelly f ou knowes, 
for holly f e londes fat he has * he holdes of mi-selue, 
f er-for f e wronger he wirches al f e world may know, 
for-fi a mynde on me, lord for fi moder loue, 1177 
help me haue f e herre hand her-affter in my ri^t ! " 

TTTilKcmi f e ^ong kni^t was so nei^h be-side, 

bat he herd be pytous pleint bat bemperour made, wmiam hears 

' him, and calls to 

& siked for sorwe fer-of * sore wif-alle. 1181 his men 
but quicly clepud he f e ^ong knifes alle, 
& seide, " leue lordinges lestenes to mi sawe ; 

nouj go we kife oure kni3thod -for cn'stes lone of p^te theS me to 

heuene, 1184 k i s hthood - 

1 Bead " my/<* that falsly." M. 8 8io. Eead " wot." 



William's fierce 

He slays six of 
the greatest with 
his own hand, 

including the 
duke's nephew 
and his steward. 
[Fol. 22.] 

The duke is mad 
with wrath, and 
points out 
William to his 

They rush oflf to 
attack William, 

who is at last 
overpowered and 

Lo, oure folk ginnep to falle * for defaute of help. 

lettes nou3t for 3oure liues 3our lord forto socoure, 

hasteli wip god hert nou3 hi3es 3ou to pe dede, 1187 

& ho-so failep for feyntyce * wild fur him for-brenne ! " 

pan wi3tly boute mo wordes wilk'am ginnes ride, 

fresly toward here fos * as frek out of witte ; 

pere pe pres was perelouste he pn'ked in formest, 

& blessed so wip his bri3t bront * a-boute in eche side, 

pat what rink so he rau3t * he ros neuer after. 1193 

& sopli forto seie * wip-inne a schort while, 

wilh'am wip his owne hond so wi3tliche pleide, 

pat he slow six of pe grettes[t] sop forto telle, 1196 

& pat dottiest were of dede of pe dukes ost. 

pat on was his neuew a nobul kni3t of armes, 

pat oper was his stiward pat s^tled al his meyne. 

pe optir were lordes of pat lond * lelly of pe best. 1200 

& whanne pe duk was Avar how willzam him demeyned, 

& how balfully he brutned Ips burnes to depe, 

& nameliche for his newe pat nam he most to herte, 

he wax nei3 ou3t of his witte for wrap & for anger, 

& clepud on his kni3tes pat kene were & nobul, 1205 

& seide, " lordinges, for my loue no lenger ne stintes, 

but chases pat kene knijt pat pis kare vs werches. 

Loo, how luperly pat lud leyes on oure burnes, 1208 

non may is sterne strok wipstande pat he hittes." 

pus despitusly fie duk drayed him panne, 

pat his kni3tes swipe swore * what [so] it bi-tidde, 

pei wold winne wilKam wijtly oper quik or dede. 1212 

pan ride to-gedere a gret route of rinkes ful nobul, 

& went euen to sir wilh'am & wonderli him bi-sette ; 

ac he wip dou3ti dentes defended him long, 

but, sopliche for to telle so was he ouer-macched, 1216 

pat pei wip fyn force for-barred his strokes, 

& wouradede him wikkedly & wonne him of his stede, 

& bounden him as bliue him bale to wirche, 

& drowen him toward pe duk his dom forto hero. 


but willmm whhes bat whtly of-sehyen, 1221 Butwmiam's 

men come to his 

& demened hem do^tili * dintes te dele, rescue, 

f e 3ong kene ki^tes so kudden here strengf e, 

fat fei wonne hem wijtly weyes ful large, 1224 

til fei hadde perced f e pres pertily to here maister, 

& rescuede him rediliche for ! rinkes fat him ladden. unbind him. 

fan fei him vnbond bliue & broi^t him his stede, 

& triliche was he a-tired in ful tristy armes ; 1228 

his scheld on his schulder a scharp swerd in honde. 

& whan f is wilKam was 3are he waited him a-boute, wmiam S renew8 '' 

lef erly as a lyoun he lepes in-to f e prese, the attack> f 

prestly fer as fe pres * of peple was fikkest. 1232 

f anne lente he swiche leuere to ledes fat he of- 


fat f e lif sone he les fat lau^t ani dint, 
& euer ban drow he to be duk deland swiche paye. i*i- 22 M 

cutting his way 

& as sone as he him seia he sesed a spere, 1236 through to the 


& dressed him to J>e duk presteli to iuste. 

& whan fe duk was war fat he wold come, encounters him 

boute feyntice of feuer 2 * he festned his spere, 

& grimly wif gret cours ei^fer gerdef ofer. 1240 

& wilK#m wif god wille so wel f e duk hitt, 

fat f urth scheld & scholder f e scharpe spere grint, 

& hetterly bof e hors & man he hurled to fa grouwle, wuiiam hurls 

fanne li^tlylep he a-doun & Iau3t out his brond, 1244 ground. 

& deliuerliche to f e duk deuoteliche he seide, 

"sire, fou seidest me 3er-while fou schuldest me do Sh^i^thank- 

o n P! 1 P ful for his wn 


& madest f i men me binde meschef to f ole ; 

but gretly y fonk god fat gart me a-chape, 1248 

& dede f e wante f i wille for fou wrong f outest. 

but, sire, in f e same seute sett artow nou^, 

& y am prest as f i prisou7^ to paye f e my ransum ! 

$eld fe to me ^eply or 3erne fou schalt deie, 1252 

Yor alle fe men vpon mold ne mow it now lette." mercy 

Head " fro." Eead " boute feyntice, on feuter " (?) 



The duke yields 
up his sword, and 
asks for mercy. 

William takes his 
sword, and takes 
him to the 

who embraces 
and kisses William 
for joy. 

Then William 
delivered the duke 
to the emperor. 

[FoL 23.] 

The duke's men 
fled away as fast 
as they could. 

The Romans 
pursued them, 
slaying and 
taking prisoners, 

so that very few 
of them got 

Night fell, and it 
grew very dark, 

and some got 
away in the 

T*e duk fan was in drede & wend to deie sone, 
- & lelly, f ou^h him lof f ou^t no lenger to striue, 
swife he jald vp his swerd to saue f anne his Hue, 1256 
& seide, " marc, for f i mensk haue mercy on me nouf e, 
lette me noujt lese f e liif jut lord, y f e bi-cheche." 
f anne will-tain witly as a wijh hende, 
receyued of fat riche duk * realy his swerde, 1260 

& euen to fempmnir wif him fan he hi^ed. 
wanne f emperour seijh wilh'am come & wif him f e 


he was on fe gladdest gome fat mijt go on erf e ; 
& willwtm f anne to welkome * he wendes him ajeynes, 
& clipte him kindeli & kest fele sifes. 1265 

fan wilh'am wijtly as he wel couf e, 
profered him fat prisoner prestely at his wille 
to do fan wif fe duk what him dere foujt. 1268 

f emperour fat worf i wilh'am wel oft fan f onked 
of f e grete grace fat god godliche fere schewede, 
& strokes was f er delt na mo fram f e duk was take. 
For al his folk fan gu/me fle as fast as fei mijt, 1272 
& he fat hadde best hors fan held him best saued. 
but f emperours men manly made f e chace, 
& slowen doun bi eche side wham fei of-take mijt, 
but jif fei manly hem meked mercy to crie. 1276 
& euer wilh'am so wijtly went hem a-mong 
to f e boldest burnes as he bi-fore hadde, 
fat sof ly dar y seie f urth his socour f anne, 
Bljt fewe went a-wey * vn-woundet or take. 1280 

ac hadde f e day last lenger lelli to seye, 
no wijt a-wei hadde schaped * i wot wel f e sof e. 
but f e ni3t was so neijh fat non rnijt sen of er 
fe furfe del of a furlong * from him fat time. 1284 
& in fat derk f e dukes [men] l wif -drow hem manie, 
& ho-so hardest mijt hije held him noujt bi-giled. 
f emperour 2 wif nioche merf e his men fan meled ; 
1 Bead " the dukes men." -M. 2 MS. " fempour." 


& whanne fei same/I were a-sembled sof for to telle, 
fei hadde take fat time of trie grete lordes 1289 

Fulle fiue hundered of ful nobul prisouns, 
wif-oute alle f e burnes fat in batayle deide. 
fan was f emperour greteli glad & ofte god f onked, 
& williams werk fat he so wel hadde spedde. 1293 
& holliche f anne wif his host hi^ede to here tentes 
wif merf e of alle menstracye & made hem attese, 
& turned to rest at time * til erliche a morwe. 1296 
& wanne fei were a-rise fei remewed to cherche, 
& herden holly here masse & afterward sone 
f emperour al holliche his cuwseyle dede clepe, 
& sone bi here a-sent at fat selue time, 1 300 

E^t as william wold fat wisly him radde, 
alle f e dou^thi lordes of f e dukis were take ; 
he dede fecche hem him bi-fore & freyned hem swif e, 
}if fei wold of him holly halde alle here londes. 1 304 
& fei graunted godli ful glad of fat sawe, 
& alle anon ri^tes fere omage him dede, 
& f emperour wel loueliche deliuered hefw] f enne, 
& sonte wif hem sondes to saxoyne fat time, 1308 
& nomen ornage in his name * nou^t forto layne, 
Forto ri^tleche fat reaurne real * of riche & of pore. 
whanne fat dede was do dernly at wille, 
and alle lele lawes in fat lond sette, 1312 

& alle f e peple held hem payed pes forto haue ; 
whanne f emperour it wist he was wel a-payed, 
& loueliche wif alle his lordes to lumbardie fares, 
wif alle f e merf e vpow molde fat man mi^t diuise ; 
but feifli his felachipe forf wif him he hadde. 1317 
f e dou^ty duk of saxoyne f e duel fat he made, 
for his peple was slayn & to prison take, 
& wist fan he hade wrongly wroi^t f u^th his pride ; 
& swiche duel drow to hert for his dedus ille, 1321 
fat he deide on f e fifte day to talke f e sof e. 
whanne f emperour fat wist * wi^tly he comanded, 


Five hundred had 
been taken, and 
many slain. 

The Romans 
retire to their 

Next morning, 
ttey go to church 
and hear mass. 

The prisoners are 
brought, and 
asked if they will 
submit to the 

LFoL 23 ftj 

They gladly do 
him homage, and 
are released. 

All being thus 
settled as 
regarded Saxony, 

the emperor 
marched to 

The duke of 
Saxony felt such 
grief for the 
wrong he had 

that he died on 
the fifth day. 



He is buried 

The emperor 
returns to Rome, 

fending mes- 
sengers before 
him to his 

greet Melior, and 
tell their 

[Fol. 24.] 
Melior asks if the 
enemy gave 
them much 

and they say, it 
was a very sharp 

The duke's 
numerous host 
would have 
prevailed, but for 
ihe succour of a 
certain knight, 

L e. William, the 
one but newly 

to burye him as out to be swiche a burne uobul, 

wif alle worchipe & wele j ' so was he sone. 1 1325 

fan remued f emperour toward rome euene, 

& wi^tly william wif him fat was wounded sore ; 

but lelly nobul leches * loked to his woundes, 1328 

fat seide he schuld be sauf * & sweteliche heled. 

messangers ful manly f emperour fanne sente, 

by-fore to his dere doubter to do hire to wite 

fat he come wif his companie as 2 crist wold, al saf. 

f e messangeres ful manly to meliors fanne spedde, 

& gretten hire godli whan fei fat gode seie, 1334 

& mynged here message to fat mayde hende, 

how kir fader in helf e horn wold come 

feifli wif-inne f e fourtene-ni^t wif his frekes bold. 

Gret merfe to fe messangeres meliors fan made, 1338 

for f e tidy tidinges fat ti^tly were seide. 

" nou3, faire frendes, be 3our feif fond 30 ani lette 

of segges of f e of er side fat sette 3ou a-geynes ? " 

" o madame ! " seide f e messageres " what mele 36 

nouf e 1 

sef f e crist deide on f e croyce mankinde to saue, 
30 ne herde neuer, y hope of so hard a cuwter, 1344 
ne of so fele burnes at on batayle slayne ! " 
" telles how 3ou tidde " seide meliors fanne. 
" Madame," seide f e messageres " be marie in heuen, 
f e duk hadde so gret an host of gode men of armes, 
fat sofli al oure side * sone slayn hadde bene, 1349 
nadde f e socour of o seg fat in oure side dwellef , 
fat ha]? lengf ed al oure [Hues] 3 leue 36 forsof e, 
Jmrth fe dou3ti dedes fat he haf do fere." 1352 

"swete sire, what is he ?" fat seide meliors sone. 
" I-wisse," he seide, " it is willmm fat is newe kni3ted, 
he may lelly be hold a lord & ledere of peples, 
Forto weld al fe world to wisse & to rede, 1356 

1 This line and the preceding one are transposed in the MS. 

2 MS. al." 3 Read " al oure Hues." M. Cf. 1. 1360. 


for per nis king vnder crist pat he ouer-com nolde. 

I-wisse, nade his werk be we mow nouat for-sake, But for him - the 

battle would Lave 

pi fader and al his folk so misfaren hadde, been lost. 

pat alle here Hues in a stounde hadde be lore." 1360 

panne told pei hire tijtly al pe trewe sope, 

at how miche meschef here men were formest, 

& sebbe how wiatly willmm went to here foos, But wuiiam 

attacked and took 

& dede deliuerly nym pe duk to talke pus formest ; the duke. 

& seppe pe grettesft] lordes he garte here liif 'tine, 1365 

& also pei told trewli how he was take him-selue, He was once 

taken himself, 

& reddely wib his owne rinkes rescued after : l butnis men 

rescued him. 

& seppe what dedes he dede he tok pe selue duk, 1368 

and brou^t purth is bolde dedes pe batayle to hende ; 

& sepen how be duk for duel * deyde in here ward, The duke had 

died of pure grief. 

& how al saxoyne was set wip wel sadde lawes, 

to wirche here faderes wille pur^th william dedes. 

& whan pis tale was told meliors tyt seide, 1373 

" leue lordinges, for my loue * lelly me telles, 

comes pat willmm wip my fader & weldes his hele ? " ghe [ ^ ? f 4 6>1 

" ^e sertes, madame," seide ]?ei " he sewes ^our fader ; ^ m ^ m h ^ e 

but wel weldes he nou3t his hele for wonded was he ^^ her father - 

sore, 1377 

J>at greiien him gretly but god may do bote." 
" For mary loue," seide meliors " mai he be heled ? " 
"^a certes, madame he is so sounde nowjje, 1380 They said he was 

Jjat he may redly ride & rome whan jjat him likes." and weii. though 

,._ .. he had been 

Meiiors to pe messageris ]>an made gret loye, wounded. 

for Jre tyding pat pei told touchend hire fader. 

but i hote pe, in hert sche hade swiche blisse, 1384 Meiior w very 

glad to hear of 

pat neuer wommaw in pis world * mi^t weld more, wniiam's doughty 

for hire louely lemmaw * hade swiche los wonne, 

to bere him best in pat batayle wip so breme dedus. 

panne made pei hem [merie] 2 to make schorttale, 1388 

1 The MS. has "rescued him after" ; but either wn> or him 
must be struck out. 

2 The alliteration would lead us to supply merie M. Sec 

1. 1409. 




After a week, the 
emperor arrives. 

Melior goes out to 
meet him, 

kissing her father, 
and William 

She whispered to 
William to come 
to her chamber. 

The Romans 
make great joy, 
only lament for 
their friends 


[Fol. 25.] 
William went to 
Melior when he 
saw opportunity. 

Alexandrine kept 
their counsel well. 

One Easter-tide, 
the emperor 
summons all his 
lords and ladies. 

soply al pat seueni^t ; & so, atte last, 

pemperour & alle peple * to his palays come ; 

Receyued was he of romaynes realy as lord. 

panne meliors ful mekly wip maydenes fele, 1 392 

ferde out a-^ens hire fader & faire him gret, 

& hire louely lemmaw lelly next after, 

& made hem as moche ioye * as mi^t any burde ; 

Kyndeliche clipping and kessing hire fader, 1396 

& wip a curteise cuwtenaunce * wilKam next after, 

for no seg pat it seye schuld schoche but gode. 

but pnueli un-perceyued sche praide wilKam panne, 

to seche softily to hire chaumber * as sone as he mi^t. 

& he bi quinte contenance * to come he granted, 1401 

for he ne durst openly for ouer-trowe of gile ; 

but wel sche knew purth konnyng at pat cas his wille. 

to long mater most it be to myng al pe ioye, 1404 

& pe real romayns array * foi here lordes sake, 

& pe mochel mornyng pei made for here frendes, 

whanne pei wist witterly whiche in batayle deyde. 

but confort for pe conquest pei caujt sone after, 1408 

& made hem as mery * as ani men coupe. 1 

& wilKam went to meliors whan he sei^ time, 

& layked him at likyng wip pat faire burde 

pleyes of paramo ws vn-parceyued longe time, 1412 

so sliliche, pat no seg * scouched non ille. 

but algate alysaundrine atte wille hem serued, 

pat non knew here cunseile but pei pre one. 

"Hut panne tidde on a time titly per-after, 1416 

' pemperour erded stille in rome at pe ester tide, 
& for pat solempne sesoura 2 dede somourc alle pe grete, 
of lordes & ladies pat to pat lond partened. 
and alle to his comandemewt comen ful sone, 1420 
& derly at pat day wip deynteyes were pei serued. 
as pei were meriest at mete to menge al pe sope, 

Catchword" & willtom." 

2 MS. "eofou. 1 


xxx busy burnes barounes ful bolde, As th y feasted, 

30 men came from 

comen in manly message * fro femperour of grece,, 1424 the emperor of 

& bi kinde of kostant-noble keper was f anne. 

f e messageres ri^t realy * were arayde, for sof e, 

al in glimerand gold gref and ! to ri^tes, a11 richl y attired 

It were tor for to telle al here atyr riche. 1428 

but euer to f emperour alle f ei ^ede in-fere, 

& kurtesliche vpora here knes * f ei komsed him grete 

Godli fro f emperour of grece & fro his gode sone. 

& f emperour ful semly seide to hem banne, 1432 The emperor 

1 greets them, and 

" he fat made man mest ^our Hues mot saue, asks their 

& alle ^oure clene cowpanie crist ^if hew ioye 

for J>e menskfulles[t] messageres * fat euer to me come ! " 

n of fe barons bold bi-guwne to schewe here nedes, 
fat was a gret lord in grece roachas he hi3t, 1437 

& seide soberly to bemperour * in bis selue wise. A great lord, 

named RoaChns, 

" Leue lord & hides lesten to mi sawes ! replies 

fe gode emperour of grece fe grettest of us alle, 1440 

whas messageres we be mad * to muwge 3011 his wille, 

sendes you to seie * he has a sone dere, ^ the em P eror 

J of Greece has a 

on f e triest man to-ward * of alle dou^ti dedes, d ar >n 

fat any man vpon molde * may of here, 1444 

fat schal be emperour after him of heritage bi kynde. 

& he haf oft herde sayd of ^oure semly doubter, emperor after 

how fair, how fetis sche is * how freli schapen ; 1447 

& for f e loos on hire is leide & loue of ^our-selue, 

he prayeth, lord, vowche-sauf * fat his sone hire wedde. JjJ^ wl j|^ 1 J > 

Grucche nou^t f er-a-gayn but godli, i rede, 

Graunte f is faire forward fulfillen in haste. 

& 3if ye so dof , i dar seie & sofliche do proue, 1452 

sche schal weld at wille more gold ban ae siluer : she ta *o have 

more gold than ye 

& haue n4o solempne cites and semliche casteles, havesUver. 

]>an 36 treuly han smale tounes o[r] vnty^di houses , sY+t* 
& herof, sire, \ri$t\y ' 3our wille wold we kuowe. 1450 

1 We ought probably to read greithed. M. 



AS the emperor's 

lords are all there, 

he can give his 

answer at once. 

He and his lords 

The marriage is 

to be made at 


The messengers 

return to Greece, 

loaded with gifts. 

The report of the 

marriage is 

spread through 


[Foi. 26.] 

and rode home, 

feeUng well-nigh 

He went to bed 

and fell sick. 

All who heard of 
it were much 

f e grete lordes of 3our land bef lenged now here, 

36 mow wi^tly now wite ^our wille & ^our rede, 

& wi^tly do vs to wite what answere $ou likes." 1459 

f emperour calde his curtseil for to knowe here wille, 

& godli boute grucching alle graunted sone, 

& setten a serteyne day fat solempte to holde ; 

& sad seurte was sikered on bof e sides f anne, 

fat menskful mariage to make at midesomer after. 1464 

sone were f e messagers made mildli at ese, 

while hem liked lende & lelly, whan f ei wente, 

Grete ^iftes were giue & of gold & of seluer, 

& fei wi3tly went horn wif ioye & wif merfe. 1468 

f e answere of here herend f emperour fei tolde ; 

Gret nmrf e was mad for fat message in rome, 

& f e word went wide * how f e mayde was 3eue 

rifliche furth-out rome & eche a rynk was blife 1472 

fat f e milde meliors so mariede scholde bene 

to f emperours eir of grece & euerich man wif ioye 

teld it forf til of er ti3tli al a-boute. 

but fe worfi willzctm * f er-of wist he nou3t, 1476 

For he was atte a bourdes * f er bachilers pleide. 

whanne f e tiding l was f er told witow forsof e, 

out of fat faire felachip ferde he fan sone 

as mekeli as he mi3t lest eni mysse trowede ; 1480 

but whan he was passed f e pres he pn'kede as swif e 

as he mi3t hi3e his hors * for hurtyng of spors ; 

for he schold lese his lemmarc his liif fan he hated. 1484 
wif care was he ouer-come bi fat he com to his inne, 
fat he for bale as bliue to his bed went, 
& siked fanne so sore fe sofe forto telle, 1487 

fat uch wi}h fat it wist wend he ne schuld keuer. 
& whan hit was wist in rome fat wilKam was sek, 
mochel was he mened * of more & of lasse ; 
for a beter bi-loued barn was neuer born in erf e, 
MS. "diting"; cf. 1. 1493. 



fan he was wif ich wi3t * wil he woned in rome. 1492 

f e tiding ]>an were ti^tly to f emperour i-told, 

& he fan swoned for sorwe & swelt nei^honde ; 

but kni^tes him vp cau}t * & comfort him beter. 

& whan he J)urth comfort was comen of his care, 1496 

he went wi^tli to wilKam to wite how he ferde, 

& kni^tes folwed him for]) fine of er sixe. 

anon as he com him to he asked how he ferd. 

"sire!" J>an seide he softly "certes, so ille. 1500 

f at i leue my lif last nou^t til to morwe. 

but god, sire, for his grete mi^t - graunt $ou ioye, 

for f e worchipe fat $e han wn^t to me $ore." 

whan f emperour hade herd holly his wordes, 1504 

& seie him so sekly * fat he ded semed, 

swiche sorwe sank to his hert fat mi^t he nou^t suffre 

f er to be, bot he mi^t his bale haue slaked ; 

of him wi^tly he tok his leue & went horn a-^eine, 

weping as he wold wide for wo & for sorwe, 1509 

& deliuerli to his doubter * his del fan he made, 

how william hire worf i nory was nei^e atte def e. 

& sche hire fader curafort * fast as sche imjt, 1512 

but worse was neuer womaw for wo at hire herte. 

as fast as hire fader was faren of J>e weie, 

sche wept & weiled as sche wold haue storue, 

& swoned ofte sijje her sche sese nn^t. 1516 

but alisandrine anon fat al hire cuwseile wist, 

comfort hire as sche coujje * wi)> alle kinde speches, 

& bad hire wi}tly wende * to wite how he ferde. 

" & sofliche, madame * so may hit bi-tide, 1520 

^our comfort mai him keuere * & his sorwe slake." 

fan meliors mekly hire maydenes dede calle, 

& many of hire meyne for drede of missespeche, 

& went ful wijtly to will[i]ams inne, 1524 

as nou^t were bot [to] wite how fat he ferde. 

& whan sche drow to his chauwber sche dede ful 

The emperor 
hears William in 
ill, and swoons 
for sorrow. 

He goes with five 
or six knights to 
ask him how he 

William thanks 
him for his 

The emperor sees 
he is almost dead, 

and returns home, 
and tells Melior. 

When her father 
had left her, she 
wept and wailed. 

[Pol. 26 M 

comforts her, and 
advises to go and 
see Wiluam. 

Melior, with 
many of her 
maidens, goes to 
William's abode. 




She and 
Alexandrine go 
into Iris chamber. 

She sits by his 
bed, and prays 
him to say what 
ails him. 

He greets her 

and asks why she 
has forsaken him. 

Yet he thanks her 
for coming to see 
him now. 

[Fol. 27.] 

Melior sighs sadly 
and weeps, 

arid assures him 
he has not 
lost her, for she 
will not perform 
her father's will. 

here inaydenes & of er meyne rnekeli a-stente, /)&$> 

al but alisaundrine * alone fei tweyne. 1528 

fei went in-to wilh'am wif-oute any more, 

& busked hem euen to Ms bed bi him gunne sitte, 

& seide sone softly " my swete lemmaro dere, 

allone but alisauwdrine am i come to fe 1532 

forto wite of f i wo & what fat f e eiles. 

Mi perles paramowrs l my pleye & my ioye, 

spek to me spakli or i spille sone." 

\I7illmm ti3tly him turned & of hire tok hede, 1536 

& seide aswif e " sweting, wel-come ! 
Mi derworf e derling an my dere hert, 
Mi blis & mi bale * fat botelesse wol ende ! 
but comliche creature for cristes loue of heuene, 1540 
for what maner misgelt * hastow me forsake, 
fat lelly haue f e loued & wile i Hue f enke ? 
feif H boute feintyse J>ou me failest nouf e, 
fat hast turned fin entent * forto take a-nofer. 1544 
Gret wrong hastou wrou^t & wel gret sinne, 
to do me swiche duresse to deye for f i sake. 
but loueliche lemmaw oure lord mot f e ^eld 
fat fi worfi wille was to come to me noufe ; 1548 
for J/ow hast lengf ed my lif & my langour schortet 
f urth f e solas & f e sijt of f e, my swete hert ! " 
& whan melior hadde herd * holly al his wille, 
sche siked sadly for sorwe * & wel sore wepte, 1552 
& seide, " loueliche lemmas * leue f ou for sof e, 
alle men vpon molde * no schuld my Hif saue, 
}if f ou wendest of f is world fat i ne wende after ! 
ne, lemmaw, lore hastow me nou3t leue f ow forsof e, 
for f ou^h mi fader folliche haue forwardes maked, 1557 
wenestow fat i wold his wille now parfourme ? 
nay, bi god fat me gaf fe gost and fe soule, 
al fat trauaile he has tynt what euer tyde after ! 1560 

1 MS. " paramo wrrs." 



for pere nis maw vpcw molde fat euer schal me haue 

but 36, loueliche lemman leue me for trewe, 

In feij) fei y schold f er-fore be fordon as swif e, 

doluen dep quic on erf e to-drawe or on-honged ! " 1564 

" 36, wist y fat," seide willmm " witterly to speke, 

of alle harmes were ich hoi * hastely ri^t nouf e ! " 

" 3is, be marie," seide meliors " misdrede 3ow neuer ; 

I wil fulfille alle forwardes leifli in dede ! " 1568 

fan was willmin ful glad l witow for sof e, 

& etyer kindeli clipped of er and kest wel ofte, 

& wrout elles here wille whil hem god liked. 

& treuly whan 2 time com fat f ei twynne scholde, 1572 

Meliors wif hire meyne * mekeliche horn wente ; 

wilh'am a stoiwde stinte stille at his owne inne, 

of alle his harde haches heled atte best. 

alle fe surgens of salerne so sone ne cofen 1576 

haue lesed his langour and his liif saued, 

as f e maide meliors * in a mile wei dede. 

f e word wide went sone fat willmm was heled, 

& vche gome was glad and oft god f onked, 1580 

& William on f e morwe * wel him a-tyred 

Gayli in clof es of gold 3 & of er gode harneis, 

& komes euen to kourt * as kni3t hoi & fere, 

heriend heiliche god fat his liif saued. 1584 

& sofli as sone as f emperour say him wif ei3en, 

he hi3ed him hastely & hent him in his, 

& clupte him & keste kyndeliche ful ofte, 

& fus fei left in likyng a god while after. 1588 

T>ut now more to minge * of f e messagers of grece. 

' as tyt as fei had told trewli to here lord, 
how realy fei were resceyued in rome f e riche, 
& fe gracious graunt fei gaten of here herande, 1592 
f emperour of grece gretly was gladed in herte. 
swif e sent he sondes to somoun fat time 

1 MS. "said." * MS. wahan." 3 MS. "glod." 

None shall ever 
have her but 

though she were 
buried alive, 
drawn, or hanged. 

She will never 
break her pledge. 

Then they kissed 
and comforted 
each other. 

Melior went 
home, and 
William was 

It is soon known 
that he is healed, 
and all men 
thank God. 

[Fol. 27 &.] 
The emperor is 
very glad, and 
embraces him. 

The messengers 
from Greece 
return, and report 
how well they 
were received. 



The emperor of 
Greece summons 
his lords, 

and they set off 
to ride to Rome. 

When they draw 
near Rome, 

the Roman 
emperor comes to 
meet them. 

The emperors 
embrace and 
greet each other. 

All ride to Rome, 
where they find 
flowers strewn, 
and rich hangings, 

[Fol. 28.] 
and hear 
minstrels and 

The Greeks are 
harboured in 
tents outside the 

alle f e grete of grece and of er gaie pepul, 

fat no mon vpow mold mi^t ayme f e noumber ; 

al jjat real aray * reken schold men neuer, 

ne purueaunce fat prest was to pepul a-grei]>ed, 

but so]> atte f e day set wif solempne merf e, 

f is gaye genge of grece * to rome gurane ride, 

& riden in real aray to-ward rome euene. 

forto reken al f e arai in rome fat time, 

alle f e men vporc mold ne mi3t hit deuice, 

so wel in alle wise was hit arayed, 

& plente of alle purueauwce * purueyed to ri^ttes. 

whan f emperour of grece neiyed nei^h rome, 

wij> alle his bolde burnes a-boute f re mile, 

f emperour of rome redeli romed him a-^ens, 

wij> f e clennest cumpanye fat euer king ladde. 

& whan f e clene cumpanyes comen to-gadere, 

f e si3t was ful semly and louely for to se, 

whan eif er of f emperoures er f ei wold stint, 

eif er of er keste kindeliche fat time, 

& sef f e f e same wif f e sone * also he wrou^t ; 

f e murf e of fat metyng no man may telle. 

Into rome al fat route * riden forf in-fere, /9 M^ r 

& eche a strete was striked & strawed wif floures, 

& realy railled wif wel riche clof es, 

& alle maner menstracie maked him a-^ens ; i t 

and also daunces disgisi redi di^t were, ,-> 1620 

& selcouf songes to solas here hertes ; 

so fat sof li to say f ei3h i sete euer, 

I schuld nou3t telle f e merf e fat maked was fere ; 

forfi to miwge of fat matere no more i ne fenk. 1624 

but alle f e genge of grece was gayli resseyued, 

& herbarwed hastely ich hete f e for sof e, 

In a place, f er were pi$t pauilounns & tentes, 

bi o side of fe cite * for swife moche pepul; 1628 

for f ei fat seie it forsof e saiden f e truf e, 

f e place of f e pauilons & of f e price tentes 









semede as moche to sht as be cite of rome. the tents 

covering as 

bemperour & eueriman * were esed to mttes, 1632 much ground as 

did Rome itself. 

& haden wi^tly at wille what fei wolde 3erne. 

but now a while wol i stinte of fis wlonke mwrf e, 1 fy*-M 

& muwge now of meliors fat blisful burde, 

& of f e worf i willmm fat was here lemmas dere, Meiior. 

& teUe J>e tale leUy what hem bitidde after. 1637 


TTThan f ese pepul was inned wel at here hese, 

" willmm wel wi3tli * wif-oute any fere, 
Mornyng out mesure to melior he wendes, 1640 

& siked ful sadli and seide to hire sone, 
" a ! worf iliche wi^t wel wo is me nouf e ! 
f ur^th destine my def is di^t dere, for f i sake ! 
I may banne fat i was born to a-bide f is time, 1 644 
forto lese f e lef fat al mi liif weldes. 
foule f ow me fodest wif f i faire wordes, 
elles had i deide for duel many dai sef f e, 
& so god for his grace goue y hadde ! " 1648 

Meliors seide mekli " whi so, mi dere hert 1 
forwardes fat i haue fest ful wel schal i hold, 
I hope to f e hei^h king fat al heuen weldes. 
fer-for stint of fi striif & stodie we a-nofer, 1652 
what wise we mow best buske of f is lond." 
whan he [wist] f ese wordes * wilKam wel liked, 
seide, " mi hony, mi hert al hoi f ou me makest, 
wif fi kinde cumfort of alle mi kares kold." 1656 
fan studied f ei a gret stourcde stifli to-gadere, 
bi what wise f ei mi^t best buske of fat f ede, 
priueli vnperceyued * for peynes fat hem tidde ; 
al in wast f ei wrou^t here witte wold nou^t seme, 
alisauftdrine to curcseile * fei clepud sone fanne, 1661 
& telden hire trewli what tent fei were inne, 
}if fei wist in what wise to wende of fat londe, 
& preyed hire par charite and for profites loue, 1664 

William goes to 
Melior, and 
sighing eays, 

"Now must I die 
for thy sake ; 

and I would I 
were dead 
indeed ! " 

Melior assures 
him she will keep 
her troth, and 
they must devise 
a plan of escape. 

[Fol. 28 6J 

They strive in 
vain to think of 
some way of 

They therefore 
ask Alexandrine 
her advice. 

MS. "miTj>e." 



She answers, 
weeping, that she 
can think of no 
way at all; 

for the cry would 
soon be raised, 
and every pass 

They would soon 
be found out if 
disguised ; the 
only way is this. 

The men in the 
kitchen are 
always flaying 

Of all beasts, 
bears seem the 
most grisly. 

[Fol. 29.J 
None would know 
them if they / 
were wrapped up 
in white bears' C 

They thank her 
tor her counsel, 
and beg her to 
get the skins. 

to kenne hem sum coyntice * }if sche any couf e, 

to wisse hem forto wend a-wey vnperceyued. 

alisauwdrine a-non answered fan and seide, 

wepand wonderli fast for fei wende wold, 1668 

" bi fat blisful barn * fat bou^t us on f e rode, 

I kan bi no coyntyse knowe nou$ f e best, 

how ^e mowe un-hent or harmles a-schape. 

for be hit witerly wist fat [30] l a- went bene, 1672 

eche a kuntre worf kept wif kud men i-nou^e, 

eche brug, eche payf e 2 eche brode weye, 

fat nof er clerk nor kni3t nor of cuwtre cherle 

schal passe vnperceyued & pertiliche of-sou^t. 1676 

& $ef 30 were disgised & di3t on any wise, 

I wot wel witerli 30 wold be aspied. 

sef f e no nof er nel be but nedes to wende, 

craftier skil kan i non * fan i wol kufe. 1680 

In f e kechene wel i knowe * arn crafti men manye, 

fat fast fonden alday to flen wilde bestes, 

hyndes & hertes wif hydes wel fayre, 

bukkes and beris * and ofer bestes wilde, 1684 

of alle fair venorye fat falles to metes. 

ac f e bremest best f e beres me semen, 

f e gon most grisli to eche gomes si^t ; 

Mi3t we by coyntise * com bi tvo skynnes, 1688 

of f e breme beres & bi-sowe 3ou f er-inne, 

f er is no liuawd lud i-liue 3ou knowe schold, 

but hold 3ou ou3t of heie gates for happes, i rede. 

rediliche no better red be resun i ne knowe, 1692 

fan to swiche a bold beste best to be disgised, 

for f ei be alle maners arn man likkest." 

fan willz'am ful wif tli & his worf i burde 

ful froly hire fonked many fousand sife 1696 

of hire crafty CUT? say 1 & kindliche hire bi-sou3t, 

wi3tly wif sum wyl winne hem tvo skinnes 

of f o breme bestes fat beres ben called, 

1 Read " that ze a went bene." M. 2 Or " pafjrc." 



pryuely vnperceyued * for peril fat may falle. 
& alisaiwdrine a-non as an hende mayde, 
seide sche wold deliuerly do f er-to hire n^t, 
Forto sane hem fro sorwe hir-self forto deye. 


She says she 
will try. 

TTTi^tly boute mo wordes sche went fo[r]f stille, 1704 

' & bliue in a bourde borwed boi^es clones, 
& talliche hire a-tyred ti3tli f er-inne, 
& bogeysliche as a boye busked to f e kychene, 
fer as burnes were busy * bestes to hulde ; J^^/j 1708 
& manly sche melled hire * f o men forto help, 
til sche say tidi time hire prey for to take, 
sche a-wayted wel f e white bere skinnes, 
fat loueli were & large * to lappen inne hire frendes, 
& went wi^tly a-wei * wel vnparceyued, 1713 

& lepef f er-wif to hire lady & hire lemmaw dere, 
seide softily, " now sef * how sone i haue spedde *! " 
& fei ful glad of f e gere gretly here fonked, 1716 
& preiede here ful presteli to put hem f er-inne, 
so semli fat no seg mi^t se here clof es. 
& sche melled hire meliors ferst to greif e, 
& festened hire in fat fel * wif ful gode fonges 1720 
aboue hire trie a-tir to talke f e sof e, 
fat no man vpow mold nn^t of er perceyue 
but sche a bere were * to baite at a stake ; 
so iustislich eche lif ioyned * bi ihesu of heuen. 1724 
whan sche in fat tyr * was tiffed as sche schold, 
Meliors in here merf e to hire maiden seide, 

1" Leue alisauwdrine, for mi loue how likes f e nowf e ? 
am i nou3t a bold best >a bere wel to seme ? " 1728 
" $is, madame," seide f e mayde " be marie of heuene, 
; ^e arn so grisli a gost a gom on to loke, 
fat i nold for al f e god fat euer god made, 
i abide }ou in a brod weie bi a large mile ; 1732 

' so breme a wilde bere 36 bi-seme nowf e." 
alisatiTidrine f anne anon after fat ilk, 

She dresses herself 
in boy's clothes. 

and helps the men 
in the kitchen. 

She makes off 
with the two 
skins, and goes to 
William and 

They beg her to 
sew them up. 

She fastens Melior 
up in one with 
good th njrs, 
clothes and all. 

[Po:. 29 '/.] 
Melior asks her if 
she does not make 
a bold bear? 

"Yes, madame, 
you are a grisly 
ghost enough, and 
look furious." 




Then she laces up 
William in the 
other skin ; 

who, when sewn 
up, asks Melior 
what she thinks 
of him? 

" I am quite 
frightened at so 
hideous a sight." 

William proposes 
that they start at 

Alexandrine lets 
them out by a 

She prays that 
they may be 
preserved from 
all peril. 

[Fol. 30.] 

I must now tell 
you about the two 
white bears. 

In fat of er bere-skyn be-wrapped wilh'am f anne, 

& laced wel eche leme wif lastend f onges, 1 736 

craftili a-boue his clof es fat comly were & riche. 

& whan he was sowed as he schold bene, 

willzam ful merili to meliors fan he seide, 

" sei me, loueli lemmas how likes f e me nowf 6?" 1740 

" bi marie, sire," seide meliors " f e milde quen of 


so breme a bere 30 be-seme * a burn on to loke, 
fat icham a-grise bi god fat me made, 
to se so hidous a si^t of youre semli face ! " 1744 
fan seide wilKam wi^tli "my derworfe herte, 
to hei3 vs hastily henne ich hope be f e best, 
euenly fis euen while or men to mochel walk." 
& 3he to worche as he wold wi^tli fan grauwted. 174& 
alisauwdrine sone as sche saw hem founding, 
wept as sche wold a-wede for wo & for sorwe, 
but naf eles as bliue sche bro^t hem on weie 
priuely be fe posterne of fat perles erber, 1752 

fat was to meliors chauraber choisli a-ioyned. 
& alisauwdrine as sone as f ei schuld de-parte, 
swoned fele sif e & sef f en whan sche mi^t, 
preide ful pituosli to fe prince of heuene 1756 

to loke fro alle langour f o louely makes, 
fat put hem for paramours in perriles so grete ; 
& sof li forto say a-sunder f ann f ei went, 
alisauwdrine anon attelede to hire boure, 1760 

& morned nei^h for mad * for meliors hire ladi. 
More to telle of hire f is time trewly i leue, 
telle i wil of f e beres * what hem tidde after. 

William & fe mayde fat were white beres, 1764 

gon forf fur^th fe gardin a wel god spede, 
Fersly on here foure fet as fel for swiche bestes. 

~= MVJ ^ cu . 
garden on aii 

aoroek, who had fan 3ede a grom of grece in f e gardyn to pleie, 

it, to bi-hold ]je estres * & fe herberes so faire, 




&, or he wiste, he was war of f e white beres, 

f ei went a-wai a wallop as f ei wod semed. 

& nei$ wod of his witt he wax nei} for drede, 

& fled as fast homward as fet mi^t drie, 1772 

for he wend witterly * f ei wold him haue sewed, 

to haue mad of him mete & mwrf ered him to def e. 

whanne he his felawes fouwde of his fare ])ei wondred, 

whi he was in fat wise wexen so maat, 1776 

& he hem told ti^tly whiche tvo white beres 

hadde gon in f e gardyn & him agast maked, 

for he wende witerli f ei wold him haue slawe, 

" but f ei seie me now$t ' sofli i hope, 1780 

to me tended f ei nou^t but tok forf here wey 

wilfulli to sum wildernesse where as f ei bredde." 

f anne were his felawes fain * for he was adradde, 

& la^eden of fat gode layk ; of hem ich leve nouf e, 

to telle for]) what tidde of fe beres after. 1785 

nou} fro f e gardin * J>ei gon a god spede 

toward a fair forest fast f er bi-side. 

whiluw f ei went on alle four * as do]) wilde bestes, 

& whan fei wery were J)ei went vp-ri^ttes. 1789 

so went ])ei in ])at wildernesse * al J)at long ni3t, 

til it dawed to day & sunne to vp-rise, 

Jjei drow hem to a dern den for drede to be sei^en, 

& hedde hem vnder an holw hok was an huge denne, 

as it fel a faire hap fei fond ])er-on to rest. 

Fer it was fro wei^es & of wode so J>ikke, 

fat no wi$t of J)e world wold hem J)ere seche, 1796 

& })ei for-waked were weri * wittow for sof e. 

& hi^liche })ei heriede god of fat hap fallen, 

fat had hem di^t swiche a den dernly on to rest. 

fen seide wilh'am soberli to meliors so hende, 1800 

" a ! my loueliche lemmara our lord now vs help, 

he fat was in bedleem born & bou^t vs on f e rode, 

schilde us fram scljenchip & schame in f is erf e, 

& wisse vs in what wise to winne vs sum mete ; 1804 

perceived them 
galloping along. 

He fled home in 
ertreme fear. 

His fellows asked 
him what ailed 

He said he had 
seen two white 
bears in the 

which, fortu- 
nately, did not 
perceive him. 

The two bears 
went to a fair 

going on all night 
till the sun rose. 

In the day time 
they hid them- 
selves in a den. 

[Fol. 30 b.} 

They were very 
weary, and praised 
God for their good 

Then said 
William, "God 
preserve us, and 
teach us how to 
get some meat. * 


Mclior says they 
can easily live on 

and bullaces and 

and haws, hips, 
acorns, and hazel- 

William says she 
is not used to 
such hard fare. 

He had better go 
and see if he can 
find any churl or 
child with meat 
or drink. 

" Nay," said she, 
"for the loser will 
raise the cry, and 
tell it in Rome. 

[Fol. 31.] 
Better to live 
upon fruit." 

They rested in the 
den all that day. 

I must now tell 
sibout the 

For, dere lef, i drede we schul deie for hunger." 

soburli seide meliors "sire, leues youre wordes, 

we schul Hue bi oure loue lelli atte best ; 

& Jrarjth fe grace of god gete vs sumwat elles, 1808 

bolaces & blake-beries fat on breres growen, 

so fat for hunger i hope harm schul we neuer ; 

hawes, hepus, & hakernes & f>e hasel-notes, 

& ofer frut to fe fulle fat in forest growen ; 1812 

I seie $ou, sire, bi mi liif f is liif so me likes." 

" nay, i-wisse," seid wilKam * " mi worf liche herte, 

better be-houis it to be or baleful were J?i happes ; 

For here-to-fore of hardnesse hadestow neuer, 1816 

but were brou^t forf in blisse as swiche a burde ou3t, 

wif alle maner gode metes ; & to misse hem nowf e, 

It were a botles bale but beter haue i ment. 

I wol wend to sum weie onwhar here nere, 1820 

& waite ^if any wei^h comes wending alone, 

ofer cherl ofer child fro chepinge or feyre, 

fat beris out him a-boute bred ofer drinke, 

& redeli i wol it reue & come a-^ein swife, 1824 

ofer coyntyse know i non to kepe wif our Hues." 

" nay, sire," sche seide " so schul $e nou$t worche ; 

For f ei fat misseden here mete wold make gret noyse, 

& record it redeH in rome al a-boute, 1828 

so )>at we mi^t f ur^th hap * haue harm in fat wise. 

f er-for is fairer we be stille & bi frut to Hue, 

fat we finde in wodes as we wende a-boute." 

& bofe fan as bliue a-sented bi a stounde, 1832 

& kindeli eche oj?er dipt and kessed ful oft, 

& darkeden fere in fat den al fat day longe, 

slepten wel swetly samli to-gadere, 

& wrou^t elles here wille; * leef we now here, 1836 

& a while to f e werwolf i wol a-^en turne, 

fat f e tale touchef as tellef f is sof e. 

f e self nijt fat wilk'am went wif his leef dere, 

fe werwolf, as god wold wist alle here happes, 1840 



& J?e fortune fat wold falle for here dedes after. 

whan f ei went in fat wise wi3tli he hem folwes, 

Ful bliue hem bi-hinde but f ei nou^t wist. 

& whan f e werwolf wist where fei wold rest, 1844 

he herd how hard for hunger fei hem pleyned, 

& go]? him to a gret hei3-waye a wel god spede, 

3if he mi^t mete any man mete of to winne. 

fan fel f e chaunce fat a cherl fro cheping-ward com, 

& bar bred in a bagge and fair bouf wel sode. 1849 

f e werwolf ful wi^tli went to him euene, 

wif a rude roring * as he him rende wold, 

& braid him doun be fe brest bolstra^t to fe erfe. 1 

fe cherl wende ful wel haue went to defe, 1853 

& harde wif herte * to god f anne he prayde, 

to a-schape schafles fram fat schamful best. 

he brak vp fro fat beste & bi-gan to flene 185G 

as hard has he mi^t his liif for to saue. 

his bag wif his bilfodur wif f e best he lafte, 

glad was, he was gon wif-oute gretter harmes. 

f e werwolf was glad he hade wonne mete, 1860 

& went wi^tli f er-wif f er as wilU'am rested, 

be-fore him & his burde f e bagge f er he leide, 

& busked him bliue a-^ein boute more wordes, 

For he wist ful wel of what fei nede hadde. 1864 

He knew all their 
fortunes, and 
followed them all 
the way. 

Knowing their 
hunger, he goes to 

where he saw a 
man with somo 
bread in a bag 
and some boiled 

He rushes on 
him, roaring, and 
frightens the man 

who broke away 
and fled for his 
life, glad to get off. 

The werwolf goes 
off with the meat, 
and lays it before 
William, and 
runs away. 

"TTTilKam f o wondred moche of fat wilde best, 

what he brou^t in f e bag & wold nou3t a-bide. 
he braide to him f e bagge & bliue it opened, 
& fond fe bred & fe bouf * blife was he fanne, 1868 
& mekli to meliors " mi swete hert," he saide, 
" loo ! whiche a gret grace god haf vs schewed ! 
he wot wel of our werk & wel is apai3ed, 
fat he sendef f us his sond to socour vs atte nede, 
so wonder a wilde best * fat weldes no mynde. 1873 
swiche a wonder i-wisse was i-seie neuer, 

[Fol. 31 b.] 

William opens the 
bag, and finds the 
bread and beef, 

" See what grace 
God has shewn us! 

Such a wonder 
was never seen.' 

1 MS. 



44 1 would not that 
our work were 
undone," said 

They ate it gladly 
without any salt 
or sauce. 

But the werwolf 
knew what more 
they wanted. 

He finds a man 
with two flagons 
of wine. 

The man, seeing 
the werwolf 
coming, lets them 
fall and flees 

The werwolf 
seizes them and 

[Fol. 32.] 
takes them to 
William, and 
goes off. 

William and 
Melior are 
blithe because of 
the beast's help. 

They ate and 
drank their fill, 

to herien god hei^li alden ar we bofe." 

" bi marie," seid meliors " 30 mi^gef )>e sofe ; 1876 

for al f e world i nold our werk were vndone." 

wilh'am wel mekli f e mete out takes, 

seid, " lemmaw, lef liif of fat our lord vs sendes, 

Make we vs merie for mete haue we at wille." 1880 

f ei ete at here ese as f ei mi^t f anne, 

boute salt of er sauce or any semli drynk, 

hunger hadde hem hold f ei held hem a-paied. 

but white wel, f e werwolf wist what hem failed ; 1884 

he went to an hei} weie * to whayte sum happes. 

fan bi-tid fat time to telle f e sof e, 

fat a clerk of f e cuntre com toward rome 

wif tvo flaketes ful * of ful fine wynes, 1888 

bou^t were for a burgeis * of a borwe bi-side. 

f e werwolf him awayted & went to him euene, 

bellyng as a bole fat burnes wold spille. 

whan fe clerk saw him come for care & for drede, 1 

fe flagetes he let falle & gan to fle 3erne, 1893 

f e Ii3tliere to lepe * his liif for to saue. 

f e werwolf of f e clerkes werk * was wonder blif e, 

& flei to fe flagetes & swife hem vp hentes, 1896 

& wendes euen to wilKam a wel god spede, 

& to meliors his make and mildeliche f anne 

f e flagetes hem bi-for faire doura he settes, 

& went wi^tli a-wei wif -out eni more. 1900 

willmm & his worf i wenche fan were blif e 

of f e help fat f ei hade of f is wild best, 

& preid f ei ful pn'ueli to f e prmce of heuene, 

saue fe best fro sorwe ; fat so wel hem helped. 1904 

fei made hem f an mirie * on alle maner wise, 

eten at al here ese & afterward dronken, 

& solaced hem same/a til hem slepe lust. 

fan eif er lapped ofer ful loueli in armes, 1908 

& here drede & here doel deliuerli for-^eten, 

1 MS. " dredre." See 1. 1909. 



& slepten so swetli in here semly denne, 
til it wax so nei^li ni^t fat nerre it no mijt. 
fan a- waked f ei wi^tli & went on here gate, 
faire on f er tvo fet f ei ferde vp-on ni^tes, 
but whan it drow to f e dai f ei ferde as bestes, 
ferd on here foure fet in fourme of tvo beres ; 
and euer f e werwolf ful wijtly hem folwed, 
fat will/am ne wist hendeli hem bi-hinde ; 
"but whan f ei were loged where hem best liked, 
Mete & al maner f ing fat hem mister neded, 
f e werwolf hem wan & wi^tli hem bro^t. 
fan f ei lade f is liif a ful long while, 
cairende ouer cuntreis ' as here cas ferde. 
Leue we now f is lesson & here we a-nof er ; 
to hem a^eyn can i turne whan it time falles. 
I wol minge of a mater i mennede of bi-fore, 
of f e reaute a-raied in rome for here sake, 
& of f e worf i wedding was bi-fore graunted 
bi-twene f e meyde meliors & f e prince of grece ; 
now listenes, lef lordes f is lessourc ]?us i ginne. 

and then slept 
till night-time. 

1912 By night they 

went on two feet, 
but by day on all 

1916 the werwolf 

who procured 
them all they 
1920 wanted. 



I must now tell 
of the wedding 
that was to have 
been between 
Melior and the 
prince of Greece. 
[Fol. 32 &.] 

ll/Tanly, on f e morwe fat mariage schuld bene, 

-L'-*- f e real emperours a-risen & richeli hem greijjed, 

wij? alle worfi wedes J?at wi3hes were schold. 1932 

no man vporc molde schuld mow deuise 

men richlier a-raid to rekene alle finges, 

]>an eche rink was in rome to richesse ]?at Jjei hadde ; 

fe grete after here degre in fe gaiest wise, 1936 

& menere men as fei mijt to minge ]je sofe. 

])e sesoun was semly j?e suwne schined faire ; 

)>empe?*our of grece * & alle his gomes riche 

hi^ed hem to here hors hastili and sone ; 1940 

but for [to] telle J?e a-tiryng of fat child fat time, 

fat al fat real route were araied fore, 

he fat wende haue be wedded to meliors fat time, 

It wold lengef fis lessoiw a ful long while. 1944 

The emperors 
put on their 
richest clothes. 

All were arrayed 
in the gayest 

The Greek 
emperor and his 
men mounted 
their horses. 

The attire of his 
son would take 
too long to 



The Roman 
knights numbered 

The minstrelsy 
and revels begin. 

All gO tO St 

Peter's church, 
where the pope, 
cardinals, and 
bishops were 

[FoL 33.] 

They wait for 


The Roman 
emperor wondered 
where his 
daughter was. 

He sends a baron 
to her chamber, 

who finds no one 

The emperor, at 
hearing this, 
goes himself, 

drives at the door 
like a devil, and 

Hi I OUtS OUt. 

but sof li for to seie so wel ] was he greif ed, 

fat amendid in no maner ne mi^t it haue bene. 

& whan f e gomes of grece were alle to horse, 

araied wel redi, of romayns to rekkene f e numbis, 

treuli twenti fousand a- tired atte best, 1949 

alle on stalworf stedes stoutliche i-horsed. 

alle maner of menstracye * maked was sone, 

& alle merfe fat any man euer mi^t deuise ; 1952 

and alle real reueles rinkes rif bi-gunne, 

Eidende f urth rome to rekene f e sofe, 

Ei^t to f e chef cherch fat chosen is ^utte, 

& clepud f urth cmtendom f e cherche of seynt petyr. 

f e p[ope] 2 wif many prelates was purueyd to ri^tes, 

wif cardenales & bischopus & abbotes fele, 1958 

alle richeli reuested fat reaute to holde, 

wif worchep of fat wedding fat f ei wende haue. 

f e gryffouras fan gayli gonne stint atte cherche, 

fe bri3t burde meliors to abide fere. 1962 

f emperour of rome f amie was rede ^are, 

& alle f e best barounes & boldest of his reaume. 

f emperour wax a-wondred wite 36 for sofe, 1965 

whi his doubter fat day dwelled so longe, 

sef f e f e gomes of grece were gon to cherche. 

fan bad he a barourc buske to hire chaumber, 1968 

to hi^en hire hastily to him for to come, 

& wi3tli he wendes * wite 30 for sofe. 

he fond fere burde no barn in fat bour f anne, 

for no coyntise fat he coufe to carp him a3ens ; 1972 

& he Ii3tli a3en lepes & f e lord so telles. 

f emperour whan he it wist wod wax he nere, 

& went him-self in wraf e * to fat worf ies chaumber, 

& driues in at fat dore as a deuel of helle. 1976 

he gan to clepe & crie & gan to kurse fast ; 

"where dwelle 36, a deuel wai 36 damiseles, so long? '* 

1 MS. repeat* " wel." 

8 This word is purposely erased ; part of the p can be traced. 



Alexandrine is 
terrified, and 
oasts about for an 

alisaimdrine as sone as sche him fere herde, 

was delfulli a-drad fe def for to suffre, 1980 

ac bi a coynt co?7ipaceme^t caste sche sone, 

how bold }he mi^t hire bere hire best to excuse, 

fat f emperour ne schuld souche jja ^he absent were, 

fat his doubter wif wilh'am was went away f anne. 

boldli wif milde mod ^he buskes of hire chauraber, 

& kom ketly to fempe?'our * & kurteisly him gret, 1986 she battens to 

D i ,,-,..,, . ., , , him, greets him, 

& what fat his wille were wijtly fan asked, and asks his wm. 

& he seide ful sone * " sertes, ich haue wonder 

where my doubter to-day dwelles bus longe 1 H " wants to 

know where his 

for al fe pepul is parayled & passed to cherche. 1990 daughter is. 

I haue sent hire to seche sef J>e a gret while, 

ac no frek mai hire finde * f er-fore i am tened." 

alisauwdrine a-non answered f anne & seide, 

" to blame, sire, ar f o burnes fat so blef eli gabbe ; 

For my lady lis 3 it a-slape lelly, as i trowe." 1995 

" Go wi^tly," seide f emperour " and a-wake hire 3erne, 

bid hire busk of hire bed & bliue be a-tyrid." 

" I dar nou^t, for sof e " * seide alisaimdrine f anne ; 

" wif me sche is wrof * god wot, for litel gilt." 1999 

" whi so ? " saide f emperour " saie me nou^ bliue ! " 

" Ful gladli, sire," sche seide " bi god fat me made, 

$if 36 no wold be wrof whan 36 f e sof e wist." 

''nay, certes," seide femperour* "f er-fore seieonsone." 

alissau/idrine fan anon after fat ilke, 2004 

seide ful sobeiii sore a-drad in herte, 

" sire, for sof e, i am hold to saie ^ou f e treufe ; 

Mi ladi made me to-nijt long wif hire to wake 

boute burde or barn bot our selue tweie. 2008 

f anne told sche me a tiding teld was hire to-fore, 

of on fat knew f e kostome of f e cuwtre of grece, 

fat eue?ich gome of grece as of grete lordes, 

whan f ei wedded a wiif were 3he neuer so nobul, 2012 

of emperours or kinges come & come into grece, 

sche chold sone be bi-schet here-selue al-one, 

She says she is 
still asleep. 
[FoL 33 6.] 

" Wake her, then* 
and tell her to 

She says she dares 
not, and he asks 

She says, "Melior 
made me watch 
all night with 

and told me 
she had heard it 
was a custom in 



to shut up a bride 
in a tower by 

Wherefore she 
declared she 
would never be 
married to a 

She also told me 
another tale that 
sorely grieved me. 

[Fol. 34.] 

She said she had 
given her love to 
another, who was 
very bold and 

that worthy 
William who 
fought so well 
for you. 

J told her I should 
tell you of it. 

She sent me out 
<>f her chamber, 
and I have not 
neen her since. 

I dure not go to 
ier again." 

In a ful tristy tour timbred for f e nones, 
& Hue f er in langour * al hire lif-time, 2016" 

neuer to weld of worldes merf e * f e worf of a mite. 
)>er-fore for sof e * gret sorwe sche made, 
& swor for pat sake to suffur alle peynes, 
to be honget on hei} * or wif horse to-drawe, 2020 
sche wold neuer be wedded to no wi^h of grece. 
hire were leuer be weded to a wel simplere, 
fere sche rnijt lede hire lif in liking & murf e. 
& also, sire, sertaynly * to seie f e treuf e, 2024 

sche told me a-nof er tale fat me tened sarre, 
wher-fore i wan hire wraf er we departed." 
" warfore ? " seide f emperour " seye me now ^erne." 
" For sof e, sire," qua]) alisaur^drine * " to saue 30111 
mensk, 2028 

I wol 3ow telle tijtly * what turn sche as wrou^t. 
sche clepud me to curcseil whan sche f is case wist 
fat sche schold be wedded & seide me f anne, 
sche hadde leid hire loue fer hire beter liked, 2032: 
on on f e boldest barn fat euer bi-strod stede, 
& f e fairest on face and i freyned is name. 
& sche me seide chortly f e sof e to knowe, 
It was fat worfi wilUYzm fat wi^es so louen, 2036> 
& fat brou^t 3ou out of bale wif his cler strengf e. 
& whan i wist of f is werk wite 36 for sof e, 
It mislikede me mochel mi3t no man me blame, 
& manly in my maner missaide hire as i dorst, 2040 
& warned hire wi^tly * wif -oute disseyte, 
I wold alle hire werk * do 3ou wite sone. 
& whan sche fat wist for wraf al so 3ern, 
sche dede me deliuerly deuoyde f er hire chauraber, 
& het me neuer so hardi be in hire si^t to come. 2045* 
& i busked of hire hour sche barred hit sone, 
& sef f e saw i hire nou^t ' sire, bi my treuf e. 
I ne dar for drede no more to hire drawe, 2048 

J>er-for, sire, 3our-self softili hire a-wakes, 



& fodes hire wif faire wordcs for ^our owne menske, 
til ]>is mariage be mad & wij) murfe ended." 


han bemperour had herd * holly bise wordes, 2052 The emperor at 

this was mad 

he wax nei}!! out of wit for wraf fat time, with grief, 

& for dol a-dotef & dof him to hire chaumber, 

& busked euene to hire bed but l nof ing he no fond, 

wif -inne hire comly cortynes but hire clof es warme. 

wi}tly as a wod man fe windowe he opened, 2057 

& sou^t sadli al a-boute his semliche doubter, 

but al wrou^t in wast for went was fat mayde. 

& whanne he mijt in no manere meliors f er finde, 

he deraied him as a deuel & dede him out a-^eine, 

& asked of alisauwdrine * anon after f anne, 2062 

" f ou damisele, deliuerli * do telle me now ^erne, 

whider is mi doubter went }he nis nou^t in bedde." 

alisauwdrine for fat cas was sorwful in herte, 2065 

& seide, " sire, i sei} hire nou}t sef hie} midni^t, 

I wene sche went to will-tarn * for wraf of my sawe, 

sendef swifteli f edir * to scheche hire at is inne. 2068 

& jif wilKam be nou^t went witef 36 forsof e, 

Mi ladi for ani lore lengef in f is cite jut. 

& }if wilKam be went * neuer leue 30 of er, 

Mi ladi lengef him wif for lif or for dede." 2072 

f emperour for treie & tene as a tyrauwt ferde, 

wax ney wod of his witte & wrof liche seide, Jf-'^tJ 

" a ! has fat vntrewe treytour traysted me noufe, / "Ah|" 

For f e welf e & welfare * i haue him wrou^t fore, 2076 

& fostered fro a fundeling to f e worf iest of mi lond ? 

& for his dedes to-day i am vndo for euer ; 

eche frek for f is fare false wol me hold, 

& J?e grewes for gremf e ginnef on me werre, 

& eche wei}h schal wite * f at f e wrong is myne. 

f er-fore bi grete god * }>at gart me be fourmed, 

& bitterly wif his blod bou^t me on f e rode, 

and went to 
Melior's bed, but 
found only the 
warm bed-clothes. 

[Fol. 34 6.J 

Finding her no- 
where, he asks 
where she is gone 

" Sire," she says, 
" I have not seen 
her since mid- 
night; perhaps 
she is with 

If he is not gone, 
she is there ; but 
if he is gone, be 
sure Melior is 
with him." 

said th 

deceived me ? 

2080 The Greeks will 
make war u;*>u 

MS. " bud.' 



If he is taken, he 
shall be hanged 
and drawn in 

Sixty sergeants 
are sent to look 
for William. 

[Fol. 35.] 

They were glad 
when they could 
not find him. 

The emperor 
swoons for sorrow 
and shame. 

His lords advise 
him to tell the 
emperor of 
Greece the whole 

He does so, and 
asks him how he 
can best avenge 

All mirth ceases 
in the city. 

The Greek 
emperor, seeing 
how he of Rome 
was grieved, 

alle men vpon molde * ne schuld mak it ofer, 2084 

^if fat traytour mow be take to-day, er i ete, 

lie schal be honged heie & wif horse to-drawe ! " 

f emperour fill kenely dede kalle kni^ttes fele, 

and ofer semly seriaurcs sixti wel armed, 2088 

het hem wi^tli to wende to wilh'ams inne, 

& ^if f ei found out fat freke for out fat bi-tidde, 

to bring him bliue bounde fast him to-fore. 

fai durste non ofer do but dede hem on gate, 2092 

& sou^te him wif sore hertes * so wel f ei him louede. 

fei^fli when f ei founde him nou^t fayn were f ei alle, 

& turned a^ein to f emperour & told he was a-weie. 

fanbrayde he brayn-wod & alle his bakkes rente, 2096 IJOUA 

his berde & his bri^t fax for bale he to-twi^t ; 

& swowned sixe sif e for sorwe & for schame, 

fat fals he schold be fouwde ful ofte he seide " alias," 

& banned bitterli fe time fat he was on Hue. 2100 

f anne kinges & kud dukes comforted him beter, 

bede him sese of his sorwe * & swiftili wende, 

& telle f emperour of grece treuli f e sof e, 

& meke him [in] l his merci for his misse-gilt. 2104 

& he ketly for al kas after cuwseyl wrou^te, 

& gof to f emperour of grece vnglad at his herte, 

knelef to him karfully * & mercy him krief , 

and told him as titly al fe treufe sone, 2108 

how his doubter was went * wif on fat he fostred, 

& preide him par charite fat he him wold wisse, 

In what wise fat he mi^t best him a-wrek. 

& whan fis tiding was told trowef fe sofe, 2112 

In fat cite was sone many a sori burne, 

for missing of fat mariage al nmrf e 2 was seced, 

riuedliche f urth rome & reuf e bi-gunne. 

fe gode emperour of grece was a-greued sore, 2116 

of fat fortune bi-falle but for he sei fat of er 

so meken in his mercy for fat misgilt, 

1 MS. omits in. See 1. 2118. 2 MS. "mw;Tj>e." 



f e li^tere he let f er-of * ac lourand he seide ; 
" sire, be god fat me gaf f e gost & fe soule, 2120 
wist i now witerli f is were wrou^t for gile, 
alle f e mew vpon mold no schuld make it of er, 
fat i nold brenne f i borwes & f i burnes quelle, 
& sece neuer til fi-self were chamly destruyed. 2124 
but i wene wif f i wille was neuer wrou^t f is gile, 
fere-fore f e cuwseil fat y kan i schal f e kif e sone, 
do quikliche crie f urth eche cuwtre * of f i king-riche, 
fat barouws, burgeys, & bonde & alle of er burnes, 
fat mowe wi^tly in any wise walken a-boute, 2129 
fat f ei wende wijtly as wide as f i reauine, 
f urth wodes & wastes * & alle maner weies, 
forto seche fat seg fat he haf so bitraied ; 2132 

& fat mayde him mide Meliores f i doubter. 
& to make eche man f e more beter wilned, 
bi-hote hoo-so hem findes * to haue so gret mede, 
Riche to be & reale redly al his Hue time. 2136 

& ho-so hastely nou^t him hie} f is hest to worche, 
do him in hast be honged * & wif horse to-drawe. 
& loke fat hirde-men wel kepe f e komime passage, 
& eche brugge f er a-boute fat burnes ouer wende, 
& to seche eche cite and alle smale f ropes, 2141 

& vnparceyued passe f ei nou^t }if f i puple be treuwe." 

says, that had it 
been done in 
guile, he would 
have burnt all his 
towns ; 

but as it is not 
so, he will give 
him his counsel. 

[Fol. 35 6.] 
" Proclaim 
through all your 
lands that every 
man shall seek 

till they find 
William and 

Whoever finds 
them is to be 
richly rewarded, 
and whoever is 
remiss is to be 

Passes and 
bridges should be 

T%e real emperour of rome f anne redli him thonked 
* of fat konyng cuwseyl & his kynde wille. 2144 
& bliue fan bi eche side fat bode let he sende ; 
as hastyli as men nn^t hi^e his hest was wrou^t, 
& sone was sembled swiche an host to take hem tweie, 
fat neuer burn to no bataile * brou^t swiche a puple. 
f ei sou3t alle so serliche f urh cites & smale townes, 
In wodes & alle weies fat was fer a-boute, 2150 

fat no seg for no slei^f e no schuld haue schapit. 
but }it as god ^af f e grace no gom mi^t he?% finde, 
fere fei leye lonely a-slepe lapped in armes. 2153 

The emperor 
sends the 
message every- 
where, and all 
men set out to 
hunt them. 

They sought in 
every wood and 
path, but 
fortunately did 
not find them. 



When it was told 
that they could 
not be found, 

the Greek who 
had seen the 
bears told his 
[Fol. 36.] 

and how the 
bears had not 
noticed him, but 
went away by the 

The Greek 
emperor says it 
will be best to 
send to the 
kitchen and see if 
any skins are 

Two white bears' 
skins are 

All set out again, 
with hounds, to 
hunt the bears, 

and some came 
close to their 


rThe werwolf 
/determined to 
leave them, 

and to get the 
hounds away. 

but whan f is bode was broi^t to f empe/-our[s] bof e, 

fat no wi^t in no wise * ne mi3t wilh'am finde, 

ne fe maide Meliors in no maner wise, 2156 

per stod a gome of grece fat god gif him sorwe ! 

he fat of f e white beres so bremli was a-fraied, 

he seide sone to f emperours " sires, wol $e here ? 

I sai a selkoufe si$t mi-self 3ister-neue, 2160 

wel wif -inne ni^t as i went in the gardyn ; 

tvo fe bremest white beres fat euer burn on loked, 

& semede f e most to sijt * fat euer $ut i sawe. 

I wende deliuerli for drede f e def to haue sufFred, 

but treuly fe beres to me tok no hede, 2165 

but passeden out priueli at f e posterne gate, 

ac whiderward f ei went * wot i no more." 

" be god," qua]) f emperour of grece " fat gart me b& 

fourmed, 2168 

I der leye mi lif hit was f e lifer trey tour 
went a-wey in fat wise for he ne wold be knowen. 
Lete wite swif e at f e kichen wef er f ei misse any 

skinnes. 2171 

whan men kome to f e koke he was be-knowe sone, 
fat sum burn a-wei had bore * tvo white beres skynnes* 
fan was it kenly komanded a kri to make newe, 
fat eche burn schuld bisily tvo white beres seke, 
his trauayle schold nou^t tyne fat tittest hem founde. 
fan hastely hi^ed eche wi^t * on hors & on fote, 2177 
huntyng wijt houndes * alle heie wodes, 
til f ei ney^f ed so neijh * to nymphe f e sof e, 
fere wilKam & his worfi lef were Hand i-fere, 2180 
fat busily were thei a bowe schote out of f e burnes sijt. 
but whan f e witthi werwolf wist hem so nere, 
& sei^e blod-houndes bold so busili seche, 
he fou^t, wil his lif last * leten he nolde, 2184 

forto saue and serue f o tvo semli beres ; 
& prestly fan putte him out in peril of def e, 
bi-fore f o herty houndes * hauteyn of cryes, 




to winne hem alle a-weiwardes fro f e white beres. 

whan fe houndes hadde feute of fe hende best, 2189 

f ei sesed al here sechyng & sewed him fast, 

ouer mourctaynes & mires many myle f ennes. 

alle men fat mut herde of fe muri houndes, 2192 

seweden after ful swif e * to se fat mury chase, 

& left f e loueli white beres ligge in here rest, 

fat wisten no-f ing of f is werk * fat was hem a-boute. 

f e puple f anne porsewed forf & of here prey f ei 

missed, 2196 

as god gaf f e werwolf grace to go a-wei so ^erne, 
fat horse ne hourcde for non hast ne mijt him of-take. 
whan f emperour was warned in wast fat f ei ^ede, 
alle gergeis for grame gonne take here leue, 
& cayred to Jjaire cuwtre earful and tened. 
but ward was f er set wide wher a-boute, 
of bold burnes of armes f e beres forto seche, 
fat l f e witti werwolf so wel f anne hem helped, 
fat no wi}t for wile m^t wite where f ei lenged ; 
& hastili whan f ei hade nede halp hem of mete, 
& wissed hem wel f e wei3es to wende a-wei bi ni^t ; 
& whan it drou^ to f e dai * ful dernli he hem tau^t, 
bi cowtenauwce wel thei kneu * where f ei rest schold 

take. 2209 

& busily him-self wold buske in eche side, 
to help hem fro harm ^if any hap bi-tidde. 
fus fat witty werwolf fe weyes hem kenned ; 2212 
lorkinde f urth londes bi nijt so lumbardie f ei passed, 
& comew into f e marches of f e kingdam of poyle. 

The hounds 
followed him 
many miles over 
mountains and 

and left the bears- 
lying there. 

[Fol. 36 &.J 

The chase being 
all in vain, all 
the Greeks go 

Watches are set 

2204 i Bead but. 

But the werwolf 
found them food, 
and was their 

Thus they passed 
Lombardy, and 
came to Apulia. 

TTit bi-tidde fat time f ei trauailed al a n^t, 

L out of forest & frif es & alle faire wodes ; 2216 
no couert mi^t f ei kacche f e curatre was so playne. 
& as it dawed Ii3t day to mene f e sof e, 
fai hadde a semli sijt of a cite nobul, 

They could find 
no covert there. 

They see a 
castellated city, 

enclosed comeliche a-boute wif fyn castel-werk ; 2220 named Benevento. 


bonuewt fat ricbe borwe burnes }ut clepun. 
wiiiiam is afraid whan wilh'am ber-of war was he wax a-drad sore, 

they will be seen. ' 

lest eny segges of fat cite * hem of-se schuld, 

& mekly seide to meliors * " myn owne swete herte, 

our lord, $if his liking be oure Hues now saue ! 2225 

tohide* nowhere f r i no wot in f is world where we mowe vs hide, 
f e perles prince of heuen for his pite & his grace, 
saue vs for his pite fat we ne slayn bene ! " 2228 
" amen, sire," seide meliors " Marie fat vs grauwt, 1 
for fat blessed barnes loue fat in hire bodi rest ! " 2 

AtiaS t!ie 37 found f* 11116 wijtly wif-inne a while as fei waited a-boute, 

a quarry under a f e i saie a litel hem bi-side a semliche quarrere, 2232 
vnder an hei} hel * al holwe newe diked ; 
deliuerli fei hie^ed hem f ider for drede out of doute, 

and crept into a & crepten in-to a caue whanne bei beder come, 

cave there, and 

lay down there to al wery for-walked & wold take here reste. 2236 

In armes louely eche lau^t of er & leide hem to slepe, 
al bonden in f e bere skynnes * bi-fore as fei ^ede. 

The werwolf kept & j, a {; w ftty werwolf went ay bi-side, 

& kouchid him vnder a kragge to kepe f is tvo beris. 
ac fei ne hadde redly rested but a litel while, 2241 

some workmen fat werkmen forto worche * ne wonne bidere sone, 

came there to 

dig. stifly wif strong tol ston stifly to digge, 3 

& as fei come to fe caue to comse to wirche, 2244 

One of them saw on of hem sone of-sei fo semliche white beres, 
loueli ligand to-gadir lapped in armes. 
but feif li as fast to his felawes he seide, 

and bid his " herkenes nowe, hende sires ^e han herd ofte, 2248 

fellows remember 

the cry that had wich a cri has be cried f urth cuwtres fele, 

fat what man vpon molde mi^t onwar finde, 

tvo breme wite beres fe bane is so maked, 2252 

he schold winne his wareson to weld for euere, 

1 MS. graut ; but the u has a crooked line over it (the contraction 
for ra or ) instead of a straight one. 

2 Catchword" J?anne wi^tly." 3 Read " ston for to digge"(?). 



Jjurth f e grete god of gold fat him bi 3iue schold." 
" 3a, ibrsof e," seide his felawes " ful wel fat we 

knowe ; 

but wharhi seistow so so f e god help ? " 2256 

"fe sofe, felawes, ful sone * 36 schol it wite, 
3if 36 tentifly take kepe * & trewe he to-gadere ; 
I wol winne our warisun for i wot where fei are." 
" 3is, certes," seide fei "so trewe wol we hene, 2260 
fat no fote schal we fle for nou^t hi-tides." 
" ek, sires," seide fat ofer "so 30113 crist rede, 
standes alle a stounde stille in f is ilk place, 
I wil husk to honeuent of f e heris telle, 2264 

to f e prouost & ofer puple & hem preie in hast 
to come hider & hem cacche for in caue f ei lyen, 
& slepen samen y-fere y saw hem ri^t nowe." 
f enne were his felawes ful fayn & fast had him renne, 
& fei wold a-bide boldly f e beres fere to kepe. 2269 
fat ofer [went], 1 wi^tly f enne to warne f e prouost 
lelliche hou he hade seye in f e harde quarrer, 
f e tvo white beris & bad him-self 3erne 2272 

to come wif gret pouwer & cacche hem in haste. 
" wostou wel," seyede f e prouost " fat fei are fere 


" 36, certes," seide he " y saw hem rijt now bof e ; 
& fine of my felawes ful faste fere hem way ten, 2276 
fat fei no wende a-way * wil y hider sterte." 

and how great 
was the reward 
offered for finding 

He will shew 
them how to get 
the reward. 

They must watch 
there while he 
goes to Benevento 

[Fol. 87 &.] 
to tell the 

They watch 
while he runs off. 

He tells the 
provost the bears 
are found, 

and five of his 
fellows are 
watching them. 

"Ue prouost fan prestely fe pepul dede warne, The provost 

gathers all the 

- as fei nold lese here lif here londes & here godes, people of the 

fat alle hie3den hastily on hors & on fote, 2280 

& bi-set sone saddeli * f e quarrer al a-boute, 

ti3tli for to take f e tvo white beres, 

fat f emperour comanded crie in cu^tre al a-boute. 

sone eche man fat mijt ful manliche him armed, 2284 

& he3eden hastely to hors f o fat hade any, 

1 Perhaps we should read " That other went wiztly." M. 


and frekes on fote hi^ede hem fast after, 
so fat f e ciwtre f urth fat cri was al bi-cast sone, 
& quikliche a-boute f e quarrer * were kene men of 
armes, 2288 

2200 men in ail. twenty hundered & tvo trewli in numbre, 

to take as bliue f e beres but god now hem help, 

slayn worf f ei slepend ac selcouf now heres. 

as fo bold beres so nei^h here bale slepten, 2292 

just then, Meiior Meliors burth a metyng * was marred new for fere, 

had a dream, 

which she teiis to & f urth jmt sojrwful sweuene swif e sche a-waked, 
& wi3% to will/am f ese wordes sche' sede, 
" a ! louely lemmaii lestene now my sawe, 2296 

~~ I am ney marred & mad f is morwe for a sweuene. 

" i thought that for me bout bat ber com to bis caue noube 

bears, apes, bulls, r . 

[Foi. 88.] wilde beris & apes bores, boles, and baucynes, 
bLt oufcave, led a brem numbre of bestes fat a lyoun ladde, 2300 
fat his kene komandmertt kidden wel to wirche, 
to haue taken vs tvo * to-gader in f is denne. 
The lion's cub \ ban was ber a litel IVOUTZ, of be lederes bi-sete, 

was with them ; 

come wif fat companye fis case to bi-holde. 2304 
& r^t as f e breme bestes vs bof e schuld haue take, 
and our werwolf our wurf i werwolf .fat euer wel vs helpef , 

came and caught ., , , p n i 

up the cub, and com W1 P a g re ^ kours & lor alle f e kene bestes, 

ran off with it, & lau ^ yp ^ ?ong lvoun . Ii3tly in hig m()U ^ e} 230 g 

& went wif him a-wei whedir as him liked, 
and they left off & alle f e breme bestes fat a-boute vs were, 
Trent D after Mm." for-lete vs & folwed him forf - for f e $ong lyouns sake , 
& certes, sire, of fat sweuen ri^t so y a-waked, 2312 
& am a-drad to fe def for destine fat wol falle." 

wiiiiam says it is " \T a 7> loueli lef," seide william "leue al fat sorwe, 

-^ forsof e it is but fanteme fat 36 fcre-telle ; 
/ we mo we reste vs redili rijt sauf here at wille." 2316 

ac sof li, as che had seide ri3t wif fat ilke, 
But then they f ei herd an huge route of horse fat hel al a-boute, 

hear the sound of . . 

many horsemen, & herd fat quarrero vmbe-cast <fc al f e cuwtre wide. 



ful wi3tly wayted out at an hole, 2320 

<& seie breme burnes busi * in ful bri3t armes, 
brandissende wif gret bost & of f e beres speke, 
In what wise f ei wold wirche l wi3tly hem to take. 
fe prouost wif al fe puple presed for]? formast, 2324 
& many mi^ti man manliche medled fat time, 
& sof liche for to seie swiche grace god lente, 
fat f e prouost sone a semli 3ong barne, 
was brout fider wif burnes fe beres to bi-holde, 2328 
for f e selcouf e sty to se how J>ei schuld be take. 
whan wilKam. was war f ei were so nei^L nome, 
to meliors wif mornyng mekliche he sayde, 
" alias ! my loueliche lemniaw fat euer y lif hadde, 
to be for al our bale brou3t to swiche an hende ! 2333 
alias ! lemmas, fat our loue f us luf erly schal departe, 
fat we now dulfulli schul deye ac do now, god, f i 


& late me haue al f e harm * hei3eliche i beseche ; 2336 
for i haue wrou^t al fis wo & worf i am f er-tille. 
for meliors, my dere hert * be marie in heuene, 
holly al fis harde * f ow hast al for my gelt ; 
f er-fore, yf godes wille were i wold haue al f e payne, 
to mede 36 were fro fis quarrere * quitly a-schaped. 2341 
& dere hert, deliuerli do as ich f e rede, 
dof bliue fis bere-skyn * & be stille in f i clof es, 
& as sone as f ou art seie f ou schalt sone be knowe, 
fan worf f i liif lengeyd ' 2 for loue of f i fader ; 2345 
so mi3tow be saued for sof e, neuer elles ; 
<fe f ouh3 f ei murf er me f anne i no make no strengf e. 
but god for his grete grace gof i hadde now here 2348 
horse & alle harneys fat be-houes to werre, 
I wold wend hem tille wif-oute ani stint, 
& do what i do n^t or ich f e deth soffred ; 2351 
suwme fat bere hem now brag schuld blede or euen. 

and William sees 
and hears them 
speak of the 

The provost's 
was in the 

William laments 
their hard fate. 
[Fol. 38 6.J 

He says he ought 
to have all the 

He advises 
Melior to doff her 
bearskin, and 
reveal herself. 

No matter if 
they murder Aim, 
yet he wishes he 
had a horse and 

and he would do 
what he could. 

* Or " lengeyd," miswrittenfor lengj?ed (?). Cf. 11. 1040, 1944. 



ac botles is now f is bale but be hit a goddes wille, 

she must take off & buske f e of f is bere fel bi-liue, i f e rede, 

her bearskin and 
save herself. 


& wende listly hennes & late me worf after ; 
swif e saue f i-self * for so is f e best." 
Meliors wepande wonder sore to wilKam fan seide, 
"what? leuestow, leue lemmas fat i fe leue wold 
for def or for duresse * fat men do me mi^t ? 2359 

na y ft him fat wif his blod boust vs on be rode, 
f e beres fel schal neuer fro my bac siker be f er-fore. 
having no wish to al f is world to winne * i no wold be aliue, 

live if he is slain. , T r>, -, , 

sof li alter i seie :$ou sufltere f e def e ; 
wif god wille take we f e grace fat god wol us 
sende." 2364 

Meiior vows she 

will not do so, 

The provost 
advances to take 
the bears, 

[Fol. 39.] 

but the werwolf 
attacks them, 

snatches up the 
provost's son, 

and runs off, 
roaring loudly. 

The provost cries 
out for help. 

All begin to chase 
the werwolf, 

Whan fat sawe was seid * sof for to telle, 
f e prouost bad bold burnes f e beres go take, 
& f ei hastily at his hest hi^ed inward atte roche. 
but godli, as god wold swiche grace bi-tidde, 2368 
f e werwolf was war * & wist of here tene, 
& be-f out how best wore * f e beres to saue ; 
& wi^tly as a wod best * went hem a-^ens, 
Gapand ful grimli & gof f anne ful euene 2372 

to f e semli prouost sone & swif e him vp-cau^t 
be f e middel in his mouf e fat muche was & large, 
& ran l forf for al fat route wif so rude a noyse, ~ 

as he wold fat barn bliue haue for-frete. 


whan f e prouost fat perceyued * to f e puple he cried, 
" helpes hastily, hende men * i hote, vp ^our Hues ! 
ho wol winne his wareson now wijtly him spede 
forto saue my sone * or for sorwe i deye ! " 2380 

ful sone after fat sawe se fere men mi^t 
Many a bold burn after fat best prike, 
& of er frekes on fote as fast as f ei n^t, 
so holliche to fat hunting i hote fe forsofe, 2384 
fat noif er burde ne barn * bi-laft at f e quarrer, 

1 MS. " J>an." Both sense and alliteration require " ran." 


but went after f e werwolf & warned from f e beres, 

hotend out wib homes & wif buge cries, th horns and 

loud cries. 

& sewed him sadly * wij) so selkouf noyse, 2388 

fat alle men vpora molde mi3t be a-wondred. 

euer when be werwolf was out to-fore Every time the 

werwolf was half 

f e moufttaunce of half a myle or more $if it were, a mile away, 

lest f e segges wold haue sesed here seute to folwe, 2392 

he wold abide wib be bam be bliber hem to make, h waited for 

them to come up, 

In hope fei schuld of him hent f e litel knaue. 

but whan fei were ou3t him nei^ noujt he nold abide, 

but dede him deliuerli awey as he dede bi-fore, 2396 

& bus lelly he hem ladde * alle be longe daie. and 80 led thera 

on all day long. 

fat neuer man vp07^ molde mi^t him of-take ; 

& schete durst fei nou^t, for drede * f e child to hurte, 

but folwed him so forf as fast as fei mi^t. 2400 

whanne be wite beres wist bat were in be quarrer, [ Fo1 - 39 6 -l 

The white bears, 

fat al f e puple was passed to pursue f e best, finding that ail 

of fat witti werwolf to winne f e child, sone away, 

& sei wel for here sake * he suffred f o peines 2404 

to socour hem & saue fra??& alle sory def es, 

& bo be bliue for bat best bi-ofunne to preie prayed for the 

werwolf's safety, 

fat god for his grete mi^t schuld gete him fro harm ; 

witterli fei wist wel '-fat f ei nere bot dede, 2408 

nere goddes grete rnijt & f e gode bestes help. 

& whan bei bobe had so bede * bei be-bout after, and began to 

think they had 

It were best as bliue to buske hem of fat caue. better make off. 

& wilKam fese wordes wijtly ' to meliors seide, 2412 

" Mi swete wi^t, sof to seie me semeth l it f e best, 

to buske 2 vs of be bere felles to be be lasse knowe. William says they 

had better take 

for eche wi^h wol more a-weite after fe white beres, off the skins. 

fan fei wol after any wi3t * fat walkef i-clofed, 2416 

berfor wiitly in oure owne wedes wende we hennes." and so away in 

their own clothes. 

Mekli seide meliors, " sire * be marie in heuen, 

to do holli as 36 ban seide i hope be f e best." 2419 

as bliue be bere schinnes frow here bodi bei hent, They rend off the! 

skins, and are 

1 MS. "semeht." 2 MS. "buskes." 




glad to see one 
another once 

William looks 
out, but can see 
no one near. 

They take the 
skins with them, 
being loath to 
part with them 

They were in 
much dread, but 

[Fol. 40.] 

happily met with 
no one. 

After going three 
miles, they find a 

Melior is so tired, 
she can go no 

So they rest in 
the forest, and 
fall asleep. 

The provost and 
bis men chased 
the werwolf till 


The werwolf 
thought there 
was no need to 
go farther ; 

& wi^tly wrapped hem to-gadere wittow for sof e, 

& blif e were fei bof e f anne * to bi-hold on of ei- ; 

for feif li a fourteni^t new hadde seie of eres face. 

f anne dipt fei & kest for al here cares colde, 2424 

& will? am ful wijtly waited out of f e caue, 

& bi-huld ful busili a-boute on eche a side, 

}if eny wijt were walkende but he non seie. 2427 

he lau^t loueli Meliors & ladde hire bi f e honde ; 

closed in here clones out of ])e caue fei went, 

wif hem bof e bere-felles fei bere in here armes, 

so lof hem was f o to lese or leue hem- bi-hinde ; 

& deden hem deliuerly * ouer dales and helles, 2432 

ferrest fro alle weies f er any folk walkes. 

dolfulli fei were adrad >dar no mew hem wite, 

last fei schuld mete any man fat* mi^t hem be-wrie ; 

but fan as god wold or eny man hem seye, 2436 

fei hade walked in fat wise wel a f re myle, 

& founden fan a fayr forest floriched ful f ik, 

& f ider wi^tly f ei went wel vnparceyued. 

what of here* hard hei3ing & of f e hote weder, 2440 

Meliors was al mat * sche ne mi^t no furf er, 

& prestly in a f icke place * of fat pris wode, 

wel out from alle "weyes for-wery f ei hem rested, 

& f onked god gretliche fat so godliche hem saued ; 

& seffen softli to slepe samen fei hem leide, 2445' 

as fei fat were wery for- waked to-fore. 

Nou^ leue we of hem a while & speke we a-nof er ; 

For of f e witti werwolf a while wol i telle. 2448 

Oo long fat ferli folk folwed him after, 
^ to haue be-nom him f e barn fat he nam fat time, 
huntyng holliche fat day * on hors & on fote, 
till f e semli sunne was setled to reste. 245 2 1 

& whan it was so nei} ni3t to neuen f e sof e, 
f e werwolf wist wel * it was no more nede 
to bere fat [barn] no forf er l for f e beres sake. 
1 Read "to bere that bam." M. See 1. 2459. 



fei hadde folwed him so fer ' pat forsope he wist, 2456 
pat no seg pat hade sewed no schuld horn winne, 
hi^ed pei neuer so hard of al pa long ni^t. 
& panne as bliue pat barn pe best a-doun sette, 
wip-oute eny maner wem * pe worse it to greue, 2460 
for non schold in pat barnes bodi o brusure finde 
as of pat bold best but bold it was & faire. 
& as sone as he hade sette it a-downe, 
he went wi^tly a-weie wip-oute eny more, 2464 

deliuerli as he nadde pat day gon half a myle. 
when pe prouost & pe puple parceyued pat ilk, 
pat pe best hade left pe barn blipe were pei panne, 
pe prouost bi-fore pe puple priked pider formest, 2468 
& hent it vp in hast ful hendli in his armes, 
and clipt it & kest oft & many sipes ; 
bi-huld a-boute on his bodi }if it blenched were ; 
whan he saw it al sound * so glad was he panne, 2472 
pat na gref vnder god gayned to his ioye. 
al pe puple prestly * pat him porsewed hadde, 
gretliche ponked god * of pat grace bi-falle, 
& tijtli al here tene was turned in- to ioye, 2476 

& as bliue wip blisse pei busked hem homward, 
wip al pe murpe vpora molde pat men mi^t diuise. 
but eche man al nijt inned him where he mi^t, 
& whan hit dawed, deliuerli dede hem homward. 2480 
& wi3tli whan pei horn come wittow for sope, 
pe prouost ful prestli al pat puple warned, 
to buske bliue to pe quarrer pe beres to take, 
pei went wip god wille * but wan pei pider come, 2484 
pei founde al awei fare bi-fore pat per wore, 
po ne wist pei in pe world whider hem to seche, 
but hi^ed hem homward * fast as pei rr^t, 
& token redli here rest at here owne wille. 2488 

pe prouost dede pertli prefer al a-boute, 
what man vpon mold * mi^t pe beres take, 
he schuld gete of gold garissouft for euere. 
6 * 

so he put the 
provost's son 
down, quite 

and went off as 
nimbly as if he 
had but gone 
half a mile. 

The provost rides 
up, recovers his 

[Fol. 40 &.] 
and looks to see 
if he is harmed. 

and is glad to find 
him whole. 

The people's 
sorrow is turned 
into joy. 

They rested all 
night where they 

and repaired next 
day to the quarry. 

Finding nothing 
there, they 
return home. 

The provost pro- 
claims a reward 
for taking the 


and many men 
looked for them, 
but none found 

The werwolf 
returned to 
William and his 

well charged with 
wine and meats. 

He then goes 
away again, to 
their great 

[Fol. 41.] 

They feel sure the 
beast is of man's 

He never fails 
them at need. 

They eat and 
drink, and rest a 
day and a night. 

Early next 
morning, some 
colliers come near 
their hiding-place. 

The colliers begin 
to talk, and one 
says if the white 
l>ears were there, 

nothing should 

Many man by his mi^t medled him f er-after, 2492 

a-boute bi eche side f o bestes for to seche. 

but as god ^af f e grace no gom mi^t hem finde, 

so happiliche f ei hem hidde * f ei hadde swiche grace. 

& forto telle what tidde of fat tide werwolf, 2496 

fat ni^t fat hadde f e prouost sone for-left, 

he wan a-^eii to willmm & to his worf make, 

wel i-charged wif wyn & wif gode metes, 

fat he wan bi f e weie as he f ider went. 2500 

& bliue fat he bar be-fore wilKam hit leide, 

& went him wi}tly a-wei fro hem sone. 

f erof was willmm a-wondred & meliors alse, 

why f e best nold abide * fat so wel hem helped, 2504 

& seide eif er til of er " now sertes, for sof e, 

f is best lias ma?mus kynde it may be non of er. 

se what sorwe he suffres to saue vs tweine ! 

& namli, when we han nede neuer he ne faylef , 2508 

fat he ne bringef wher we ben fat to vs bi-houes. 

he fat suffred for our sake sore wondes fiue, 

he our buxu?ft best saue * & hald vs his Hue." 

" amen, sire," seide meliors " marie fat graunt ! 2512 

nade his help hende ben we hade be ded ^ore." 

f ei made hem fan merye wif mete fat f ei hadde, 

& eten at here ese for f ei were for-hungred, 

& rested fere redeli al fat longe day, 2516 

& al f e ni}t next after to neuen f e sof e, 

for meliors was so wery * fat sche ne walk 1013 1. 

& erliche on f e morwe * er f e sunne gan schine, 

choliers fat cayreden col come fere bi-side, 2520 

& of er wi^es fat were wont wode forto fecche, 

fast f er wilh'am was & his worf burde. 

f e kolieres bi-komsed to karpe kenely i-fere ; 

on of hem seide sadli f ise selue wordes : 2524 

" wold god f e white beres * were here nowf e, 

alle f e me?^ on mold ne schuld here liues saue, 

for wi3tly wold ich wende and warne f e prouost, 


& titliche schuld J?ei be take * & moche tene suffre ; 

for breme beres fbel l bei none as bei be-semen, 2529 that they are not 

/. really bears, but 

It is bemperours dou3ter bat so digised wendej), the emperor's 

. , r i>iii , o daughter and a 

wib a LcomlicneJ kni^t 2 j>at kai^t nab hire loue. knight. 

J?er-fore Jjese cries ben so kenliche maked, 2532 

what man on molde * mow hem first fynde, 

he mai gete so moche gold * J>at pore worb he neuer. 

wonderli a werwolf * yesterday hem saued. A werwolf had 

saved them 

ba pertly be prouost barn bar a-way from alle ; 2536 yesterday, 

wliile me?? hunted after hem bai han a-wai schaped. [Foi. 41 j 

bi him bat me bou^t were jjei bobe here, 

jjei schuld wicche wel ^if bei a-wei went, 

bomh ber were werwolfs wib hem foure schore ! " not 8ave them t * 


jjen was meliors nei^ mad al-most for fere, 2541 Meiior was very 


lest bat foule felbe schold haue hem fouwde bere, 

& darked stiile in hire den for drede, boute noyse. 

wi3% a-noj>e>- werkman bat was ber be-side 2544 

gan flite wib bat felbe bat formest hadde spoke, one > 

seide, "do bi deuer * bat bow hast to done. 

what were be be beter nou^ * bei^h be beris were here, 

to do hem any duresse] J>ei misdede ]>e neuer. 2548 nothing to M. 

Mani hard hape han bei a-schapet, 

& so i hope bei schal ^it * for al )>i sori wille. 

god for his grete n^t fram greues hem saue, pwenre em .' 

& bring hem bo>e wib blis bere fei be wold. 2552 fj^/^ 8 ' our 

do we bat we haue to done & dijt we vs henne, business." 

sum seluer for our semes 3 in ]?e cite to gete." 

o , . j So they returned 

bei hadde blme here burbenes * & bi-gunne to wende, to the city . 

ne is swete wi^t seie hem na more ; 2556 
but holliche had herd al here huge speche. 
jjan seide wilb'am wi^tly bese selue wordes, 
" Meliors, my swete hert now mow we no more Jj more U8e to 

In bise breme bere-felles a-boute here walke, 2560 

1 Read " beres be thei none." M. 

3 Read " With a komli knizt," or something similar. M. See 
L 2637. 3 See note. 



Melior says that 
any one who 
meets them in 
their own clothes 
will know them. 

What is to be 

}if we wist in what wise how to worche beter." 
" certes, sire, pat is so]) " * seide meliors pan, 
" }if we walken in pes wedes i wot wel for sope, 
& al pe curctre knowep what cas we ben inne, 2564 
what man so vs metes may vs sone knowe. 
I ne wot in wat wise to worche be best." 
" nor ich, i-wisse," sede will/am " but worpe god wij> 

Just then, the 
werwolf killed a 
huge hart and a 
hind, and left 

IFoL 42.] 

William perceived 
that the werwolf 
meant them to 
use the skins, and 
to leave the 

They pray that 
the werwolf may 
never come to 

Said William, 
" Let as flay these 
beasts, and array 
ourselves in the 

William nays the 
hart, and Melior 
the hind. 

They sew each 
other up in the 

While pfe tvo derlinges talked to-gadere, 2568 

pe werwolf an huge hert hade hunted rijt pider, 
& ri^t be-fore hem bope brou3t hit to depe ; 
& hastilyche pan hi^ed * & an hinde brou^t, 
serued it in pe same wise as pe hert bi-fore, 2572 

& went wi^tly a-wei * wit-oute any more, 
pan wist wilk'am wel bi pe bestes wille, 
pat he pe hert & pe hinde hade pere slayne, 
him & his loueliche lemmas * to lappe in pe skinnes, 
& bileue pere pe beres felles. * pat so busili were a-spied. 
& mekli pan to meliors he imwged what he pou^t, 
& seide, " se wich a selcoup pis semliche best worchep, 
for-pi cnst,crouned king kepe him fro sorwe, 2580 
& late man neuer haue mi}t him to misdone." 
"pat graunt god," seide meliors "for his swete mi^t ; 
for nere pe help of heuen king & pe hende best, 
oure lines hadde be lore many a day seppe." 2584 
" }a, i-wisse," seide will/am ' " my derworp herte j 
for-pi at oure bestes wille worche we noupe. 
hastili hulde we pe hides of pise bestes, , ,' " 
Greipe we vs in pat gere to go ferper hennes." 2588 
wilh'am hent hastili pe hert & meliors pe hinde, 
& a[s] smartli as pei coupe pe skinnes of-turned. 
eiper gamliche gan grepe oper gailiche per-inne, 
pat pe skinnes sat saddeli sowed to hem bope, 2592 
as hit hade ben on pe beste pat hit growed. 
& better pei semed pan to si^t * semliche hertes, 



fan fei semed be-fore beres whan fei were, 2595 
so iustili on ef er of he??^ were ioyned f e skinnes. 

I nd whan fei were greif ed gayli in fat gere, 
" fei seten in here solas til swine jede to rest. 
whan it neijet nijt, J>ei nold no longer a-bide, 2599 
but went for]? on here weie * for wel list he?Ji gone, 
& here semli werwolf * sewed fast after, 
fat wittily taujt hem fe weies * whider f ei wende 


sechande towarde cisile f e sotilest weyes. 
<fe namliche on fe morwe many men hem sou3t 2604 
In wodes & wildernesse wide where a-boute, 
& as f ei walked in wodes * wif ful gode hoiwdes, 
f ei founde f e beres skinnes & f e bestes flayne. 
fat it was an hert & an hinde hastili f ei knewen, 
& wist wel fat fei went * wrapped in fe skinnes, 2609 
f ei fat bi-fore had be as tvo white beres, 
& wist fat f ai in wast wroujt f er to-fore 
for al fe hard huntyng fat fei hadde maked. 2612 
& folwe hem durst fei no ferre for a gret werre, 
fat was wonderli hard in f e next londe, 
<fe f o f e seute sesed after f e swete bestes. 
Mujzge mai [i] l no more of noma?i fat hem folwed, 
ac of fe hert & f e hinde herkenes now ferfer. 2617 

At night-time 
they set out 

the werwolf 

[Fol. 42 &.] 
who guided them 
towards Sicily. 

Next day some 
men found the 
bearskins, and the 
flayed beasts, 

and knew that 
they were now 
dressed as a hart 
and a hind. 

But they dared 
not pursue them, 
be cause of a great 
war that was in 
the next land. 


ji went fast on here way fe werwolf hem ladde The werwolf led 

them over country 

ouer mures & muwtaynes & many iaire pleynes ; that ws 
but alwei as fei went wasted fei it founde. 2620 
for burwes & bold tounes al for-brent were, / < 

but jit were fei wif walles warchet a-boute. fy^ 
& al was wilk'am landes wittow wel for sobe, it w 

he fat fere was an hert ; heres f encjiesoun, 
whi f e wer & fat wo f o was in fat londe. 
^e han herd here bi-fore as ich vnderstonde, 
1 Read " mai t no more." M. 


It was William'* 
own country. 


For Ebrouns, o f ebroufis f e kud king fat fat kingdom out 

was king of ' of poyle & of cisile ' of pallerne & calabre, 2628 

Palermo, 'and' & was willmms fader * fat went fere as an hert, 

Calabria, and was pij PJI j VP 

dcad & aed was & doluen mam a day bi-iore. 

& his comeliche quene as god wold, jit liuede, 

wniiam's mother fat was willmms moder & was a menskful lady. 2632 
sche had a derworf e doujter to deme f e sof e, 
on f e fairest on face * and frelokest i-schapen, S*^ 1 
fat euere man vpon molde mijt [on] diuise ; ! 

wniiam's sister sche was jonger fan wilKam * bi fulle fre jeres. 2636 
& f e kud king of spayne hade a comliche sone, 
fat was a kud knijt and kene man of armes ; 
for him, was f e werwolf so wickedli for-schaped 
f urth malice of his stepmoder as je mow here after ; 
ac bref er were f ei bof e as bi on fader. 2641 

had been sought be kud king of spayne coueyted for his sone 

in marriage by the * . 

king of Spain's fat worfi may den fat was wilh'ams suster ; 

son, the werwolf a 

half-brother. ac f e quen lor no cas no wold fat wedding graunt ; 

for-fi fe king & his sone swiche werre a-rered. 2645 
n i! r ref " a1 '. for f ei hadde luferli here lond brend and destrued, 

the king of Spain 

had invaded the brent bold borwes, & burnes bruttened to def e, 

& of-sette hire so harde f e sofe for to telle, 2648 
fat prestli to hire puple * to palerne sche ferde ; 

younger than 
himself by three 

and besieged the & i, e ki ng bi-seget be cite selcoubli harde, 

queen in Palermo. r 

& mani a sad sau3t his sone f er-to made, 
ac doujti men deliuerli defended it wif-inne ; 2652 
but sertenli on bof e sides was slayn muche puple, 
& fat lasted so longe leue me for so be, 
its defenders j, e i O f i,^ c j^ e . O f |j se orcres al sad were, 

advised the queen r 

to surrender, & come ofte to fe quen & curcseiled hire ^erne 2656 
to acorde wif f e king * & graiwte his wille, 
for f ei no lenger in no maner n^t nieyntene fat sege, 
for moche folk of here fon fel algate newe, 
& here men flebled 2 fast & faileden of here mete, 2660 
fat f ei mijt in no maner nieyntene f e sege. 

1 See 1. 4436. 2 Read " febled " (?) 



father, the 
emperor of 

banne bat comliche quen * curteyseliche seide, but she exhorts 

them to be brave, 

"lordinges, 30 ben my lege men fat gode ben & and hold out, 


bold burnes of bodies * batailes big to gye ; 2664 A j 

but fat 30 grettli aren a-greued gaynli i knowe, I**- 
for f ise tenful trauayles * but titli, i hope, /yrf* 
al it worf wel amended for f is 30 witen alle, [Foi. 43 6.] 

fat i haue sent after socour to my semly fader, 2668 for she has sent 

. for succour to her 

fat grece haf godh to gye as emperour & sire. 

& i wot witterli wif -oute eni faile, 

fat socur he wol me sende or elles com him-selue. 

It is so fer to bat curctre ae knowe wel be sofe, 2672 who would 

' \ _ require some 

fat he may nou3t saile swiftli as he wold. time for the 

for-f i alle my bolde burnes i beseche & preie, 

fo[r] lone fat 36 owe to fe lord-* fat let 3011 be 


Meyntenes jit joure manchip * manli a while, 
til god of his grete mijt * god tyding vs sende." 
& bad f o tvo bold barouns * bliue forf wende 
to f e king of spayne & curtesly him seie, 
fat sche preied par charite * in pes to late hire lengf e 

2676 So she prays them 
to hold out a 
little longer. 

fulle a fourteni3t for-oute alle greues 

of saujtes to f e cite or any sorwe elles. 

& but hire fader com * bi fe fourteiiijtes hende, 

or sende hire sum socour bi f e same time, 

sche wold wif god wille wif -oute more lette 

Meke hire in his merci * on f ise maner wise, 

to giue him boute grucching al fat gode, 

so fat sche mijt saufli * wif hire semli dorter 

wende wijtli a-wei winder hire god liked. 

f e messegeres manli in here weye went, 

spagli to f e king of spayne * f is speche f ei tolde. 

but he swor his of fat he a-sent nold, 

for no man vpo% molde but he most haue 

& f ei titly turned a3en & told so f e quene. 


She asks the king 
of Spain to grant 
a truce of 14 days, 

and if her father 
did not come 
2684 then, she would 

2688 on condition that 
she and her 
daughter might 
have free passage 

2692 The king of Spain 
, . refuses. 



The queen retires 
to her chamber, 
praying to Christ 
and Mary for 

[Fol. 44.] 

She and her 
daughter are in 
great grief. 

No more of 
the defenders of 
the city, and the 
assaults on it, 

but hear about 
the hart and the 
hind, and the 

& whan sche wist witerli f e vville of f e king, 

as a woful wommarc sche went to hir chaumber, 2696 

& preyed ful pitousli to f e prmce of heuene, 

for marie his moder lone to mayntene hire & help, 

fat hire foos for no cas wif fors hire cowquerede, 

to winne a^ens hire wille * hire worliche doubter. 2700 

" no niadame," ! seide hire doubter " marie fat graunt, 

for f e blissful barnes loue * fat hire brestes souked ! " 

f us fei dwelled in duel ni^tes and daies, 

bof e fat corteys quen & hire comliche doubter. 2704 

had fei wist witterli whiche help god hem sente, 

al hire gref in-to game gaynli schold haue turned. 

now sece we of f e segges fat f e sege holden, 

& of f e selcouf a-sautes fat fei samen ^olde, 2708 

& of f e dou^thi defens of wie^s f er wif -inne. 

& listenes now a litel of f e tvo leue bestes, 

fat as an hert & an hinde holden here weye, 

as fe witty werwolf wold hem euer lede. 2712 

The werwolf 
guided them till 
they came to the 

where they would 
have to cross the 


They lay hid near 
the harboir till 

Af f is hert & f is hinde hende now listenes. 

^ so long fei caired oner cuntres as fat crist wold, 

ouer dales & downes * & disgesye weyes, 

as f e werwolf hem wissed fat was here hole frend, 

fan fei samerc sou^t to fe riche cite of rise, 2717 

fat set is ful semli vpon f e see bonke. 

a gret number of naueye * to fat hauen longet, 

& fere fe buxum bestes bi-houed ouer passe. 2720 

& so brod was f e see * fat sayle hem bihoued 

holliche al a ni^t & vp happe, wel more. xiW 

al day f e bestes darked in here den stille 

In a ragged roche rijt be fe hauen side, 2724 

til it was wif-inne iii^t & alle wi^es slepten. 

fan hi^ed fei hem to f e hauen hastily & sone, 

1 MS. " made." Read "madame." The word in the text is 
called by Bryant a provincialism, but without reason. M. The 
same error occurs in 1. 3184, but it is corrected in 1. 3191. 


us f e werwolf hem wissed fat was al here gye, 
<fe stalkeden ful stilly ])er stoden fele schippes. 2728 
f e werwolf waited wi^tly which schip was Barest, 
to fare for]) at fat flod & fond on sone, 
fat was gayly greyt to go to f e seile, 
& feif liche frau^t ful of fine wines. 2732 

f e werwolf went f er-to * to wite ho were fere ; 
f e segges were a-slepe fan * fat it schuld jeme, l^ 1 
al but f e mest maister to munge f e sof e. 
fei were turned to towne to pleie fer whiles, 2736 
In nmrf e til f e mone arise arst inijt j>ei nou^t passe. 
& whan f e werwolf wist fat alle slept fast, 
to f e hert & f e hinde he turned him a-^eine, 
& bi certeyn signes sone he hem ta^t, 2740 

& f ei folwed him fayre fayn for fat grace, 
& he ful listli hem ledes to fat loueli schippe, 
& tau3t bi-hinde tunnes hem to hude fere. 
f e maistres, whan fe mone a-ros manli in come, 2744 
& faire at f e fiille nod f ei ferden to sayle, 
& hadde wind at wille to wende whan hem liked. 
f e werewolf wist wel f ei were nei3 ouer, 
.& bi-fout how were best fe bestes to help, 2748 

fat f ei mi3t scaf eles schape of fat schip. 
whan f e ludes where nei3 lond he leped ouer borde, 
sadli in al here si$t * for f ei. him sew schold 
whil f e hert & fe hinde scaped to hunte him 
a-boute. 2752 

.sone as f e schipmerc seie Lim out lepen, 
hastili hent eche man a spret or an ore, 
& laurcced luf erly after him his lif to haue reued. 
-on so hetterli him hitte as he lep in fe water, 2756 
fat he for dul of f e dent diued to f e grounde, 
& hade nei$ lost is lif but, as our lord wold, 
for al fat sterne strok stifli he vp-keuerede, 
& swam swiftili awei fat fei se3en alle, 2760 

<& lai^t listli f e lond a litel hem bi-side. 


when they went 
down to the ships. 

The werwolf 
found a ship 
ready to sail. 

The men were all 

[Fol. 44 6.] 

The we wolf led 
the hart and hind 
to the ship, 

and they all hid 
behind tuns of 

The men came on 
board, and set 

When they were 
nearly over, 
the werwolf leapt 

The shipmen, 
seeing him, 
seized sprits and 

and one of them 
hit him so hard 
that he dived to 
the bottom, 

yet he swam 
away to land. 


& f ei, as folk fat were fayn to forfare fat best, 
The men jumped saileden swife to londe & sewed him after. 
fonowed n him. f e werwolf was wily & went so soft, 2764 

f e schipmen wend wel at wille him take, 
AH went after & him alle seweden ' fat to f e schip longede, 
ie 1 gged U boV. are but a barlegged bold boie * fat to fe barge 3emed. 

whan fe schipme/i wif fe wolf were wel passed, 2768 
[Poi. 45.] f e hert & f e hinde fan hoped wel to schape, ^^^T 
Mnd come on & busked hem bobe sone a-boue be hacches. 


The boy sees but whan f e boie of f e barge f e bestes of-seie, 

^Crtr he was nei 3 wod of llis witt ' witow > for fere > 2772 

& be-f 0113 1 him fere f e bestes for to quelle. 
hit the hind so <fc happili to be hinde he hit banne formest, 

that she 

tumbled top over & set hire a sad sfciok ' so sore in fe necke, 

hatches. fat sche top oner tail tombled oner fe hacches. 2776 

But the hart but f e hert ful hastili ' hent hire vp in armes, 


and carried her & bare hire forf outfr4x>id on a brod planke, 
piank, & nas bold wif f e boye no debate make, 

but fayn was a-way to fle for fere> of mo gestes, 2780 

fer away fro f e see * or he stynt wold. 
and, when out of w h an he w ist bat he was wel out of sht, 

sight, looked to 

see if the hind he be-hilde ^if be hinde euel hurt were. 

was hurt ; 

& fond sche nas but a-fri^t * for fere of fat dint. 2784 
fan saide f e hert to f e hinde hendly & faire, 
saying that, if he u a j wor j,m w ht wonder ar fine happes, 

had but weapons, 

the barge-boy batow hentest al be harm bat i haue deserued ! 

should suffer 

death for it. wold god for his grace & his grete mi^t, 2788 

fat i hade here fat to werre falles, 
f e boye fat f e barge ^emes a-beye schold sore ; 
for f e dint he fe dalt his def were marked." 

"Nay," said " nay. my worbi make" * seide meliors banne, 2792 

Melior, " let us 

rather thank God Greue f e nou^t, for goddes loue ' fat gart f e be fourmed, 
fat we so scafli ar a-schaped god mo we [we] l fonk, 
& cure worf i werwolf fat wel him by-tyde ! 
dere god, for deth he drei3h for vs alle, 2796 

1 Read mowe we thonk." M. Cf. 1. 2559. 



late no seg mi^t haue to sle our gode best ! 

nere his wit & his werk * we were schent bof e." 

" sertes, sweting, fat is so]) " seide wilh'am f anne, 

"Go we on oure gate for goddes loue, bliue, 2800 

to recuuer sum resset fere we vs rest mi^t." 

ful mekli seide meliors wif-oute any fare, 

" Go we now on goddes halue ;" fan went f ei god spede, 

cleppende comely eiper ofer ' to karpe fe sofe. 2804 

May no one harm 
or slay our 
werwolf ! " 

William proposes 
that they should 
seek a hiding- 
place to rest in, 

[Fol. 45 &.] 
and Melior 

Whan f e hert & f e hind were of so harde a-chaped, 
fe boye- fat f e barge jemed * of f e bestes hade 


fat on bar of f e barge so boldeli fat of er, 
wif so comely contenaurcce * clippend in armes, 2808 
& ferden ferst on foure fet * & sef f e vp tweyne. 
& wi^tly after f e werwolf * was we! a-schaped, 
fram alle f e sory chipme fat sewed him to quelle, 
but treuli non him take to tene namore ; 2812 

& to fe hert & fe hinde he3ed him faste. 
& whan f e hert & f e hinde had si^t of here best, 
f ei were gretli glad * & oft god f onked ; 
fat he sauf was & sou[w]d l fro f e men a-schaped. 2816 
fan ferde f ei alle forf i-fere fayn of here Hues, 
f e chipme?z fat f e worwolf so sadly hade chased, 
buskeden a^en to here barge & f e boye hem tolde 
wiche an hert & an hinde * hadde f er-out schaped, 2820 
wi^tli wen f ei went f e wolf for to sewe ; 
& how he hitte f e hinde also he told, 
& how f e hert hire hent & hi^ed ouer-borde, 
& wif how coynte curctenaurcce he cuuerede'hire after, 
& went wi3tly a-wey 'but whider wist he neuer. 2825 
f er-of were f ei a-wondred but wist f ei no bote, 
whederward forto fare to finde f e bestes ; 
but lefte f ei in lisse now listenes of f es bestes, 2828 
jmrth wildernesse hou f ei went * & wat hem tidde after. 

The barge-boy 
was astonished to 
see them go first 
on four feet, and 
then on two. 

The werwolf, 
having escaped 
safely, went after 
the hart and 

The shlpmen 
returned to the 
barge, and the 
boy told them his 

how the hart 
caught up the 
hind, and hied 

1 Read " sound." M. 


The hart and 
hind found all the 
country laid 

The werwolf led 
them to a rich 
and fair town, 
named Palermo, 
[Fol. 46.] 

the very place 
whence the 
werwolf took 
away William at 

William's mother 
is in a hard strait, 
being besieged by 
the king of Spain. 

Near her palace 
was a park, 

where the hart 
and hind hid 

The werwolf got 
meat and drink 
for them. 

TTThiderward as f ei werct al wast f ei it foimde, 

' bolde burwes for-brent a-boute on eche side, 
& e\wr as f e witty werwolf wold hem lede, 2832 
faire ]>ei him folwed * as here freiid holde. 
& so longe he hem ladde as he him-self f oi^t, 
he brou^t hem to a borw^ fat bold was & riche, 
& fairest of alle fason for eny riche holde, 2S3& 

fat euer man vpon mold mi3t on loke. 
perles was f e paleis and palerne it hi^t. 
f e werwolf wan wilKam * ferst fro fat place, 
whan he was in childhod * as j>e cliauftce be-fore told. 
& treuli, ri}t fat time to telle al fe sofe, 2841 

Williams moder in meschef wif moche folk fere lenged ; 
for f e king of spayne bi-seged hire harde, 
In maner as f e mater * was minged bi-fore. 2844 

a pris place was vnder f e paleys a park as it were, 
fat whilom wif wilde bestes was wel restored ; 
but f e segges fat held f e sege had it al destruyt. 
fe hert & f e hinde fere fanne hem hed sone, 2848 
as f e werwolf hem wissed fat ay was here gye, 
vnder a coynte crag fast bi f e quenes chaumber, 
& al fat day in fat den * f ei darked, & f e ni^t ; 
f e werwolf went wijtly & whan hem mete & drink, 
so fat f ei mad hem as mime as f ei mijt fat time. 2853 
now of f e buxum bestes * be we a while stille, 
& carpe we of f e curteys quen * fat in f e castel lenged. 


Oo hard was sche be-seged sof for to telle, 
^ & so harde sautes to f e cite were ^euen, 


The battlements 
of the city were 
broken by the 
war-engines, and 
many men were 

fat f e komli kerneles were to-clatered wif engines, 
& mani of here mi^thi men murdred to def e. 
f erfor fe quen was earful & oft to crist preyed, 2860 
to sende hire sum socour fat sche saued were, 
for marie his moder loue fat is of mercy welle. 
it was ail because I[~nl swiche lif hade sche liued a long time to-fore, 

of the queen's 

daughter. & al duel fat sche drey was for hire doubter sake. 2864 




but seff e on f e selue ni^t f e sof e forto telle, 
fat f e hert & f e hinde * & here f ridde fere 
vnder f e castel in a crag cau^t here rest, 
_be quen was wery for-wept & went to bedde. 
a selcof e sweuen sone in hire bed sche mette ; 
hire f oujt fat sche & hire [doi^ter] on a dai al-one 
weren passed pnueli f e paleys bi a posterne ^ate 
to pleie hem pn'ueli in J>e park fat to f e paleis longed, 
hire fou^t an hundered M. * were hire a-boute 2873 
of lebardes & beres & alle bestes boute number, 
Grmili gapande to greue hire & hire doubter ; 
& ri^t as f o breme bestes hem bof e schold haue take, 
here f oujt, a wi^t werwolf & to white beres 2877 
hie^eden harde hem to help * in fat ilk nede ; 
& whanne f o two white beres were com hem nere, 
fei semde to hire sijt tvo semli hertes ; 2880 

& etyer of hem a faire figure in here for-hed hadde. 
f e huger hert in his hed had, as hire semede, 
f e fasoura & f e forme of a fair kni^t in feld, 2883 
& semde hire owne sone fat sche long hade missed, 
fat of er hert, as hire f ou^t f e schap hade of a mayde, 
fairest of alle fetures fat sche to-for hadde seie, 
& eif er hert on his hed * hadde, as hire f out, 
a gret kroune of gold ful ol gode stones, 
fat semli was to si^t & schined ful wide, 
fan f ou^t hire f e werwolf & f e maide bi-laft ; 
& f e huge hert him-self hastili fat time, 
a3ens alle f e bestes * bliue went al-one, 
& bar douft bi eche side ay f e boldest formast ; 
was non so stef him wif-stod so sternli he wrou^t. 
f e grettest of f e grim bestes * he gat to prison sone ; 
a lyon & a lybard fat lederes were of alle, 2896 

hire f ou^t, fat huge hert * hastili hade take, 
& putte hem in hire prisoun to peyne hem at hire 

f e stoutest & f e sternest * he stijtled sone after, ? ' 



Whilst the hart 
and hind slept, 
the queen went 
to bed, 

and dreamt that 
she and her 

[Fol. 46 &.] 
daughter were in 
the park, 

when 100,000 
leopards and 
bears attacked 

but a werwolf 
and two white 
bears came to 
her assistance. 
The bears 
changed into 
harts as they 
came nearer. 

The larger hart 
had on his fore- 
head the figure of 
a knight like her 
own son. 

The other had 
the shape of a 

Crowns were on 
their heads. 

The hart bore 
down all the 

taking the largest 
ones prisoners. 


The rest of the 

beasts fled away 

for fear. 

[Foi. 47.] 
Next she dreamt 

and that her 
IteStehed over 


Awaking, she 

to the chapel. 


fat he ga[r]te ! f e grettest to hire prison loujte j 2900 

& redli al bo remnant * of be rude bestes 

for fere be-gunne to fle * as fast as f ei mijt, 

oMer dales & dounes for drede of the hert. 

sone as fe hende hert * hire hade deliuered,' 2 2904 

& put here frara alle peril fro f e perilous bestes, 

here f ou^t, sche went wijtli * a-^en to f e castel, 

& turned vp to fe heisest tour to bi-hold a-boute. 

J> an Ip ^ n ^ re ' f a * ^ e T ty arm * ^ as * Ouer TOme, 2908 
IIV ^ e ^ arni ' ^ ^ OUer s P a y n 6, 

I 30 komly kingdomes komen to hire wille, 
orto her^en a i }^ e ^ggt & hire wille worche. 
here-of was sche al a-wondred * & a-waked sone, 2912 
& for drede of hire drem deulfulli quaked, 
& we pud wonder sore & wijtli hire closed, 
& romed ]?an redli * al redles to hure chapel, 
& godly be-sou^t god to gode turne hire sweuen. 2916 

She had a priest 
to whom she 'told 

her dream. 

He said, "Mourn 

not, it betokens 


The beasts that 

AS for the white 

bears or harts 

with crowns. 

t comli quen hade a prest * a konyng man of lore, 
]>at moche coujje of many & moyses he hi^t, 
to cowsaile sche him clepud * & be cas him told, 
sojjliche al J?e sweuen fat hire a-ni^t mette. 2920 

& as tit as sche had told fe prest tok his bokes, 
& sey sone of fat sweuen * hou it schuld turne. 
he loked on fat comeli quen * & curtesli seide, 
" Madame, mourne 36 namore 36 mow wel seie 2924 

_, ... . . 

fat f e prince of heuerc * ^ou haf prestli in mynde, 

& socor sendef ^ou sone hi f is sweuera i knowe. 

f 6 bestes fat bi-sett $ou so * & ^our semli doubter, 

& duelfulli to def e wold haue ^ou don bofe, 2928 

f o ar sofli f o segges fat hard $ou bi-sege, 

& don hard here mi^t to destruye ^ou here. 

wite 2e of be white beres bat waxen sebbe hertes, 

& haue f e fourme in here hed of tvo faire chi[l]deren, 3 

1 MS. "gate." See 1. 1365. 2 Catchword" & put hire." 
2 Read " childeren." M. 





& gode crounes of gold on here hedes graif ed, 

f e hert fat 3ou helped * so hastili wif strengf e, 

f e lyon & f e lebard to 3our prisourc ladde, 

& alle f e bremest bestes brou^t [to] 1 3our wille, 

what fat it tokenef telle wol ich sone. 

It is a ful kud kni3t schal come 3ou to help, 

& fu[r]th 2 his dou^thi dedes destruye fis werre, 

& cacche f e king of spayne f urth his cler strengf e, 

& sef fe after is sone * fat al f e sorwe is fore, Ap 2941 

& put hem in 3our prison f e proddest of hem alle 

schul be buxu?w at 3our wille & blinne al fis fare, 

& meke hem to 3our merci fat now be misseproude. 

& fat ilke kud kni3t fat schal f e kome to help, 2945 

I not where he schal 3ou to wiue welde, 

but i wot wisli he worf * king of fis reaume. 

also fat werwolf fat wif f e hertes comes, 2948 

he is a kud kni3t & schal be kud wide, 

& f urth him, sof li, i se * f e king schal be deliuered, 

& put out of prisouft & god pes be maked. 

his sone & alle of er schul be 3our hole frendes, 2952 

& schul restore riuedli f e reddpur fat was maked. 

f urth f ilke werwolf 36 schul wite of 3oure sone 

fat 36 long haue for-lore leue me for sof e, 

& him winne a-^en at wille wif -inne a schort time. 

& redli, of 3our rijt arm fat ouer rome streyt, 2957 

I se wel f e signifiauwce fis schal f er-of falle ; 

f i sone schal wedde swiche a wif to weld wif al 

I will tell you 1 all. 

A knight shall 
come to help you, 
and take prisoner 

[Fol. 47 b.] 
the king of 
Spain and his son. 

And whether he 
is to wed you or 
not, he will be 
king of this realm. 

The werwolf is a 
knight too, and 
shall deliver the 
king of Spain. 

as kind keper & king i knowe wel fe sof e. 2960 

& lelli, of f i lift arm fat ouer spaine lay, 

fat bi-tokenef treuli * as tellef my bokes, 

fat fi dou3ti sone * schal fi dere dorter 3iuen 2963 

f e kinges sone of spayne when f e a-cord is maked ; 

fat sche be ladi of fat lond f i left arm bi-tokenef. 

1 Read " brou3t to 3our wille." M. 

2 Read " fourth." M. See next line. 


Through him you 
shall hear of your 

Your son shall 
govern also all 

and your daughter 
shall be queen of 



The queen, on 
hearing this, 
weeps for joy, 

[Pol. 48.] 
and prays the 
priest to say a 
mass to make 
her dream come 

She looks from 
her chamber 
towards the 

and as she 
watched, she sees 
the hart and hind 
embracing each 
other joyfully. 

She could not 
hear what they 
said, but she 
watched them a 
long while, 

till night came on. 

After supper, 
her knights 
bewailed their 
evil case, 

now haue i said of 30111" sweuen sof li as wol falle, 

& treuly al f is schal he-falle wif -inne a scliort terme." 

."TTThan fat loueli ladi hade listened his wordes, 2968 
& herd seie fat sche schold hire sone a-^en 


wonderli for ioye sche wept for f o wordes, 
& sorwfuliche sche sijt last out schold it lett ; 
Lest any fals fortune for-dede him furth sinne. 2972 
but buxumli fat bri^t lady fan busked to hire chapel, 
& praied hire prest par charite * a masse to singe, 
of f e trinite in trone, to twrne hiio sweuen to ioye. 
deliuerli he it dede deuouteliche & faire, 2976 

& sef f en fat comli ladi cayres to hire chauwber, 
& weued vp a window fat was toward f e place 
fere as f e hert & f e hinde hadde take here reste. 
fere fat semli ladi hire set out forto loke, 2980 

& strek in-to a styf studie * of hire sterne sweuen, 
waytend out at window while sche so f o^t 
& vnder a louely lorel tre in a grene place, 
sche saw fe hert & f e hinde lye collinge in-fere, 2984 
Makende f e most ioye fat man mijt deuise, 
wif alle comli cotttenaurcce fat f ei kif e mi^t ; /J* 
haden here priue pleyes of paramoures wordes, 
but sof li, of nou^t fat f ei seide * mi^t f e quen here. 
but of here selcof e solas samera fat f ei made, 2989 
so gret wonder wait f e quen * of f e worf bestes 
but lenede f er f e long day to lok out at f e windowe, 
to se f e selcouf signes * of f e semli bestes, 2992 

til f e day him wif-drow in-to f e derk nijt, 
fat f e lady no lenger mijt loke on f e bestes. 
fan tiffed sche hire treuli & turned in-to halle, 
Made a-mowg hire meyne as mine as sche couf e. 2996 
whan f ei samen hade souped & sef f e whasche after, 
here l kni^tes & hire cuwseile kome hire vntille, 

1 "Here" would be more uniform if it were written "hire," 
but this change may be observed in a few other passages M. 



Munged newe her meschef how nei} f ei inisferde j 
how here walles were broke wif engynes strong, 
here bretages al a-boute for-brent & destroyed, 
fat f ei mijt no more meintene ]je sege. 

3000 how the walls and 
battlements were 

"Nan pat comli quene ful curtesly saide, 

J " lordinges, $e ar my lege mew f e lasse & f e more, 

& sworn eche bi his side to sane mi rijt, 3005 

& manliche men ben beter mow non Hue. 

f er-fore, lordinges, for his loue fat let vs be founned, 

& for 3our owne worchipe witef me fro schaf e 3008 

}ut fro??z f ise wicked men fat wold me spille. 

& but god of his grace * sum god help vs sende, 

I wol worche al jour wille wif-out ani faile, 

whef er i merci schul craue or meyntene f is werre. 

treuli, $if me bitide fis tene to a-schape, 3013 

wif richesse i wol ^ou reward forto riche for euer, 

so fat treuli ^our trauail nou^t schul }e tine." 

& alle here gomes were glad of hire gode speche, 3016 

& seden at o sent " wat so tide wold after, 

f ei wold manli bi here mijt meyntene hire wille, 

so long as here lif lasted to ^elden hem neuer." 

fan fat comly quen ful curtesli hem f onked, 3020 

& busked hem fat time blif e to bedde, 

& redly token here rest til ri.$t on f e niorwe. 

fan fat comli quen ketli vp rises, 

biddande bisili hire bedes buskes to hire chapel, 3024 

& made hire prest moyses sone a masse to sing, 

& prestli fat while preyed to f e king of heuen, 

& to his milde moder fat alle men helpef , 

fat f ei hire socour sende sone bi time. 3028 

whan f e masse was don sche went to hire chau??iber, 

weited at f e windowe wer sche f e bestes seie, 

& seie hem in f e same place f er as [f ei] 1 were ere, 

<fe hendli eif er of er fan colled in armes. 3032 

1 Eead " J?er as \>ei were ere." M. 
7 * 

She addresses 
them, and exhorts 
them to be firm. 

[Fol. 48 6.] 

Unless God sends 
help soon, she 
will surrender. 

She promises 
them rich 

Her knights 
swear never to 

She thanks them, 
and retires. 

Next day, she aska 
Moses to sing 
another mass, 

and afterwards 
watches from her 



The hot sun had 

cracked the hides 

of the hart and 


and the queen 

sees their clothes. 

She points out 
the beasts to 
the priest. 

[Fol. 49.] 
He says her 
dream is coming 

" You know about 
the emperor of 
Rome's daughter, 

who fell in love 
with a bold 

and how they 
fled from Borne in 
two bears' skins. 

These are they 
yonder ! 

You must contrive 
to get them 


f e hote sunne hade so hard f e hides stiued, 

fat here comli closing fat keuered hem f er-vnder 

f e quen saw as sche sat out bi J)e sides sene, 

& wex a-wondred f er-of wittow for sof e. 3036 

to ciwseil sche clepud hir prest f e comli quen sone, 

& schewed him f e si^t * of f e semli bestes ; 

& sone so he hem sey * he seide to f e quene, 

" for mary loue, madame desmaye ^ou no lenger, 3040 

for f e mater of f e [metyng] 1 mi^tow here finde, 

as i descriued f is ender day whan f ow f i drem toldest. 

& ^e han herd here-bi-fore how it bi-tidde in rome, 

fempmmrs dorter was ^eue femperours 2 sone of 



but no man mi^t here make fat mariage to holde 

for sche hade arst leide hure loue on a better place, 

on on f e kuddest kni^t knowen in f is worlde, 

best of his bodi, boldest & braggest in armes ; " 3048 

& bof e f ei busked of rome in'tvo beres skinnes, 

sif f e f ei hent hertes skinnes but hou, wot i neuer. 

but saufly f is may [i] 3 seye & Jje sof e prone, 

fe ^ond is ]?at semly and his selue make. 3052 

he schal wi^tli fis werre * winne to an hende, 

& bring ]>e from alle bales to fi bote in hast, 

& deliuer fi londes a-^en in lengfe & in brede. 

Jjer-for no more of J?is mater * is to muwge noufe, 3056 

but bi-fenke how ]?e best J>o bestes to winne, 

jjat fe kni3t & fat komli were kome to $our chauraber." 

The queen 
thought she too 
would be sewed 
in a hind' 

i priest gets a 
hide for her. 

"Uan fa komeli quen kast in hire hert, 3059- 

* sche wold wirche in f is wise wel to be sewed 

In an huge hindes hide as f e of er were, 

& busk out to f e bestes & vnder a busk ligge, 

til sche wist what f ei were }if f ei wold speke. 306$ 

prestli f e prest fan proueyed hire swiche an hide, 

1 Read " mater of the metyny." M. 2 MS. fempmmwrs, 
3 Read " may seye." M. 



& driuew for]? fat day to ni^t fan drou$ f ei to reste. 

but f e quen er f e day was di^t wel to ri^tes 

hondli in fat hinde-skyn * as swiche bestes were, 

& bi a priue posterne passad ou^t er dale, 3068 

& a-bod vnder a busk ])ere f e bestes leye, 

so priueli, but f e prest non parceyue nn^t, 

but on of hire burw^-maydenes fat sche loued most. 

f ei stoden stille hire to a-bide wif-inne a posterne 

jate, 3072 

& whan f e surcne gan here schewe l * & to schine bri}t, 
f e hende hert & hinde * bi-gunne to a-wake, 
& maden in-fere f e niest murf e * fat man mi^t diuise, 
wijj clipping & kessing and contenauwce fele, 3076 
& talkeden bi-twene mani tidy wordes. 4*** 
& wilh'am fan witeiii f ise wordes seide, 
" a ! loueli lemmarc a long time me f inkif , 
sef f en fat i saw f i semli face bare ; 3080 

sore me longes it to se }if it mi^t so worf e." 
"bi marie," seid meliors " so dos me as sore, 
$our bri^t ble to by-hold * but beter is $ut a-bide. 
we wol nou$t krepe of f ese skinnes lest vs schafe 

tidde, 3084 

til our buxura best * }if vs bof e leue. 
for he be tokene whan time is wol titli vs wisse, 
what wise fat we schal our owne wedes take." 
" treuli, sweting, fat is sof " seid willmm f anne, 3088 
" a gret f rowe me f inkes er fat time come ; 
but wold god f e quen wist what we were, 
& wold hastli me help of horse & gode armes, 
I wold socour hire sone * fram al f is sory werre, 3092 
& pult hire out of f is peril in pure litel while ; 
but of vs wot sche nou^t wo is me f er-fore. 
nere it, swetyng, for f i sake of my-self i ne rou^t ; 
for moche meschef hastow had onli for mi sake." 3096 
"Meschef, sire," saide meliors "nay, murcge fat no more; 
1 MS. " schewed." Read " schewe." M. 

Arrayed in this, 
she goes to the 
park, and the 
priest and a 
wait for her. 

At sunrise, the 
hart and hind 
[Fol. 49 6.1 
awake and 

William says he 
longs to see 
Melior's face. 

Melior says they 
must not creep 
out of the skins 
till the werwolf 
gives the hint. 

William wishes 
the queen knew 
who he was, 

and would provide 
him with a horse 
and armour. 

Melior says she is 
well contented. 



The queen hears 

Meiior tells a 

dream how an 

eagle had taken 



William and 

for leuer me is f is lif to liaue to line wif f e here, 
fan to winne al f e world & want J)e of si^t." 
fan clipt fei & keste * & of fat karping left, 3100 

& bi a busch lay f e quen bi here-self one, 
& herde holli f e wordes fat fei hade seide. 
& meliors in f e mene time to will-a'am mekli saide, 
" swetyng, sore i was a-drad of a sweuen ?er-while j 
Me fo^t fanne an 1 ern er euer i was ware, 3105 

hade vs vp take in-to fat hei^e toure ; 
whef er it geyne to gode or grame, wot i neiur." 
. "nay, i-wisse," sede wilKam " i wot wel fe sofe, 31 OS 
fat it gaynef but god for god may vs help." 
& as f ei laykeden in here laike f ei lokede a-boute, 
& bleynte bi-hinde fe busch & sei3en as bliue, 

now an huge ^ nde ' held hire > ere at re st. 3112 

" bi marie," seide meliors * " me f inkif fat best slepef ^ 

& semef nou3t a-drad of vs to deme f e sofe." 

4< no, i-wisse," seide wilKam " i ne wot whi it schuld ; 

It wenef fat we ben ri^t swiche as it-silue ; 3116- 

^ or we ^ e so sotiliche be-sewed in f ise hides. 

-^ wist it wigli . ^^Q^Q ^ est es we were, 

It wold fle our felaschip * for fere ful sone." 
"nay, bi crist," sede fe quen * "fat al 


I nel fle ful fer for fere of 30113 tweyne. 
I wot wel what 36 ar & whennes 36 come, 
al f e kas wel i knowe fat 36 am komen inne." 
William wonders, willmm wex a-wondred whan he f ise wordes herd, 
frightened. & meliors fe nieke * wex nei3h mad for fere. 3125 

but wilKam ful hastly fus to fe hinde sede, 
wmiam conjures " I cowiure f e, f urth crist * fat on croice was peyned, 
whether it is a fatou titli me telle * & tarie nou3 no lenger, 3128 

four fiend!* OI whef er f ow be a god gost in goddis name fat spekist r 
oif er any foule fend * fourmed in f ise wise, 
& $if we schul of f e hent * harme of er gode." 
1 MS. " Me Jjou3t er}>en ar era, &c.' r 

wmiam says it 

seem, or it would 

"Nay," said the 

queen, "I know 
who ye are." 





T-%an fat comli quen ful curtesli saide, 3132 

-* "I am swiche a best as 30 ben bi him fat vs wrou^t. 

harm for me, i hope schul 36 haue neuer ; 

for as gost on goddis name ich gaynli to 3011 speke, 

of swiche kinde ar we kome bi crist, as 36 arn. 3136 

but of er breme bestes * by maistrye & strengf e, 

han me dulfiilli driuen fro my kinde lese. 

ber-for i soust hider socour of be to haue, 

& praie fe par charite * & properliche for reube, 3140 

deliuer me of duresse & do me haue my lese, ^ few 

& lelli f ow schalt be lord f er-of al f i lif time. 

& fat menskful maide * fat fere myd f e lies, 

schal be mi lef lady fis lordchip to weld. 3144 

for f e real emperour of rome is redeli hir l fader, 

forf i wel i wot sche is worf i to weld wel more, 

I knowe al f e couyne of cuntre how 36 went, 

& 36 ben welcom to me * bi crist fat me made. 3148 

& of sorwe i haue suffred sone wol i telle. 

f e proude king of spayne wif pride me bi-segef , 

& haf luf erli al mi lond wif his ludes wasted, 

& al fis duresse he me dof . for my dorter sake ; 3152 

asent wold sche nou^t his sone to wif hire weld, 

f er-for he worchef me wo & wastef al my londes, 

saue onliche in fis cite where soiourne wot i neuer. 

but help hope i in hast to haue of f e one ; 3156 

to amende my meschef i meke me in f i grace, 

& pleyn power i fe grauwt prestli alse swife, 

to lede al my lordchip as f e lef likes ; 

boute eny maner mene * mayster i f e make ; 3160 

wif-f atow winne al my worchip as i ere wait." 

ban was will-iam gretli glad & oft god bonked, 

. . . 

whan he wist it was f e quen * & w^tli he sayde, 
" Madame, by fat menskful lord fat vs alle made, 
$if i fis time mijt trust treuli to 3our sawe, 3165 

so fat 36 wold lelli my lemman saue & loke, 


harm them > 

that fact > 8 ^e 

implores him to 

aid her, and he 
f Fo1 - 50 & -3 

her lands, 

but she hopes to 

have William's 

help against him, 

wmiam rejoiced 

when he knew 

the queen, 

1 MS. " his," altered to " hir " by a later hand. 



and promises to 
serve her 

All three go 
together to the 

The bower- 
woman, who was 

[Fol. 51.] 
waiting, was 
nearly mad with 

but the queen 
reassures her, 

and asks if she 
does not know 
her again. 

She says she is 
frightened of the 

The queen tells 
her to keep 
it all a seeret. 

whil i busily buske a-boute 30111 bales to bete, 

al my help holliche 36 schul haue at nede ; 3168 

feif li boute feyntise * 3011 faile schal ich neuer, 

as long as any lif me lastes, for sof e." 

Gretli was f e quen glad & godli him f onked, 

& loueli him & his lemmas laujt bi fe handes, 3172 

& ferden for]) on here fet feif li to-gadere 

priueli to f e posterne & in passed sone. 

& jit stod f e maide stille f e quen to a-bide, l^ 

& whan sche saw fo fre bestes so froli come, *'' 3176 

so hidous in f o hides as f ei hertes were, 

sche wex wod of hire wit wittou, for fere ; 

& rapli gan a-way renne to reken f e sof e. 

but fat comli quen called hire a-jene, 3180 

& earful [sche] * com whan sche hire clepe herde. 

" whi carestow," sede fe quene * " knew f ow noujt f e 


fat i was tiffed in a-tir when i wend fro fe 1 " 
" jis, madame," k sede f e maide " but, bi marie of heuen, 
but i a-wede neie3 of wit for fo werder bestes, 3185 
fat folwe 3our felachip so ferli f ei are." 
" f ei wol do no duresse * bi dere god of heuen ; 
for hem i went in fis wise to win in-to fis place. 3188 
but loke now, bi f i lif . fat no lud here-of wite, 
how f ei hider come her-after neuer more." 
" nay, bi marie, madame " f e maide fan seide, 
" fis dede schal i neuer deschuuer f e deth forto suffer." 

The queen takes 
them to a chamber 
in the tower. 


Two baths are 
soon made ready 

comli quen fan takef meliors by fe hande, 3193 
& bi-fore went william * & after-ward f e quene ; 
brou3t hem to a choys chaumber * vnder f e chef toure, 
f[er]e 3 were beddes busked for eny burn riche. 3196 
& tvo baf es were boun by a litel while, 

1 Perhaps better thus, " earful sche com." M. 

2 MS. " made ;" see 11. 2701, 3191. 
MS."Je." Read " there." M. 


& a-tired tryli to trusty trewe lordes. 

sone f e quen kau^t a knif & komli hire-selue 

william & his worf i fere * swiftli vn-laced 3200 

out of f e hidous hidus & in a hirne hem cast. 

& whan f ei were closed worf li in here wedes, 

alle men vp07^ mold nujt sen a fair coupel 

fan was bi-twene wilh'am & f is worf i mayde. 3204 

f e quen hire clipt & kest & gret comfort made, 

& sef f en bliue dede hem baf e * bof e tvo wel faire, 

& greif ed hem gaili * in garnemens riche, 3207 

& manli made hem atte hese * wif alle metes nobul, 

& wif v f e de[r]worf est l deintes of drinkes fat were ; 

to mu?2ge more nis no ned nou^t missed f ei f anne. 

whan f ei merili at mete * hade made hem at ese, 

fat comli quen to wilh'am curtesli saide, 3212 

" swete sire, 36 me saye what signe is f e leuest 

to haue schape in f i scheld to schene armes ? " 

"bi crist, madame," sede fe kni3t "i coueyte nou^t 


but fat i haue a god schelfd] * of gold graif ed clene, 
& wel & faire wif-inne * a werwolf depeynted, 3217 
fat be hidous & huge * to haue alle his ri3tes, 
of f e couenablest colour to knowe in f e feld ; . 
ofer armes al my lif atteli neuer haue." ^*** ' ' 3220 
f e quen fan dede comauwde to carfti 2 men i-nowe, 
fat deuis him were di3t er fat day eue, 
to wende in-to werre * in world where him liked ; 
fat was pe?les a-parrayl to proue of alle gode. 3224 


The queen with a 
knife unlaces the 

William and 
Melior seem a 
fair couple. 

[Fol. 51 b.] 
They bathe, and 
are richly dressed 
and go to meat. 

The queen asks 
William what 
cognisance he 
will have on his 

He replies " . 
werwolf on a 
shield of gold.' 

The queen has it 
made for him. 

A Iso fat comli quen as fat crist wold, 
**f hade on f e sturnest stede in hire stabul tehed. She had in her 

stable a very 

fat euer man vpow molde n^t of heren, spirited horse, 

& doutiest to alle dedes * fat any horse do schuld. 3228 husband's, 
f e king ebrourcs it ou3t fat was hire lord bi-fore, 
& fro f e day fat he deiede durst no man him nei3he, 
1 Read " derworthest." M. 3 Read " crafti." M. 



since Ebrouns' ne be so bold of his bodi on his bak to come, 3231 

death, no one had 

dared to mount but euer stod teied in fe stabul wif stef irn cheynes ; 
& queyntliche to his cracche was come swiche a weie, 
fat mew im^t legge him mete & wateren atte wille. 
f e horse sone hade sauor of fat hende knijt, 
[Foi. 52.] & wist, as god wold it was is kinde lord. 3236 

knowing w'iiiiam, as bliue, al his bondes he to-brak for ioye, 

brake all his 
bands for joy, 
and neighed 

And this is told to how sternli in be stabul be stede ban ferde, 

the queen. 

& had broke alle his bondes no burn durst 

& so gan fare wif his fet & ferliche nei3ede, 

fat men wend he hade be wod * & warned f e quene, 

wmiam hears whan willmm herde bise wordes g he saide to be quene.. 

about it, and asks 

what sort of a " Madame, 1 what stede is fat fat so sterne is hold 1 ? 
Is he ou^t dou^ti to dedes fat men don of armes 1 " 
" 3a, certes," saide f e quen * " sof for to telle, 3245 
a worf ier to fat werk wot i non in erf e, 
3if any man vpow mold rni^t wif him dele. 

"it was Ebrouns' he was mi lordes, wil he liuede * fat i so moche louede, 
& for his loue sertenli i do f is stede ^eme." 3249 

" Mademe," sede will/am * " $if it were 3 our wille, 
I wold preie par charite & profit fat may falle, 
i for fat i most haue fat horse whan i schal haue to done. 



I wol to medis my-self manliche him 
sette vpo/i his sadel & .semli him greif e." 

She says he may certes ," sede be quen "i seie be at onis, 

have whatever 

he pleases; he 
thanks her. 

holli of al fat i haue * here i make f e maister, 
to do f er-wif bi day & nijt as f e god f inkes." 
f er-of was wilh'am glad & wi3tli here f onkes, 
fan asked f ei f e win * & went to bedde after, 
for it was forf [to] ni^t 2 faren bi fat time. 

"Pveliuerli on f e morwe er f e day gan dawe, 
Next day, the *-' be stiward of spavne * bat stern was & bold, 

teward of Spain f 

hadde bi-seged fat cite selcouf eli hard 



1 MS. Madama." 

2 See note. 


wif f re M. of men fat fro were to fyt. S fi^ 3264 

& f o f e segges of f e cite sone were ^are, 

as dou^ti men of dedes * defence for to make, EFoL 52 6.] 

3erne schetten here 3ates & 3emed f e walles. 

for of f o wif-inne non wold hem out aunter, 3268 ^t^nSi 

so fele were of here fon * & so fewe wif-inne. a sall y- 

f e cry rudli a-ros fat reuf e it was to hure, 

for f ei wif-inne f e toun swiche meschef were iraie. 

fat fei witterli wende haue be wonne fat daye. 3272 

titli was f e tiding * told in f e paleys, 

how felli here fomen gun fi3t atte walles. 

whan wilKam bat wiste whtli vp he stirte* wiiiiam is glad 

at the news, and 

as glad as any gome fat euer god wrou3t, 3276 dons his armour, 

fat he mijt his fille fi^i, ' for fat fre quene. 

anow he was armed at alle maner poyntes, 

& strei3t him in-to the stabul fere f e stede stod, stable! 63 

& moche folk him folwed fat ferli to bi-hold, 3280 

how sternli he & f e [stede] 1 schold sti3tli_to-gadere. $w>* ~* 

& as sone as f e kni3t kud konie to f e stabul, 

fat f e stede him of-saw sone he vp-leped, 

& faire wif his fore fet kneled doun to grounde, 3284 The horse 

to him on its 

& made him f e most ioye fat [manj mi$t deuise, 2 forelegs, and i 

& alle frekes fat him folwed * gret ferli hade. 

f e stede stod ful stille fou^li he sterne were, 

while be kniat him sadeled & clanli him greibed : The knight 

* saddles him and 

& wan vp wrjtn him-self whan he was 3are, 3289 mounts. 
& schuft his scheld on is schulder a scharp spere on 


& gerd him wif a god swerd for any man in erf e. 
f e stede liked wel f e lode his lord whan he felte, 3292 
he wist him ^ht of dede & wel coude ride, 
& braundised so bremli * fat alle burnes wondred 
of f e comli cuwtenaimce of f e kni3t fat he bare. 

Read " the stede schold stiztli." M. 

Read " that man mizt deuise." A common phrase. M. See 
11. 2985, 3075. 



[Fol. 53.] 
All are blithe to 
behold the 

The queen and 
her daughter 
praise him, and 
say it will be a 
lucky woman who 
marries him. 

Melior is alarmed 
at this, 

thinking she 
would rather 
have William 
than all the 
world's wealth 
without him. 

William rides 
through the city, 

and comes to 
where the 
defenders held 
their council. 

They rejoice at 
his bold bearing. 

FFol. 53 &.] 

so schene he was to se in his semli armes, 3296 

fat alle burnes were Wife to bi-hold him one ; 
for so semli a seg * had f ei nou^t 3016 seie. 
fat quen & hire doubter * & meliors f e schene 
wayteden out at a windowe wilfulli in-fere, 3300 

how that komeli kni^t kunteyned on his stede. 
f e quen & here doubter deuised him so moche, 
& preisede him perles for eny prince in erf e, 
<fc seiden, " wel is fat womman * fat he wold haue ! 
vnder crist, is no kni^t fat so kud semef ! " 3305 
Meliors al f is mater what it ment herde, 
& was a-drad to f e deth * f ei deseuy here wold, 
to winne willzam here fro * fat f ei so wel praysede, 
& seide softili to hire-self f ese selue wordes, 3309 
" Lord, }if f e hade liked leuer me hade bene 
haue woned in wildernesse l wif mi lemman swete, 
fan wonye here in al f e welf * of f e world riche, 3312 
to lese mi lemman fat al mi loue weldes." 
swiche mistrowe had meliors for f ei so moche lura 

VTow wilh'am on his sterne stede now stifli forf rides, 

^ so serreli furth f e cite al him-self one, 3316 

fat eche wei}!! was a-wondred fat sei} wif ei^en, 

so coraious a cowtenauwce fat kud kni^t hadde. 

William prestili priked f er f e puple was sembled, 

& alle f e solempne segges fat f e cite ^emed, 3320 

bold barounes & kni^tes * & of er segges 2 nobul. 

& whan f ei were war of wilKam * wilfulli alle, 

f e komynge of f e kuntenauwce of f e kni^t nobul 

f ei bi-helden hertly * & hadden gret ioye, 3324 . ' jj 

fa so manli a man wold rnele in here side. /^^^ 

f e nobul blonk fat him bar a[s] 3 bliue f ei knewe, 

1 MS. 

2 MS. 

3 Read " as bliue." M. 

wirderneffe." Read " wildernesse." M. 
segeges." Read "segges." M. 



"but witterli what lie was wist non of alle. 
wilKam strei^t went hem to & wi3tli saide, 3328 

' leue lordes, for goddes loue lestenes my sawe ! 
it semeth fat 36 ar segges selkouf ely nobul, 
& bold burnes to abide in batayles harde, 
& wel armed 36 arn at alle maner poyntes. 3332 

whi lete 36 foulli 3our fon for-barre 5011 her-inne, 
& do 3011 alle J>e duresse fat f ei deuise konne, 
& 36 do no defence fat despyt to wreke, 
but couwardli as caitifs couren here in meuwe? 3336 
Men, for 3oure manchipe * na more fat suffref , 
but wendef ou3t wi3tli & wif jour fon metef , 
hauef reward to jour ri3t * & redli chul 36 spede ; 
& 30 wite f ei do wrong f e worse schul f ei happe. 3340 
jif 36 manli wif hem mete * f e maistry worf oure, 
f ei3h f ei be fiue so fele as we in-fere alle. 
& 36 fat wilne to wynne worchipe in armes, 
folwef me, for in feif f e ferst wil i bene, 
fat smertli schal smite f e alderfirst dint " : 
& jerne opened f e 3ates * & 3epli out rides, 
whan f e bold knijtes hade herde fat burnes wordes, 
& sey him so fersli forf fare so bi-fore hem alle, 3348 
f ei wist he was a wijt man & wold nou3t faile l 
but fat he schuld hem help f ei hoped for sof e. 
& foure hundred fers men folwed him after, 
of koraious knijtes & of er kud kempes, 
fat for to liuen or deyen * litel hem roujt. 
& whan wilKam was war wiche a route sewede, 
he was gainli glad no gom f urt him blame, 
& a-bod til f e burnes a-boute him were come. v< 
f e spaynolnes hem hade a-spiede & spakli gun ride, 
wif gret bobaunce & bost blowand here trompes ; 
for f ei seij so fewe out of f e cite come 
ajens hem fre .M. f ei ne tok non hede 
to reule hem of non array but rijt> for gret pride, 
i MS. "falle." Read "faile." M. 

They know the 
horse, but not the 

harangues them, 

asking them why 
they let their 
foes bar them in. 

He exhorts them 
to make a sally, 

and their courage 
will supply their 
lack of numbers. 

3344 He will go first, 
and strike the 
first blow. 

He opens the 
gates, and rides 

Four hundred 
bold men follow 

3352 him. 



[Fol. 54.] 

The Spaniards 
attack them. 

3360 being 3,000 in 



William exhorts 

to yield no inch 
of ground. 

eche burn bi-fore of er on his blonk prikede, 

to asayle f e segges fat fro f e cite come. 

willi'am seide to his whie3s wittili for sof e, 3364 

" Lordinges & leue frendes listenes to my sawes ! 

f 63!! 30 be ferd of 3our fon * fief neuer f e sunner ; 

f e bolder ou3t we be * f ei ben out of araie. 

stonde we stifli to-gader stifly in defens, 3368 

& ne leses no lond lordinges, god for-bede ! 

They array 
themselves in 
good order. 

The Spanish 
king's steward 
leads the attack. 

Let each man \eche lud f enk on his lemma?* & for hire loue so fijt, 

love*! f a 7 " to winne worchip f er-wif * in worlde for euer-more. 

& in feif, f ei3h eft as fele * of our fomen were, 3372 

deliuerli f urth 3our dedes schul f ei deie sone." 

kni3tes wif sire wilh'am kau3t [fanne] l god hert, 

& realiche were a-rai^ed,' in a litel while, 

In a ful styf strengf e to stonde to fi^t. 3376 

f er kom a kni3t to-fore f e companye of spayne, 

a stif man & a stern fat was f e kinges stiward, 

& cheueteyn was chose * fat eschel to lede. ^ 

& for boldnesse of his bodi be-fore alle he went, 3380 

armed at alle poyntes on a nobul stede. 

wuiiam perceives william was wi3tly whar of his come, 
& gamli to his gomes gan for to seie, 
"bi crist, 3ond kni3t fat komef here armed, 
dredef litel oure dedes * what-euer he do fink, 
but bi god fat me gaf f e gost & f e soule, 
I wol fonde be fe first in feld him to mete ; 
but our on titly tumbel trowe me neuer after." 
spacli boute speche his spere fanne he hente, 
& euen to fat stiward dede his stede renne, 
& manli as mi^ti men eif er mette of er, 
& spacli f e of eres spere in speldes fan wente. 
ac willmms was strong inow * wittow forsof e, 
& he so sternli f e stiward fat ilk time hitte, 
f urth f e bold bodi he bar him to f e erf e, 

earth, as dead aa as ded as dornayl te deme be sobe. 

a Hnnrnotl * 

1 See note. 

him coming, 

[Fol. 54 6.] 
and says he will 
be the first to 
meet him. 

encounters the 

and bears him 
down to the 

a doornail. 







*' I-wis," feiine seide william " i wot wel to wisse, 

f ow dost vs none?' after no duresse in armes ! " 

ac spacly f e spaynoles spewed he was slayne, 

fei were [wode] l of here witt wittow for sof e 

hastili hent vp his bodi & to here tentes here, 

])at it were nou^t in fat fi3t wit here horse troden, 

& as bliue boldli f e burnes of spayne, 

fou^t manli make wreche here lorlde 2 to queme, 3404 

for swiche a lorld 2 of lederes ne lined nou^t, fei held, 

non so dou^ti of dedns f er-for his deth a-wreke 3 

fei f ou^t f roli pat time what bi-falle after. 

The Spaniards, 
seeing him slain, 
3400 bear Ms body to 
their tents. 

They resolve to 
avenge him. 

A ful breme bataile bi-gan fat ilk time, 3408 

^**- whan eif er sides a-sembled of f o segges sturne. 
Mani a spere spacli on peces were to-broke, 
& many a schene scheld scheuered al to peces, 
Many helmes to-hewe fnrth here huge strokes. 3412 
& redili for to rekene al f e ri^t sof e, 
wilKam & his wijes so wonderli fou^ten, 
fat fei felden here fon ful fast to grounde. 
non mi^t here strok wij?-stond in fat stounde fan, 341 6 
so wel for wilh'ams werkes were fei fan herted. 
f e stiward had a newe but of 3ong age, 
on f e manlokest man * fat men schold of heren, 
& dottiest of dedes fat men schuld do in armes. 3420 
as swiftli as he wist fat his em was slawe, 
he f ou}t duelfulli fa deth fat day to a-wreke. 
armed at alle poyntes anon he f ider went, 
& presed in a-mang fe pepul f er it was fikkest, 3424 
& sone to hem of f e cite a-sembled he f anne, 
& fau^t fan so ferscheli for his ernes sake, 
he dude to dethe deliuerli fiue gode kni3tes, 

1 Read " were wode of here witt." M. 

2 Sic in MS. See 1. 3955. 

3 MS. " a wrekes." Read " a-wreke," or " a-wreken," in the 
infinitive. M. Cf. 1. 3422. 

Then began a 
fierce battle. 

Spears are 
broken, shields 
shivered, and 
helms hewn 

William's men 
fight well. 

[Fol. 55.] 

The steward's 

resolves to avenge 
his uncle's death, 

and slays five 
good knights. 



Wttliam forces 
bis way to him. 

The steward's 
nephew knows 
William by the 
werwolf on his 

Their spears 
break, and they 
fight with swords. 

William's sword 
grinds through 
helm and head 
down to the 

and he sends his 
foe's horse and 
the steward's 
horse to Melior 
as a present. 

fat bold were in bataile to a-bide at nede. 3428 

whan wilKam wist of fat werk * wittow forsof e, 

f er nas man vporc molde fat him nn^t lette, 

fat he ne perced f e pres prestili fat time, 

til he met wif fat man fat mijti was hold. 3432 

whan f e stiwardes newe * saAv wilKam come, 

bi f e werwolf in his scheld wel he him knewe, 

fat f e same seg hade slawe * his em f er-to-fore. 

& wi^tli as a wod man to wilKam he priked, 3436 

wif spere festened in fenter him for to spille. 

at f e a-coupyng f e kni^tes [speres] ' eif er brak on 


swiftli wif here swerdes * swinge f ei to-geder, 
& delten duelful deiites * deliuerli fat stounde. 3440 
& wilKam was f e wi^tere * & wel sarre smot, 
& set so hard a strok * sone after on fat ofer, 
f urth helm & hed hastili to f e brest it grint. 
f e swerd swiftili swenged f urth f e bode euen, 3444 
fat tit oner his hors-tail * he tumbled ded to grounde. 
fat ilk stoute kni^tes stede & f e stiwardes alse 
wilKam sent sone to his semli lemrnan, 
wher-of sche was geinli glad & oft god f onked, 3448 
fa he so wel hade wrou^t * in werre fat day. 

[Fol. 55 &.] 

The Spaniards 
turn to flight. 

William and his 
men pursue them 
6 miles, taking 
many prisoners. 

"TTTilKam 2 & his burnes fan in bataile were, 
so felly wif here fon fou^t fat ilke time, 
bi a stouftde was non so stef fat hem wif-stonde 
but were fayn for to fle eche bi-fore ofer, 
wel was him in f e world fat swifliest nn^t hi3e, 
ofer on hors ofer on fote for fere 3 of f e def e. 
& wilKam & his whiles went after sone, 
& maden manli f e chas mo fan fine mile, 



1 Read " the kniztes speres." M. 

2 The capital W is absent, but its place is marked by a very 
small w. 

3 MS. fore." Read " fere." M. 



& grete prisons & gode * goten f ei fat time ; 

fat meked hem nou$t to mercy manli ]jei slowe, 

& whan f ei time seie turned hem horn a-^ene, 3460 

heri^eden l heili god fat f ei wel had spedde. 

but holli wilU'ams werkes f ei wittened it alle, 

nade his dou^thi dedes be f ei hade be dede alle ; 

& louted to [him] as to lord j)e lasse & J>e more, 3464 

& eche a gom was gladdest * hoo gaynest him mi^t 


al f e sorwe ])ei hadde suffred [so] lang to-fore, 
fei sett it sofli at nou^t so glad were fei fan, 3467 
for f e dou^thi kni3tes dedus fat fat day hem helped, 
wif al f e murthe vporz. molde * f o n^thi men in-fere 
passeden to f e paleys proude of here dedes. 
f e comly quen & here doubter * com him a^ens, 
& jje me[n]skful meliors wi]> maydenes fele, 3472 
& welcomed wilKam as fei wel ou^te, 
wif clipping & kessing & alle kinde dedus. 
f e quen him loueli ladde * rijt to h[er]e chaumber, 
vn-armed him anon * & afterward clofed 3476 

clenliche for eny [kni^t] ]?at vnder crist liuede. 
]?an sete J>ei fre to solas hem at J?e windowe, 
euen oner ]>e ioly place fat to fat paleis longed, 
fere as f e quen fond wilKam & his faire make. 3480 
& as f ei waited a-boute wil f ei of murthe speke, 
willmms werwolf was comen f ider f anne, 
loked vpow f e ladies & his loueli maister, 
& held vp his foure-fet * in fourme to craue mercy, 3484 
& louted to hem loueli * and lelly f er-after, 
he went wi^tly a-wei whider him god liked. 
f e quen f er-of was a-wondred & to willmm seide, 
" sire, saw 36 f is selcouf e of f is semli best ? 3488 
wonder signes he wro^t what mai hit tokened" 
' ' 313, certes, madame " seide willtam f anne, 
<f i sei f e signes mi-self & sof li ich hope, 
1 Perhaps miswritten for " heri^ende." 

All -are aware 
that it was all 
William's doing. 

They forgot all 
their former 

The queen, her 
daughter, and 
Melior meet and 
welcome them. 

The queen 
unarms and 
clothes him. 

She sits with him 
and Melior at the 
window looking 
out on the park. 

The werwolf 
appears, and 
[Fol. 66.] 
holds up his 
fore feet as in 
supplication, and 
goes his way. 

The queen asks 
what he means. 




William says it is 
a good sign. 

The queen tells 
her story how 
she had a son 
named William, 

who, when 4 years 
old, was playing 
in the park, 

when a werwolf 
caught him up 
and ran off with 

The king and 
his men pursued 
him over mires 
and mountains, 
but in vain. 

The werwolf leapt 
into the sea, and 
was seen no 

It bi-toknef gret god fat greif li schal vs falle." 3492 
" 30, 3if cn'st wol," quod f e quen " [fat] l on croyce 

deied ; 

but, sire, whan i se fat "best fat f o signes made, 
a sorwe sinkef to mi hert i schal ^ou telle whi. 
sum time, sire, here-to-fore a semli sone i hadde, 349ft 
fat was hote wilKam i-wisse, as }e arn. 
feif li whan fat faire child was of foure $er eld, 
as my lord and i and of er ludes many, 
plei3ed vs her in f e park in place f er i 3ou fond, 3500 
for al f e world swiche a wolf as we here sei3en, 
It semeth ri}t fat selue bi semblant & bi hewe, 
com gapind a gret pace & cau3t vp mi sone, 
ri$t bi-fore his fader and of er frakes manye, 3504 
& went awey with him so wonderli fast. 
My lord & many a-nof er * manliche him sewed 
ouer mires & muwtaynes & of er wicked wei3es ; 
at f e last f ei him left for mi^th fat f ei couf e. 350& 
forf with my sone in-to f e see fat scri best leped, 
so fat i herde hider-to neuer of him more. 
& certes, sire, for fat sone i hade gret sorwe, 
whan i fenk on fat sorwe it firles my hert." 3512" 

remembers how 
he was found by 
the cowherd, 

but reflects that 
the queen said 
her son was 

He tells her he 
will stand in her 
son's stead. 

She thanks him, 
and gives him 
fall powers. 

TTTilKam was in a wer fat it were him-selue. 

how f e couherd fe king told it cam him in 


fat he him fond in f e forest in faire riche clofes. 3515 
but sche seide fat hire sone was in f e see dronked, 
& f e wolf also * fat him a-wei bare, 
f e f roli f 0113! fat liim meued f er-of fat ilk time 
sone he let ouer-slide & seide to fe queue, 351{> 

fat sche schuld make hire merie hire meyne to glade, 
& he wold in hire sones stede stand euer at nede. 
sche ful godli gan him f onke & gaf him hoi mijth, 
to meyntene al hire god * as maister in his owne. 
1 Read " the quen, that on croyce deied." M. 



fan talked f ei of of er tales til time were to soupe, 

& were serued bi ese as hem-self wold, 3525 

& so driuerc forth f e day . til f e derke ni3t, 

with al f e mirthe vp07^ mold fat man n^th deuise. 

f is lessouw let we of hem ' & lest en we a-nof er ; 3528 

of f e spaynolus wol i speke how spacli f ei fled ; <JM 

f ilke fat went with f e lif a-wei fro fat sthoure, A 

spakli to f e king of spayne f ei sped hem fat time, 

& seide to him & his sone f e cas fat was falle, 3532 

which a kni^t com hem a-^enis conquered alle of er, 

so sterne he was & stoute & swiche st[r]okes lent ; 

was now so stif stelen wede fat with-stod his wepen ; 

& how he in f e stour f e stoute stiward slow, 3536 

and his nobul neuew a-non ri^t f er-after ; 

& bede wi^tli hem awreke of f e wicked harme, 

or alle mew vpow mold mi^th hem schame speke ; 

so fele of here frendes * in f e feld were slayne, 3540 

fat it was a sorful sijt * to se how it ferde. 

whan f e king & his cowseil herde of f is cas, 

a selcouf sorwe he made & his sone als, 

fat was a ful kud f n^t & kene ma?z in armes. 3544 

he was wod of his wit for wraf f e of fat dede, 

& praised prestili f is poynt anon of his fader, 

fat he most on f e morwe with a mi^thi ost 

wende to a-wrek hem of fat wicked dede. 3548 

& }if he mette with fat kni^t fat is so mi^thi hold, 

he swor sadli is of as tit to his fader, 

fat he fro f e bodi [wold] l haue his hed sone, 

of er tit take him a-liue no ^ain-torn schuld lette. 3552 

f er-of f e king was geynli glad & grauwted his wille, 

bad him worche whan he wold & wend whan him 


f e kinges sone aswif e let sembul miche puple, 
& triced him to a tidi ost of f e tide3ist burnes, 3556 
fat he mi^th in f e mene time in any maner gadere. 

i Read "fro the bodi wold haue," M. 
8 * 

They sup and 
make merry till 

The Spaniards 
who fled told the 
king of Spain and 
his son of 

and how he had 
slain the steward 
and his nephew, 
whom the king 
ought to avenge. 

The king's son 
begs his father 
that he may lead 
a host to 

He swears to 
have William's 
head, or to take 
him alive. 

[Fol. 57.] 

He gets a host 


Manli on f e morwe he dede his mew greif e 
Gaili as gomes mi^t be in alle gode armes ; 

and takes the faire fan with his folk to f e feld he went 3560 

morrow. * bi-fore boldli him-self his batailes to araie. 
alle his burnes bliue in x batailes he sett, 
as redili arai^ed as any rink fort wilne. 

He has s,ooo men. & iij. M. fro men in his eschel were, 3564 

& alle bold burnes in batailes strong & bigge. 
f e kinges sone fan seide to his segges bold, 

He asks MS lords " Leue lordinges, for mi loue lelli me telles, 3567 
}if i encouwtre with f is kni^t fat f is kare worchef , 
how schal i him knowe what konichauws here he 
bere 1 " 

A knight says he " sertes, sere," seide a kni^t " so me wel time, 

fat kud kni}t is eth to knowe by his kene dedes, 

& bereth in his blasoim of a brit hewe 3572 

a wel huge werwolf wonderli depeinted ; 

fat man driues a-douw to dethe, fat [he] hittes." 

The king's eon " sone it schal be sene " seide f e kinges sone, 

be^een whoTs 011 " whefer of vs be wi}ttere to winne or to lese." 3576 


"YTow wol i a while of willmm here telle, 
William's men, -^ in what maner on f e morwe is men were araid, 

on the morrow, , , . , . , , . ... 

are well arrayed, deliuerli at f e dai di^t f ei were alle, 

treuli in al atir fat to werre longed. 3580 

He divides them & william ful wi3tthli as he wel couf e, 
set alle his segges * as f ei schuld bene, 
In sexe semli batailes * as fei schuld bene ; l 
al be-fore in f e frond * he ferde fan him-selue. 3584 

His horse's name ebrouws saurcdbruel so Imt his blonk nobul. 


saundbruei. & as sone as f e kinges sone saw him so come, 
The prince's men fast he freyned at his folk * what freke fat it were, 

polrtMt William & ^ geide ful gone . u for SQ ^ . t ig ^ kni ^^ 358g 

fat haf wrou3t al f is wo wel ou^t we him hate ; 

1 The last half of this line is clearly copied from the line 



alle lie dimes to fe deth fat his dint feles." 

]>e kinges sone forsoj>e ne seide f o na more, 

but gart his [stede] ! goo * and strei^et to him rides 

with his spere on feuter festened fat time. 3593 

whan wiLU'am was war & wist of his come, 

his men seiden sone it was f e kinges sone, 

& dou^thi man & deliuer in dedes of armes. 3596 

" lat me worf ," quaf wilKam * " fat schal i wite sone 

In feif f ou^h he hade fors of foure swiche of er, 

I wol fond with him fi$t f ou^h me tide f e worse." 

he dede fen his stef stede stert a god spede, 3600 

to f e kene kinges [sone] 2 * fat was a kni^t nobul. 

so kenli f ei a-cimtred at f e coupyng to-gadere, 

fat f e kni^t spere in speldes * alto-schiuered. 

ac wilKams spere was stef wittow for sof e, 3604 

& mette fat of er man in f e midde scheld, 

fat bof e him & his hors he hurles to grouwde ; 

& nei} hade broke his bak * so his blonk him hirt. 

william fan wijtli be f e auentayle him hent, 3608 

to haue with his swerd swapped of his hed ; 3 

but f e segges of spayne soujt to him 4 ^erne, 

to haue holpen here lord hastili }if f ei mijt ; 

& williams wi^es wi^itli ' went hem a^ens. 3612 

f o bi-gan fat batayle on bof e sides harde, 

feller saw neuer frek from adam to f is time ; 

sone was mani bold barn brou^t f er to ground, 

Mani scheldes schiuered & mani helmes hewen, 3616 

& many a stif stede strai3ed in fere blode. 

bold burnes of bodies * fere were on bof e sides, 

fat fayn were forto fijt & to fle hated. 

but wilKam so wonder wel fau^t fat ilke time, 3620 

1 Read "gart his stede goo." M. 

2 Read "the kene kinges sone that was." M. 

3 The MS. apparently has " heued," altered to " heade." See 
1. 3864. 

* MS. him to }erne;" and "to" is altered to "so" by a 
later hand. 

The prince rides 
at William, 

w ho is told it is 
the prince who 
is coming. 

William says he 
will fight him,- 

and rides to 
meet him. 

The prince's spear 

bat William's 
strikes the prince 
fairly, hurling 
horse and man to 
the ground. 

William is going 
to " swap " off 
his head, 

but the Spaniards 
come to the 

A general battle 
ensues, very 
severe and deadly- 

[Pol. 58.] 



William fights 
boldly, and 
prevents the 
rescue of the 

whom he drags 

and assigns to 
some citizens to 

The Spaniards 
again attempt a 
rescue, a fresh 
host coming oat 
of ambush. 

William keeps up 
his men's 

but perceives that 
the enemies are 
too numerous ; 


'-W l 

J wherefore he 
sjfl^ orders a retreat 
to the town. 

His men are 
successful in 
bringing the 
prince with them. 

Yeomen shut the 
gates and man 
the walls. 

fat no man fat he hit mi^th him with-stonde, 

& euer kept jje kinges l sone frara al his kene meyne, 

fat non rni^t him winne a-wei for worse ne for beter. 

& were hem lef of er lof wilham at last 3624 

keuered with f e kinges sone out of f e kene prese, 

& brou^t him out on his blonk of fat batayle sterne, 

& a-signed of citesens segges i-nowe, 3627 

to kepe wel f e kinges sone til f ei come to towne ; 

& f ei were blif e of fat bode & bisiliche fondede 

fast to ferke him forf ward as f ei faire mi^t. 

whan f e spaynols fat a-spied spakli f ei him folwed, 

and deden al fe duresse fat f ei do mijt. 3632 

a fersche ost hem to help * hastili f er come, 

fat was a-buschid f er bi-side in a brent greue. 

but whan wilKam was war & wist of here come, 

Manly he demeyned him to make his men egre, 3636 

bad hem alle be bold & busiliche fi^t, 

for here fon gun feynte & felde were manye. 

f e kinde cowfort of f e kni^t to is folk fat he made, 2 

were als fresch forto fi$t as f ei were on morwe. 3640 

but willmm say f er of er side * so fers & so breme, 

fat his men mi^t nou}t meyntene here owne, 

prestli to hold partjrj to puple fat hem folwed. 

for-f i he dede hem deliuerli * drawe toward towne, 3644 

& kepten wel f e kinges [sone] 3 for cas fat nii^t 


for ou^t fat here 4 enimys euer worche mi^t. 
f ei keuered with clene strengf e with him to towne, 
& f e segges of f e cite * but f o fat slayn were. 3648 
& ^epli ^omew fan dede f e $ates schette, 
& wi^ttili fan went * f e walles forto fende, 
so fat feif li of here fon no fors f ei ne leten. 

1 MS. " kenges." But see 11. 3591, 3601, 3625. 

2 A line lost (?) 

' Read " the kinges sone for cas." M. See 11. 3601, 3625. 
4 The MS. repeats the words fat here. 



"\T7ilKain with his wie^es * is wif-in f e cite nobul, 

ha]? conquered wif clene strengf e f e kinges sone 

of spayne, 

<fe passe)) with him & his puple to f e paleys euen, 
with al mirth vpora molde fat man mi3t deuise. 
f e quen him mett mekli wif maidenes fele, 3656 

<fe meliors & here dere doubter to deme f e sof e, 
wif alle worschip & wele willmm )jei receyued, 
wif clipping & kesseng & alle couf e dedes. 
& wilKam fan wi^tly wif-oute eny more, 3660 

f e kinges sone of spayne * spakli to hire 3alde, 
to putte in hire prisorw & peyne him as hire liked. 
& curtesli to fat kni^t gan sche knele f anne, 
forto f onk him f roli of fat faire jeft ; ,3664 

for he was mara vpon molde * fat sche most hated, 
& hade hir do most duresse for hire doubter sake, 
hastili in-to f e halle wif hem fan sche went, 
& ladde wilh'am as lord loueli in londe ; 3668 

& as bliue f e btirdes brou^t him to hire chaumber, 
.& vn-armed him anon & after-ward him clofed y / 
a,s komly as any kni^t vnder cn'st fort bene. x^"*/ 
eef en 3ede to sitte same to solas & to pleie 3672 

at a wid windowe fat was in f e chaumber, 
& gonne mekli to mene of many gode wordes. 
& as f ei saddest in here solas seten fat time, 
f e quen hertli gan bi-hold f e kene 3onge kni3t, 3676 
& here f ou3t fat time fat in f e world was neuer 
a liuande lud so lelli liche of er, 
as fat komli kni3t to f e king ebrouws, 
fat was lord whil he liued & fat lor[d]chipe welte. 3680 
& swiche a sorwe to hire sone sank to herte, 
jjat wi^tli gan sche wepe wonderly sore, 
whan wilh'am saw hire wepe * wrof li he seide, 3683 
" for seynt mary loue, madame whi make 30 f is sorwe ? 
^e schuld now make 3ow merie * 3our mene to glade, 
fat feynt ar for-fouten .in feld & for-wouwded. 

William takes the \ 
king of Spain's 
son to the queen's > 

[Fol. 58 &.] N 

and delivers Mm 
over to the queen. 

The queen thanks 
William heartily. 

The ladies unarm 
and clothe him. 

As they sit 
together in a 

the queen sees 
how very like 

William is to 
king Ebrouns, 

and she begins 
to weep. 

William says she 
ought rather to 


since her enemies to SUWme schuld 36 }! nOW ' ^iftes ful gode, 1 

[Foi. 59.] & to surame by-hote J>e blifer hem to make. 3688 
Mater now haue 30 moche mirie to bene ; 
^e han now on in hold * furth him haue 36 schulle 
wel 3our worchep a-^ein as 30 wait euer." 

The queen excuses d THorsofe, sire," sede Jje quen " ^e seyn al be treube ; 


36 make me mater i-now mirye to bene. 3693 
I wot for i so wept i wroi^t nou^t J>e best, 
but i nujt nou3t fer-with i-wisse, sire, & treuf e, 
so froli a sori fou3t Jnrled min hert," 3696 

telling him the & so ])li whi it was be encheson him seide, 

reason of her f 

sorrow, how hire jxra^t he was liche hire lord fe king fanne, 

& hou fe sorwe of hire sone dede hire so to wepe. 
fan sede willmm wi3tli Jjese wordes to hire-selue, 3700 

wniiam tells her Madame, of bat mater no more now binkes : 

to think no more 

of it, since both what be ae now be beter so bitterli to wepe. 

her husband and .'... 

son are dead, se})])e bo]?e J)i su*e & ])i sone am bojje dede ? 

Jjei3h 30 dri3en swiche duel * al 3our lif dawes, 3704 
and will never 39 gete hem neuer a-gayn late god haue be saules, 

come to life again. * 

& make 3our-self mirie * 3our mene forto glade." 
J>an wax fe quen ful wo wittow for sofe, 
fat willi'am sede )>at hire sone schuld be dede, 3708 
Still the queen's for hire hert bar hire euer J?at he hire sone schuld bene, 
is her son. ei ' bi knowing of alle kontenau/ice Jjat fe king welt. 
but of J)at mater no more minged J>ei fat time, 
ac turned in-to ojjer tales jjat touched to mirth. 3712 
& waitende 2 out at ]>e window as J?ei in tales were, 
Looking out, they fan fei seie fe werwolf was com hem bi-fore, 
Jtofawetoand' Kortesliche kneling as he in wise coufe, 

bow^and goes & louted ^ ^ ^^ . & to ^ lord alse> 

buxumli as any best bi any resoun schuld, 
& seffen went his wei whider him god liked. 
fe quen wi3tli to wilKam fese wordes sede, 

1 Catchword, " & to summe by." 

2 MS. " waidende." Bead " waitende." M. 



3720 The queen hopes 
it is a good 

[Pol. 59 6.] 

" sire, a selcouf si3t it is of f is semli best ; 

Loo, how loueli it a-louted lowe to vs twi3es, 

It bi-tokenes sum-what treuli god turne it to gode ! " 

" 3a, i-wisse," seide wilh'am " wene 36 non of er, 

for fat blessed best neuer boded but gode. 3724 good. 

he fat heried helle * fram harm him saue ! " 

" amerc," seiden alle fat fere with him seten. 

f us driue f ei forf f e day with diuerse mirthe, 

& treuli whan it was time turned to mete, 3728 They go to meat. 

& serued were of serues * as hem-self liked ; 

but speke we of f e spaynols what hem tidde after. 

Sone as f e kinges sone was to J>e cite take, 
fat his mi3ti men mijt no more him help, 3732 
f er was a selcouf sorwe a-mang f e segges maked, 
& karfulli to f e king f ei kayred a^ayne, 
& told him holli here tene how his sone was take, 
& how here segges were slayn * a selcouf noumber. 3736 
whan f e king wist as man wod he ferde, 
& wrof li to his wi3es * fat fere were he seide, 
" whi suffred 36 my sone * so sone to be take 1 
36 schul hastli be honged & with hors to-drawe !" 3740 
& derai3ed him for fat dede * as alle deie schulde. 
but kni3tes of his curcseil * com til him sone, 
& saide him soburli * so mi3t he nou3t worche, 
for a kni3t him c<wquerede al with clene strengf e, 
& hade him out of f e ost mawgrey hem alle. 3745 
" o knijt," qwfy ]> e ki n g ' " w ^ at kemp is fat ilke, 
fat wan so on my sone is he so dou3ti 1 " 
" 30 forsof e," seid on " sire, with 3our leue, 3748 
f er mai no man vpo?i mold a3ens fat man stond. 
he driuef to dethe * who-so his dent cacchef , 
his dou^ti dedes vs dof more duresse fan alle of er ; 
he it is fat fe werwolf weldes in his scheld." 3752 
"I mak a vow," quod fe king " to cn'st fat al weldes, 
er i ete more mete his nu^t wol i a-saie ; 

Great is the 
sorrow of the 
because their 
king's son is 

The king is very 
angry, and asks 
how they dared 
permit it, 

threatening to 
hang them. 

But his lords 
said it was owing 
to a certain 
knight's prowess. 

"What Pone 
knight's ? " said 
the king. 

"Yes," they 
reply, " the one 
with the werwolf 
on his shield." 

The king vows h 
will prove his 
mettle ere he eats- 



[Fol. 60.] 

Ha shall be 
hanged before the 
and the city shall 
be burnt." 

His men are to 
fce ready on the 

& 3if any egge tol wol entre in-to his bodi, 

I wol do him to f e deth * and more despit ouere ; 3756 

he schal hei3e be honged ri3t bi-fore hire ^ate, * 

fat alle f e segges of f e cite schulle him bi-hold, 

& sef f en wol i fat cite setten al on fure, 

& do bruten alle fe burnes fat be now f er-inne ; 3760 

schal no gom vnder god * of er gate it make." 

J>an komauwded f e king to do krie as swif e, 

fat alle his rinkes schuld be redi 113 1 erli on morwe, 

armed at alle poyntes as J>ei no wold be spilt, 3764 

& hasteli was his hest fan hendli fulfilled. 


ul manlich on f e morwe were his men greif ed, 
of bold mewnis bodiesse a ful breme ost. 

The Spaniards 
are armed, and 
come down to the 

They find there 
500 bodies of 
their comrades. 

The bodies are 
borne away to 
the tents, to be 
buried later. 

The king sets his 
men in three 

of 2000 men each. 




Gailier greif ed * were neuer gomes seie, 

of alle maner armure fat to werre longed. 

fan passed f e spaynols in-to a faire plaine, 

f er as f e breme bataile was on f e day bi-fore. 

fere fan foiwde f ei fele of here frendes slayne, 

Mo fan fiue hundred * of nobul frekes holde. 

f e king fan for fat kas * was karful in hert, 

& moche sorwe was sone for fat si3t maked. 

but fan bad f e king bliue f e bodies take 

of alle f e gomes of gode * & greif li hem bere 

til f e tentis, til f ei mi3t haue * torn hem to berie ; 

& deliuerli in dede was don al his hest. 

f e king fan treuli in f re batayles sturne 3780 

faire dede sette his folk fast as he im*3t, 

In as real aray as rink schold deuise. /^ 

f er were in eche bataile of burnes tvo f ousand, J^U > ^ 

armed at alle pointes and auenantli horsed, 3784 

In eche eschel stifli set f er f ei stonde schold. 

now of wilh'am & his wi3es a-non wol i telle. 

William und his 
men issue out of 
the dty, 

TITillmm & his wi3es were armed wel sone, 
' as semli to si3t as any segges f urte, 




& soffcli Iced out of pe cite whan pei seie time. 

wilham went al bi-fore as wis man & nobul, 

& ordeyned anon his ost in pre grete parties, 

& sett of l bolde burnes in eche bataile seuene hundred, 

of clene kni^tes armed & o]>er kete burnes, / - " 3793 

<fe spak spakli pese wordes pe spaynols whan he seie : 

" Lo, lordinges," sede wilh'am " wich a loueli aty 

here bi-fore vs of our fon of ferche men & bold ! 3796 

Jjer is holli al here ost now beth of hertes gode, 

& we schul wel pis day pis werre bring to ende 

-onliche 3ourh 2 godes grace & 3our gode dede. 

Jjou^h per be mani mo pan 36 * dismaie }e nou^t perfore, 

God wol vs ay rescue & with pe ri$t stonde ; 3801 

Go we to hem on godes name with a god wille. 

<fe i mow come bi pe king * bi cn'st, as ich hope, 

he schal sone per-after to his sone wende, 3804 

to soiorne in pe cite pat he hap seged 3ore. 

per-for, frendes & felawes for him pat 3ou bou3t, 

dop 3our dede to-day as dou^ti men schulle, 

& gret worchipe schul 36 winne whil pis world lastep." 

In jjis wise william * his wi3es pan cumforted, 3809 

pat pei hent swiche herte * as hardi men schuld. 

pan aswipe pei sembled [eiper ost] 3 to-gader, 

& alle maner menstracie maked was sone 3812 

of tabours & trumpes no?^ mijt pe number telle. 

& eiper ost as swipe fast ascried oper, 

& a-sembleden swipe sternli eiper ost to-gader, 

Gretand oper gn'mli with scharpe grourade speres. 3816 

Mani a bold burn was sone brou3t of dawe, 

& many a stef stede stiked pere to dethe, 

no man vpow mold mi^t ayme pe number 

of wi3es pat in a while were slayn on bope side. 3820 

but wilHam as a wod marc was euer here & pere, 

& leide on swiche liuere leue me forsope, 

[Fol. 60 6.] 

ordering his men 
in three 
companies, of 
700 each. 

He addresses 
them, saying, 
" See what a 
lovely sight of 
oar foes is here ! 

We shall end the 
war to-day. 

God will defend 
the right. 

I will imprison 
the king with his 

Do doughty deeds 

Tahours and 
trumps aro 

The hosts 

Numberless men 
and horses are 

William is here 
and there. 

IMS. ob.' 

2 Sic. Read " Jnirh ;" see note. 
3 See 1. 3815. 



[Fol. 61.] 
At first, 
William's men 
give way. 

He rallies them, 
and they fight 
better than ever. 

fat his dales were don fat of him hent a dent. 
)>e king of spaine & his kni^tes so kenli hem here, 
& so fresli gon fi^te fat at f e first a-saute, 3825 

fat fele of wilh'ams frekes gon to fle 3 erne, 
whan wilk'am. was war wijtli he hem a-schri^ed, &* 
& cuwfort hem craftli with his kinde speche, 3828 
fat f ei tit a^en turned to telle f e sof e, 
& here hem wel beter fen f ei bi-fore hade. 

The king asks, 
" Where is he 
that bears the 
wolf on his 
shield ? 

I will hunt him 
as a hound hunts 
a werwolf. 

Whoever brings 
him to me shall 
be my chief 

The son of the 
constable of 

named Meliadus, 

bursts into the 
thick of the fight, 

slaying six lords, 
and wounding a 

encounters him. 

Their spears fly 
into splinters, 
and they swing 
their swords. 

king of spayne gan crie * keneli & schille, 
" war be he fat f e wolf weldes in his scheld, 3832 
fat haf murf ered mi men & swiche harm wrou^t ? 
Mi^t i now haue hap him ones to sene, 
I wold him hunte as hard as euer hounde in erthe 
honted eny werwolf * but wel he his ware 3836 

fat i so many hondes haue on him vn-coupled, 
fat he for alle his dou^ti dedes dar him nou^t schewe. 
but what man vpow molde so may him me bring, 
I schal riuedli him rewarde to be riche for euer, 3840 
& mak him my chef stiward to stwtli alle my godes/'/ 
fan was f er a kud kni^t f e cuwstables sone of spayne, 
come wel f re daies bi-fore f e king for to help, 
an .c. kene kni^ttes in cumpanie he brou^t, 3844 
& him-self a bold burn f e best of hem alle, 
& meliadus of mi^ti men f e kni^t was called, 
whan he f e kinges cry clenli hadde herde, 
as bliue with his burnes he braide in-to prese, 3848 
& demened him dou^tili with dentes ful 1 rude, 
he slow of f e cite^ens * in a schort while, 
six grete lordes and f e seuenf e nere. 
whan wilKam was war of his dou^ti dedes, 3852 

deliuerly as a dou^ti man he drow to him euen, 
Grimli eif er of er gret whan f ei gonne mete, 
so spakli here speres al on speldes went. 
& swiftli sef f e with swerdes swonge f ei to-gider, 3856 

1 Over /;(?) erased, full is written in a later hand. 



fat many were a-meruailed of here dou}ti dedes. 

& f is nii3ti meliadus in fat meling while 

a sturne strok set wilKam on his stelen helm, 

& wounded him wickedli * wittow forsof e. 3860 

whan f is bold william * saw his blod so breme, 

li^t as a lyowi ' he leide on al a-boute, 

& marked fat meliadus with mayn swiche a dint, 

fat furth f e helm & f e hed hastili to f e gurdel 3864 

his brond his bodi to-cleued for alle his bri^t armes ; 

& he tit ouer his hors tayl tombled ded to f erf e. 

f er-of williams wi^es were wonderli gladde, 

& as sori in f e of er side * f e segges were of spaine, 

for in fat meliadus mi^t was here most hope, 3869 

to haue conquered william wif clene strengf e of armes. 

but whan f ei seie him ded sone gun f ei turne, 

and to flen as fast as f ei faire mi^t. 3872 

but willi'am & his wi^es so wrou^ten fat time, 

no rink f ei mijt of-reche recuuered neuer after, 

ne no man vpon mold mi^t ayme f e number 

of f e freliche folk fat in f e feld lay slayn. 3876 

[Fol. 61 &.] 
Meliadus wounds 
William in the 

William, seeing 
his own blood, 
fights like a 


and cleaves 
Meliadus through 
helm and head 
to the girdle. 

The Spaniards are 

and turn to flight, 

very hotly 


TTThan f is tale was told to f e king of spayne, 

how f e mi^ti meliadus * for alle mm was slawe, 
& bi-held how his burnes bi-gonne to flene, 
& how william & his wi^es * wi^tli hem folwed, 3880 
& duelfulli driuerc douw to dethe fat f ei of-toke, 
also swif e for sorwe he swonede for fere. 
& whan he wi^tli a-wok wodli he ferde, 1 
al to-tare his a-tir * fat he to-tere mi^t, 3884 

& seide after anon ' " alas ! what to rede ! 
I se al rni folk fle * for [fat] frekes dedes ; 
was neuer maw vpon mold fat swiche mi^t wait ; 
It is swn deuel degised fat dof al fis harm." 3888 
bi fat saw he wilh'am ' winne him ful nere, 
& slou^ doim in his si^t * his segges al a-boute, 
i MS. " forde." Eead ferde." M. 

The king, hearing 
that Meliadus is 

swoons for fear, 

and, recovering, 
tears his attire, 

thinking William 
must be a devil. 

Seeing William 
come, he flees. 



[Pol. 62.] 

William pursues 
him, and bids 
him yield. 

The king rallies 
his men, and 
makes a stand. 

William and his 
men soon slay 
100 of them, and 
take 10 score of 
the "tidiest." 

The king, seeing 
all is hopeless, 
again flees. 

William catches 
him up, and 
again bids him 

He must make 

& saw it geyned no grif to go him no nere ; 

as bliue with his baner he gan awei flene. 3892 

whan william was war ho we he a-wei went, 

prestili de-parted he fat pres & pnked him after, .. / ;/ 

& ful titli him of-tok * & stoutli him aschried, CA 

bad him ^epli him jeld or ^erne he schul deie. 3896 

whan f e [king] l saw him com he sede to his kni^tes, 

" defende we vs dou^tili or we dei}en sone ; 

f er go]? non of er grif it geinef nou3t to flene. 

& more mensk it is manliche to deie, 3900 

fan for to fle couwar[d]li 2 for ou^t fat mai falle." 

" certes, sire, fat [is] 3 so]) " seide his men alle, 

" f fir-fore now in-dede * do we what we mowe." 

fan turned f ei titli ajen & trustili gon fijt, 3904 

a[s] 4 fersli as f ei nade fou^t nou$t bi-fore. 

but wilKam & his wi^es were so breme, 

& so sturnli in fat stour stered hem fat time, 

fat f ei hade in a while a hundred i-slayne, 3908 

& taken of f e tidiest mo fan ten schore. 

f e king saw his segges were slawe him bi-fore, 

& noft mijt f e werwolf cowquere in no wise, 

& whas duelfulli a-drad lest he deie schuld, 3912 

& gan to fle frarn f e ost as hard as he mi^t ; 

& hise men fat mi^t manli gon to flene. 

but wilKam perceyued * what pas f e king went, 

& hastili lu'3ed after & him of-toke, 3916 

& keneli to him kried " sire king, 3eld f e swif e, 

of er f i deth is i-dijt deliuerli rijt here. 

Meke to make a-mendis for al f i mis-gilt 

f atow hast reised in f is reaume & rijt long meyn- 

& al wrongli wro^t as wot al fis reaume." 3921 

1 Read " whan the king saw him com." M. 

2 The spelling couwardli occurs in 1. 3336. 

3 Read " that is soth." M. 

* MS. " a." Read as fersli." -M. 



1*0 he seie no better bote nede he most him 3eld, 

-* or al swipe be slayn * fan sone he a-li3t, 

& wi3tli to wilKam his wepun vp to^elde, 3924 

& forto wirche his wille * & wilned his mercy. 

& wilKam, as kinde kni3t as kortesie it wold, 

Godli graunted him grif & grucched no more, 

but seide he schuld him meke in merci to f e quene, 

& prefer him to prison * prestli at hire wille. 3929 

& gaf him to alle hire grace & with-sede no worde. 

as tit as f e king was take to telle f e sof e, 

eche a seg of his side sone gan with-drawe, 3932 

& faynest was eche a freke * fat fastest mijt hi3e ; 

& f us was fat ferli fi^t finched fat time. 

wilKam went to f e cite * with his wi3es bolde, 

& f e king of spayne in cowpanye he ladde, 3936 

with alle f e nmrf e vpon mold fat merc mi3t of here ; 

& passeden to f e paleise prestili alle same[ra]. 

f e quen with hire companie com him a-^ens, 

& resseyued as reali as swiche rinkes oujt, 3940 

& f e king '3epli dede 3elde him to hire prison, 

to wirche with him as sche wold at hire oune wille j 

& treuli asjit after him tvo hundered & seuen, 

f e realest rinkes of f e reaume * dede ri^t fat ilke. 3944 

f e quene to wilKam ' wi^tli wold haue kneled, 

blif e sche was fat bataile was brou3t to a nende, 

& f onked wilKam f er-for mani a f ousan sif e, 

but wilKam hent [hire] l vp & harde hire blamed, 

& sede, " madame, 36 misdon bi marie in heuen, 3949 

fat am an emperours [dorter] 2 & a quen 3our-selue, 

to swiche a simpul sowdiour as icham, forto knele ; 

36 don a gret deshonour wif fat to 3ou-selue." 3952 

" nai, sire," sede f e quen " so me crist help I* 

I sette 3ou for no soudiour but for souerayn lord, 

to lede al f is lorldschip as 3ou likes euer ; 

1 Read " hent hire vp." M. 

2 Read " emperours douzter and a quen." M. 

The king yields 
his weapon, 

[PoL 62 &.] 

and WilHam. says 
he must submit 
to the queen. 

The king being 
taken, the 
Spaniards retire 
in haste. 

William brings 
the king to the 
queen's palace. 

The queen 
receives him. 

The king and 20T 
of his knights 

The queen would 
have kneeled to 
thank William, 

but he catches 
her up, saying an 
daughter must 
not kneel to a 
simple soldier. 

She says he is not 
a soldier, but 
sovereign lord, 


& blessed be fat burde fat bar f e in f is erf e. 3956 
since, but for him, for nade fe grace of god be & fi gode dedes, 

she would have . . . 

been bare of ail of blisse i hade be al bare bi fis ilk time. 

f er i balfulli here-bi-fore was brout al bi-nef e, 
jToi. 63.] f ou hast me brou^t of bale * & bet al myn harmes ; 

fer-for in al wise $our worschipe* is wel fe more." 3961 

All go to hall. 

Melior and the 
princess lead the 
king of Spain 
between them. 

The queen sets 
the king on one 
side of her, and 
William on the 

The lords and 
burgesses, and the 
peers of Spain, all 
Bit down together. 

The king asks to 
see his son. 

He tells his son 
they are in the 

and it is of no use 
to pursue a 
wayward woman. 

The prince says 
it is true enough, 
and they must 
now take the 

\["ow to touche of fis tale what tidde after. 
-^ alle f e lordes a-non * vn-armed hem sone, 
& with fe worfi quen went in-to halle, 3964 

& f e menskful meliors & f e quenes doubter, 
curtesli f e king of spayne bi-twene hem J)ei ladde, 
& here meke maydenes * merili fat time 
ladden f e of er lordes loueli hem bi-twene, 3968 

& alle samen semeli f ei seten in f e halle. 
f e quen set J>e king curtesli bi here side, 
& wilk'am on fat of er half & with him his suster, 
& fe menskful meliors * fat made moche ioie 3972 
for f e loueli loos fat here lemman wanne ; 
& alle f e lordes of fat lond * in f e halle that were, 
& f e best burgeys & of er burnes fele, 
& f e pers of spayne fat were to prison take. 3976 
f e king bi-sou^t f e quene ^if it were hire wille, 
fat he most se his sone to solace him f e more, 
& sche ful godli granted & gart him do fecche. 
& sofli, as sone as he com fe king seide hirntille, 3980 
" lo ! sone ! wich sorwe we haue vs selue wrou^t, 
f urh oure hautene hertes a gret harm we gete, 
to willne swiche willenyng fat wol nou^t a-sente. 
It is a botles bale bi god fat me fourmed, 3984 

t[o] willne after a wif * fat is a waywarde euere." 
fan seide his sone * " forsof e, sire, 36 knowe, 
fat we haue wrongli wrou3t nowe is it wel sene ; 
we mot holde ! to oure harmes it helpes nou^t elles, 
but giue vs geynli in f e grace of f is gode lady, 3989 
MS. " holdes." Read " holde." M. 



& late hire worche with vs as hire god likes." 

j>e king for his sones sawe sore gan sike, 

to fat comli quen ful curtesli Jms seide, 3992 

" Madame, for mari loue f e milde quen of heuene, 

Grauwt me of 30111' grace $if JOM god fink, 

$if 3oure konyng curcsayl a-corde wol f er-tille. 

let me make a-mendis for al my mis-gelt, 3996 

fat i so wrongli haue werred & wasted 3our londes. 

as moche as any man mow ordeyne bi ri^t, 

I am redi to restore & redeli, more-ouer, 

al f e worchep fat i weld i wol of 3011 hold, 4000 

al j>e londes & ledes fat long to my reaume ; 

so dede i neuer til f is dai * but of god one. 

& but 3our cuwseil, madame * a-corde wol f er-tille, 

wisses me at ^our owne wille * how 30 wol me binde, 

& lelli i wol as $ou likes 3oure lore fulfille ; 4005 

ferfer forf mai [i] 1 nou3t prefer for nou3t fat bi-tides." 

The king is 
grieved, and 

[Pol. 63 6.] 
and begs the 
queen to allow 
him to make 

promising to 
restore what is 

and to hold his 
lands of her, 

or offering to be 
bound in any way 
she liked. 

T<%e quen & here conaail * f er-o'f were a-pai^ed, 

* fat he so him profered * to parfourme hire wille, 

& gonne to mele of fat mater how it best nn'3t bene. 

& as f ei were talking to trete of fat dede, 

so hi^ed in-to f e halle * ri^t to )>e hei3e dese, 

fat ilk witti werwolf fat wilhYim hade holpe, 4012 

& boldli, for alle f e burns as him nou3t nere, 

spacli to f e king of spaine * he spedde him on gate, 

& fel doun to his fet * & faire hem he keste, 

& worchiped him in his wise wonderli with-alle. 4016 

& sef f e sone after * he saluede f e quene, 

& after here, wilKam and his worf i make, 

f e quenes dorter afterward & dede him on gate 

out hastili at f e halle dore as fast as he nu'3t, 4020 

& went forf on his wei * whider him god liked. 

but sone sauage man fat seten in f e halle 

henten hastili in honde what f ei haue 

1 Read " mai ." M. 

The queen and 
her counsel take 
it all into 

The werwolf 
entrs the hall, 
goes up to the 
king of Spain, 
and kisses his 

next he salutes 
the queen, and 
the rest, and goea 
his way. 

Savage men who 
were there caught 
up weapons, 



but William 
swears that if 
any one dares 
hurt the werwolf, 
[Fol. 64.] 

he will kill him 
with his own 

Yet all wondered 
what it meant, 
especially the 

summe axes, summe swerdes some speres long, 4024 

to wende him after * wi^tli to quelle. 

but wan wilh'am fat wist wodli he ferde, 

& swor swiftli his [of e] l bi al fat god wrou^t, 

$if any burn were so bold fat best forto greue, 4028 

were he kni^t of er clerk knaue of er kempe, 

he wold deliuerli him-self do him to f e dethe, 

fat no man vpow mold * schuld of er amendes ^elde. 

f er nas hastili in fat halle non so hardi burn, 4032 

fat durst folwe fat best o fote for drede, 

so bei were of willmm wonderli a-dredde. 

but whi f e werwolf so wroujt * wondred f ei alle, 

& whi more with 2 f e king fan with any of er. 4036 

& f e king more wondred fan any whi^t elles, 

& strek in-to a studie * stifliche f er-fore, 

what it bi-tokenef fat f e best bowed so him tille, 

& wrou^t to him more worchipe fan to any wi}t elles. 

In fat mene while fan in his minde it com, 4041 

& f ou^t on a semli sone * fat sam time he hadde, 

& how him treuli hadde -be told to-fore a long time, 

fat his wif with wichecraft * to a wolf him schaped. 

but sche of fat sclaunder excused hire al-gate, 4045 

& seide f e child was in f e see sunkun ful ^ore. 

f e king in fat earful f oujt * was cumbred ful long. 

but william wi^tli as f e wolf was schaped, 4048 

he dede kni^tes to comaumle to do crie in f e cite, 

fat no burn nere so bold * as he nold be honged, 

to waite f e werwolf no maner schaf e, 

but late him late & erli where him liked wende ; 4052 

fat hest was wel hold non so hardi was elles. 

The king is in T7"arpe we [now] 3 how f e king was kast in gret bou^t ; 

great thought and |\ , , , , , , ,, , 

, tu dy. * he dared as doted man lor f e bestes dedes, 

& was so styf in a studie fat now him stint mi^t. 405 G 

1 Read his othe bi al." M. 2 MS. " wiht." 

3 Perhaps it should be, " Karpe we now how the king." M. 

The king 
remembers about 
the son he once 

who had been 
according to his 
second wife's 


proclaims that no 
one is to hurt the 



whan wilh'am was war he went to him sone, 

seide, " king, i f e coniurQ in cr/stes holi name, 

& bi alle f e kud customes to kinghod fat longes, 

f attow telle me tit treuli fat sofe, 4060 

$if f ou knowest bi what cas in any-skines 1 wise, 

whi f is buxum best bowed to f e more 

fan to alle f e wi^es fat were in f e halle ? 

It mai be in no maner me f inkes, bi f ou^tes, 4064 

f attow wost in su.m wise what it bi-tokenef . 

f erfor tel me tit treuli whatow f outes, 

of er i make a vow to f e mi^ti king of heuen, 

fou passest 110113 1 of prison. ' puniched at f e hardest." 

fan siked f e king sore & seide f ese wordes, 4069 

" sire, for drede of duresse nor of deth in erf e, 

nel i wonde in no wise what i f ou^t to seie. 

sire, sum time here-bi-for in my ^ong age, 4072 

I wedded with al wele * a worschipful lady, 

fat burde was of beuaute bri^test in erf e, 

& greter of alle godnesse fan any gome mai telle. 

f e kinges doubter of nauerne was fat gode burde, 4076 

& in fat seson gete we * samen to-gedere, 

on f e fairest freke fat euer seg on loked, 

but mi wif, as god wold & as we schul alle, 

deied at f e deliuerauTzce * of mi dere sone. 4080 

& i fostered fat child * faire to f re winter, 

with alle clene keping as it ou^t to bene. 

bi fat time was j?at barn * ful breme of his age, 

& semliest on to se fat men schuld finde.; 4084 

alphourcs his gode godfaderes dede him fan calle 

at kyrke for his kinde name to kif e f e sof e. 

fan bitid fat time i toke a-nof er wif, 

a ful loueli lady lettered at f e best, 4088 

corteys & couenabul & lettered at f e best, 2 

& comero was of gret kin & koynt hire-selue. 

Jjurth grace gat i on hire as god aln^ti. wold, 

1 See note. 2 This half line is repeated from above. 


William conjures 
him to tell him 

[Fol. 64 &.] 
why the beast 
bowed to him in 
particular ? 

" Tell me, or thou 
shalt never come 
out of prison." 

The king sighs, 
and tells his 

" J. once wedded 
a fair and good 

daughter of the 
king of Navarre. 

We had a very 
fair son ; but my 
wife died. 

I fostered it till 
it was three years 

His name was 


I married again 
to a lady who was 
lovely, and who 
could read well. 



Oar son was the 
prince who is 
here now. 

[Fol. 66.] 
My wife feared 
that the elder son 
would succeed me 
as heir, 

and considered 
how to get rid of 

She changed him 
/ by enchantments 
into a werwolf, 

but she swore to 
me that he had 
been drowned. 

I believed her, 
but I now think 
this werwolf is 
my son. 

This is truly what 
I mused about." 

a sone as 36 mow se be-for 3011 selue here, 4092 

wich 36 han put in pn'son & puniched at 30111 wille. 

f is child was ceput l clenli as it wel ou3t, 

& it wax fetis & fair & ful mochel loued. 

but fan my wif wickedli * on fise wise f ou3t, 4096 

fat myn elder son min eritage schul haue, 

& kepe f e kingdom after me * as kinde skil it wold ; 

& striued stifli with hire-self -as stepmoderes wol alle, 

bi what wise sche mi^t best fat bold barn spille, 4100 

to do so j>at here sone after mi dessece, 

Mi3te reioische fat reaume as ri$t eir bi kinde. 

& as me haf be told of trewe meft of my reaume, 

with charmes & enchantmews sche chaurcded 2 my sone 

In-to a wilde werwolf; & wel now ich it leue, 4105 

]>at ]>is buxura best be fat ilk selue 

fat my wif with hire wiles euer dede me leue, 

(whan i hire touched swiche tales * as me told were), 

fat it was fanteme & fals * & for hate saide ; 4109 

& swor grimli gret of es bi al fat god wrou3t, 

j>at mi semli sone * was in f e see sonken, 

as he passed out to pleie priueli him one. 4112 

I leued hire fan lelly & lett it ouer-pase, 

but now witerli i wot * |)is werwolf is my sone, 

fa sechef after socour it semef bi hise dedus. 

sire, sofli to seie fis was my grete fout, 4116 

for f e werwolf werkes * so me wel time, 

& 3if i wrong seie any word wo worf me euer." 

William says it 
seems to be the 

for the werwolf 
has a man's 

TlTilliam 3 fan ful wittili fese wordes saide, 4119 
" sire, it may ri3t wel be f us be marie in heuene ! 

fat f e best sechef socour it semef att best. 
for wel i wot witerli & wel i haue it founde, 
fat he has mannes muwde more fan we bof e. 

1 Sic ; another spelling of " kepud." 

2 Read " chaunged " (?) Of. 1. 4500. 

3 The MS. has a large M instead of W. 




for many [a day] l hade i be ded & to dust roted, 

nadde it be goddes grace * & help of fat best ; 

he haf me socoured & serued * in ful gret nede. 

for-f i in feif , for al f e world * him nold i faile, 

))at i schal loue him lelli as my lege brofer ; 4128 

&, sire, blif e ou^t ^e [be] 2 * bi him fat vs wroujt ! 

J>at he f us happili is here fat haj) so lang be missed. 

& 3if he mi^t in maner be maked man a^eine, 

of al fe welfe of fe world wilned i no more. 4132 

& sertenli, as it semef * to seie f e truf e, 

3if f i wif of wicchecraft be witti as f ou seidest, 

fat sche him wroi^t a werwolf ri^t wel i hope, 

sche can with hire connyng * & hire queynt charmes, 

Make him to man a-^en it may be non oj)er. 4137 

& f erf ore, sire, bi cn'st fat on croyce vs bou^t, 

f ou ne passest neuer of pn'son ne non of [f i] 3 puple, 

with-oute deliueraurace * of fat derworfe best ; 4140 

for made a-^en to man mot he nede bene. 

sende wittili to f i wif & warne hire fore, 

fat sche tit come f e to * for fat may falle after, 

fat sche ne lette for no lud fat liuef in erfe. 4144 

& 3if sche nickes wif nay * & nel nou^t com sone, 

sende hire saddli to sai * fat sone with min ost, 

I wol fat reaume ouer-ride & rediliche destrue, 

& fecche hire with fin forse for 0113 1 fat bi-tides. 4148 

for til sche with hire craft f e werwolf haue holpe, 

alle f e men vpow molde * ne [mai] make 3011 deliuered." 4 

" T)i cn'st," sede fe king "fat on croyce was peyned, "She shall be 

** fat f e quen be of-sent sauf wol i fouche. 4152 
3if sche mi3t in any maner make a-}en mi sone 
to be a man as he was arst wel were me f anne. 
but serteynli i not * wham i sende im*3t, 
to make f e massager myn erande wel to spede, 

" He has often 
helped me. 

You ought to be 
blithe to find him 

[Fol. 65 6.] 

If your wife is so 
witty in 

she can make him 
a man again. 

Wherefore, you 
shall never be 
released till he is 
made a man. 

Send and tell her 
to come here. 

If she will not, 
say I will fetch 
her forcibly." 


But I have no one 
to send but some 
of my lords, 

1 Read " many a day hade i be ded." M. 

2 Read " ouzt ze be bi him." M. 

3 Read " of thi puple." M. * mai 



if you will give 
them leave." 

"I grant it; bid 
them bring the 

[Fol. 66.] 

The king chooses 
50 lords, 

giving them a 
letter and a 
message, saying, 

"Tell her my son 
is found, 

in the shape of a 

Bid her bring 
charms to 
disenchant bin 

but 36 wold suffer summe of f ise lordes, 

fat ben lederes of my lond * & lele men holde. 

3if 3ou likes, 3iue hem leue % & hete hem f ider wende, 

I hope fei schul hastlier fan any ofer spede." 4160 

" fat i wol," seide wilKam " ches wich f e likes, 

& hote hem hi^e hastili harde as fei mowe, 

& bring fe quen for cas fat mai falle." 

ful spacli fe king of spayne to spede f o nedes, 4164 

as fast ches him fifty of ful grete lordes, 

fat tidi men were told & trewest of his reaume, 

& tid bi-tok he?ft f e letteres * fat told al here erand, 

& het hem munge bi moufe * more, & fei coufe, 4168 

whan fei come to f e quen of f e cas bi-falle 

" & seif hire f us sadli * sires, i 3ou praye, 

for what cas sche mot com * or bi cn'st of heuene, 

sche get neuer gladnesse of me, ne of mi sone. 4172 

& seie hire sof li * f is selue encheson, 

for hire mi sone is founde * fat sche for 3ore saide 

was sonk in f e see so dede sche me to leue ; 

but as a wilde werwolf he walkef here a-boute ; 4176 

& how he sou3t after socour * 36 saw wel alle. 

f er-fore treuli as it tid telle here to f e hende, 

& bidde hire bliue with hire bring fat mai be is bote, 

to make him man a3en mijti as he was ere, 4180 

of er al fat lond worf lore * & our Hues alse, 

f er gof non a3en-turn * 36 mow hire treuli seie." 

fe menskful messangeres mekeli fan seide, 4183 

" we wol worche 3our wille as wel as we kunne." 

Next day the 
messengers set 

and went to 

"jlTanli on f e morwe f e messageres were 3are, 

-*'* greif ed of alle gere gaily atte f e best, 

of horse & harneys & what fei hade nede, 

& went forf on here way wi3tli & fast ; 4188 

Euer f e geynest gatis to goo to f e sof e, 

Euer spacli fei hem spedde * til spayne fat fei come, 

& come to a cite * fere soiourned f e querie. 



tid was hire told tiding of here come, 4192 

<fe sche gamsura & glad gop hem a-^ens, 

with loueliche ladies * pat longed to hire chauwbur, 

<fc oper menskful maidenes * mo pan foure schore. 

<fc mekli whan pei were met * J>e messageres pei greten 

with cliping & kessing kindeli to-gadere. 4197 

but sone pat comli quen wel curtesli asked, 

41 how fares mi lord pe king for cmtes loue in heuen, 

& mi semli sone seppe pei out went ? 4200 

han pei wonne at here wille fat pei went fore 1 

what dos mi lord wip pat lady & here loueli doi^ter 1 

wol sche 3it my sone hire wedde & to wif haue ? " 

" Madame," saide pe messange? 1 * most worpi of alle, 

" oper-wise pan 36 wene is al pe werk turned, 4205 

It helpes nou^t for to hele nou3 herkenes mi sawe. 

sippe pe king of heuen * on croys for vs deide, 

worse fel it neuer to wi3es pan it hap a while. 4208 

for alle pe real rinkes of pis reaume be slayne, 

& doluen depe vnder mold * man! day seppe. 

pe stoute stiward of pis lond & his strong neuew, 

& pe cuftstabul sone * pat kud kni^t was proued, 4212 

& out of number nobul men * to nenipne pe sope. 

Mi lord pe king was per cau3t in a kene stoure, 

& 3our sone also * and are prisons bope, 

<fc we alle, madame * & many mo of oper 4216 

of pe lordes of pis lond pat ^ut a-liue bene, 

& neuer-more for no man mo we be deliuered, 

ne pult out [of] l prison but purli pourh 3our help. 

& pei3h we hade pe quen purth queintyse & strengpe 

brou3t ferst at swiche bale with so breme a-sawtes, 4221 

wasted hire londes * & wonne hire townes, 

& pult al pertly to our wille but palerne alone ; 

sertes, pei were a-seged so pat atte laste 4224 

Many times in pis maner mercy sche craued, 

pat sche most wende a-wai with hire dorter one, 

1 Read "out of prison." M. 

She comes out to 
meet them, 

[Fol. 66 6.] 
and asks after her 
lord and her son. 

Is he to wed the 
princess ? 

affairs are quite 

Our best men are 
slain and buried 
the steward and 
his nephew, 

the constable's 
son, and 

The king, the 
prince, and all 
we lords, are 

We conquered all 
the queen's lands 
except Palermo. 

The queen asked 
to have leave to 
depart where she 



The king refused. 

[Fol. 67.] 
Then came a 
mighty knight 
to help her, who 
conquered the 
king and the 

Next, a werwolf 
came and saluted 
the king, and 
seemed to crave 

The knight asked 
the king what it 

who said, it must 
be Alphonse his 

We are sent to 
gay that we shall 
never be released 

till you hare 
disenchanted the 

If you refuse, 

that mighty 
knight will come 

boute daunger or duresse or any despit elles, 

& late mi lord haue fat lond at liking for euer ; 4228 

ac my lord in no wise wold f er-to grau^te, 

& J,at ha]? vs hard harmed for hastili f er-after 

f er kom a kni3t hire to help f e kuddest of f e worlde, 

& most mi^thi in armes * fat euer man of herde. 423<2 

he slow of oure segges sof li alle f e best, 

& conquered with clene mijt f e king & his sone, 

& lelly many of er lordes fat ^it a-liue are. 

& whan f ei were in prison ' pult at hire wille, 4236 

f er wan in a werwolf a wonderli huge ; 

with a komli kuntenauwce to f e king he went, 

& fel dourc to his fete & faire he hem kessede, 

& wrou^t him gret worchip & wi3es fat it sei3en 4240 

saiden, it semed wel * as it socour sou^t ; 

but f anne as bliue J>at best busked on his weie. 

& fan fat kud kni3t ' fat vs conquered alle 

cowiured mi lord j>e king bi al fat crist wrou3t, 4244 

j)at he tyt schold him telle * treuli al f e sof e, 

3if he wist in any wise wat J>at best were ; 

&, he sofli fus sayde schortly to telle, 

fat it was alphioutts his sone anow ri3t he wist, 4248 

fat fou with fi wicchecraft a werwolf him hadest 


wherfore, menskful madame bi marie in heuen, 
we be made massegeres to muwge 3ou fis nedes, 
fat neifer fi lord nor fi sone * nor non of vs alle 4252 
worf neuer deliuerred of daunger fat we dwellen 


til fou com to fat kif & with 3 our queynt werkes 
haue heled f e werwolf wel at alle ri3tes, 
& maked to man a3e in maner as he ou3t. 4256 

& 3if fou grutche a-ny grot f us greif li to worche, 
alle f e men vpon molde * ne mowe it nou3t lette, 
fat fat ilke kud kni3t fat kepuf vs alle, 
nel com to fis kuntre with a clene strengfe, 4260 



& balfulli do ]?e brenne * in bitter fire, 

& ouer-ride )>is reaume & redili it destrye ; 

&, whejjer J?ou wolt or non winne l ))e with strengjje, 

& sejjen duelfulli to dethe do vs alle after ; 4264 

& J?erfor do vs wite wi3tli hou^ J>ou wirche fenkest." 

as bliue as Jjis bold quen pat brauwden was hote, 

hade herd al holli how J>at hit ferde, 

sche swelt for sorwe * & swoned rit fere, 4268 

& afterward wept wonder was it none. 

& to J>e menskful messageres mekli Jjenne sede, 

" now, sires, se|?J?e it is so what so bi-tyde, 

I wol wende 3011 with & wel 3011 deliuere, 4272 

j>urth help of J?e heuene king hastili & sone." 

Jjanne gart sche to greijje gaili alle jnnges, 

jjat hem bi-houed on hond to haue bi J>e weye, 

& a real roi^te to ride bi hire side, 4276 

of lordes & ladies of al hire lond j)e best. 

& sojjli for so]?e 2 no seg vnder heuene 

ne sei^e neuer no route arai^ed more beter, 

ne gaylier greijjed * to go to J>e sofe, 4280 

of hors & of harneys & alle oj?er gere. 

J>e quen hade hire with al Jjat bi-houed, 

to warysche with J?e werwolf ' wel atte best. 

aili were J?ei greijjed wel at te best, 4284 

with here menskful meyne * sche meued on gate, 
& hi3ed on here iurnes * fast as Jjei mi^t, 
til J>ei come to palerne to proue J?e sojje. 
willmm & hise wiaes were warned 3 of here come ; 4288 wuiiam meets 


with a real route * he rod hire a-3ens, 

& worjnli hire he wolcomed * wen he hire mette, 

& hire clene companye * curtesli & faire ; 

& presteli to ]>e paleys * with gret pres hem ladde. 4292 

J>e curtes quen of ]>at lond com hem a~3ens, 

1 MS. " wenne." Read "winne." M. See 1. 3623. 

2 MS. " se|>e." 3 MS. " warnes." Read " warned." -M. 

and burn you, 

and will put us 
all to death." 

[Fol. 67 6.] 
At this news 
queen Braunden 

She consents to go 
with them. 

She gets every- 
thing ready. 

No one ever saw 
better arrayed 



as also do the 
queen, the king, 
and the prince. 

The queen of 
Spain is grieved 
to see them 

[FoL 68.] 

William helps 
Braunden to 

All are glad to see 

She is led to hall, 
and seated at the 

She and the king 
and prince sit 

and the queen of 
Palermo, the 
princess, and 

The hall is filled 
with barons and 
knights, and the 
Spanish lords. 

There were spices 
and wines. 

The werwolf had 
been kept in 

f e king of spayne with his sone & of er kni^tes gode, 

fat were put in pn'son * presteli f urth here dedes. 

bofe nwrrf e & mournyng at fat metyng was ; 4296 

whan f e quen of spayne * saw hire lord in hold, 

& hire semli sone & sef e alle f e of er 

of grete lordes of hire lond it liked hire ille. 

f e comly quen of fat lond wilh'amg- owne moder, 4300 

with welf e & gret worchip welkomed hem alle, 

& wilKam curtesli cau^t f e quen of hire palfray, 

& his menskful moder ful mekli hire kessed, 

& hire lord & hire sone swetly f er-after. 4304 

hire lord f e king of hire kome was comforted michel, 

& hire sone als & sef en alle of er 

of f e lordes of fat lond fat fere leie in hold, 

for fei hopeden in hast to haue help f er-after. 4308 

william & his menskful moder mekli & faire 

ful loueli f e quen of spayne - led hem bi-twene, 

& hendeli in-to halle f anne hire fei broujt, 

& derli on fe hei^e des fei a-doun seten. 4312 

f e king of spayne & his wif seten to-gader, 

& here sone hem bi-side samen to talke, 

to make hem in f e mene while as murye as fei couf e. 

f e quen of palerne & hire doubter fat damysele hende, 

& fe menskful meliors were macched to-gadere, 4317 

to haue same here solas & seie what hem liked. 

sef en al fat huge halle was hastili fulfulled 

al a-boute bi eche side with barounes & kni^tes, 4320 

f e real rinkes of f e reaume 113 1 on fat o side. 

sof li f e segges of spayne * were set on fat of er, 

so fat perles paleis with peple was fulfulled. 

f ann were spacli spices spended al a-boute, 4324 

fulsumli at f e ful to eche freke f er-inne, 

& f e wines f er-with wich hem best liked. 

nd as fei mad he?n so mine ' to mirage f e sof e, 
fe werwolf fat 36 witen of was in wilKams 
chauraber, 4328 



& hade be fere in blis bi ni^tes and dales, 

sef en f e messangeres meuede after f e quene, 

fat was his sterne stepmoder * til fat stounde f anne. 

but wel wist f e wolf whanne sche was come, 4332 

& hastili in-to halle he hi^ed him fat time, 

to do [hire] to f e def e deliuerli jif he mi^t, 

so wrof l he was hire with wite 36 him neuer. 

as bliue as f e best was broken in-to halle, 4336 

a pase bi-fore al f e pnple he passef him euene, 

& drow him toward f e des * but dqutusli after 

he stared on his stepmoder * stifli a while, 

whan he saw [hire] with his sire sitte in mwrf e. 4340 

fill wrof fan fat werwolf * wax of fat si^t, 

& bremly his bristeles he gan f o a-reise, 

& grisiliche gapande with a grym noyse, 

he queite toward f e quene to quelle hire as bliue. 

& assone as f e quene * saw him so come, 4345 

sche wax nei} of hire witt * witow forsof e, 

& carfulli to f e king criande, sche saide, 

" a ! leue lordes, mi lif lengf es $ut a while ! 4348 

socoures me nouf e or ful sone i dei^e, 

for f is ilk breme best * bale wol me wirche, 

ac i wite him no wrong witef wel alle. 

I haue serued f e def }if $ou dere f inkes, 4352 

lengf ef now my lif for loue of heuene king, 

& meke me in ^our mercy i may do nou^t elles." 

f e king of spayne stifli stert vp sone, 

& his sone al-so to saue f e quene. 4356 

william ful wi^tli f e werwolf fan hent 

anon in his armes aboute f e necke, 

& sayde to him soberli * " mi swete dere best, 

trust to me as treuli as to fin owne brof er, 4360 

or as feif li as falles f e fader to f e sone, 

& meke f e of f i malencoli * for marring of f i-selue. 

I sent after hire for f i sake sof li, f ou trowe, 

1 MS. " worjj." Read " wroth." M. See 11. 3221, 4341 

Knowing the 
queen was come, 

[Fol. 68 6.] 
he hoped to kill 

and advances to 
the dais, staring 
at her. 

Raising hia 
bristles and 
roaring, he 
rushes at her. 

In great fear, 
she cries out for 

confessing she 
has deserved 
death, but begging 
for her life. 

William catches 
the werwolf by 
the neck, and 

" Trust me, dear 

I sent for her for 
thy sake. 



Unless she 
disenchants you, 
she shall be burnt, 

[Fol. 69.] 

and the Spaniards 
shall be kept in 
prison for ever ; 

wherefore do her 
no harm." 

The werwolf is 
glad, and kisses 
William's feet. 

Queen Braunden 
is glad, 

and kneels before 
the werwolf, 

" Sweet Alphonse, 
the people shall 
soon see thy 
seemly face. 

I have sinned 
aijainst you, 

but God wills not 
that you should 
be lost. 

to help f e of f i hele hastili, ^if sche mi^t. 4364 

& sche has brou^t now f i bote bi cn'st, as i hope, 

& but sche haue, be ri$t siker be god fat vs wrou3t, 

to cold coles sche schal be brent ^it or come eue ; 

& f e aschis of hire body with f e wind weue, 4368 

& f i sire & his sone * & alle is segges noble 

schul be put in prison & peyned for euere, 

dulfulli here lif daies til deth haue hem take. 

for-f i lete me allone mi lef swete frende, 4372 

anoie f e na more ne nede schalt f ou haue, 

ne to hire do no duresse as f ou me derli louest." 

s werwolf was ful glad * of wilk'ams speche, 
fat bi-het him in hast to haue help after, 4376 
& faire doun to his fete * fel hem to kisse, 
& as he coude, be contenauwce ful kindeli graurated, 
In alle wise to worche l as wilh'am wold seie, 
& made no more debat in no maner wice. 4380 

as sone as f e quen saw how it ferde, 
fat f e werwolf wold worche hire no schaf e, 
sche was gretli .glad & oft god f onkes, 
& pertili bi-fore alle fe puple passed him tille, 4384 
& bliue bi-fore f e best on bof e knes hire sette, 
& mekli in f is maner mercy sche craued. 
" swete alphouws," sche seide " mi semli lorde, 
I haue brou^t here f i bote * to bring f e of sorwe ; 4388 
sone schal f e puple se f i semli face, 
In manhede & in minde as it out to bene. 
I haue f e gretli a-gelt to god ich am a-knowe, 
for redili fe to reue fi ri3t eritage ; 4392 

fat fis man min owne sone imjt it haue hadde 
feif li after f i fader ich forschop f e f anne 
In f ise wise to a werwolf and wend f e to spille ; 
but god wold nou^t fat fou were lorne. 4396 

for-f i of mi mis-gelt mercy ich craue, 

1 MS. " worthe." 



lene me lif, }if f e likes alphouws, i f e praye, 

& at f i bidding wol i be * buxura euer-more, 

& lelli as my lord * al my lif f e seme, 4400 

& neuer agult f e wil i Hue in game ne on ernest ; 

& giue me now in f i grace and godli f e bi-seche, 

for his loue fat mad man for-giue me f is gelt." 

& fan wi^tli to willmm weping sche seide, 4404 

" a ! kurtes kni^t * for m'stes loue of heuene, 

bidde f is buxuw best be merciabul nouf e, 

for he wol worche at f i wille i wot wel forsof e, 

More fan for alle mew. * fat on mold liuen ; 4408 

& ^ou, alle hende lordes helpef me to praye 

to j)is kurtes kni^t to graunt my bone. 

to J)is bestes mercy i bo we me at alle, 

to worche with me is wille as him-self likes." 4412 

Spare my life, and 
I will never harm 
you more." 

[Fol. 69 &.] 

She further begs 
William to 
intercede for her, 

and begs the 
other lords to 
do the same. 


Of f e quenes profer * f e puple hadde reuf e, 
for sche fel to-fore f e best flat to f e grouwde ; 
f er was weping & wo wonderli riue. 
but so kenli f e king & f e kni^tes alle 
bi-sou^t willmm for f e quen sof li so ^erne, 
fat he godli al his gref * for-gaf at f e last, 
so fat sche hastili hi^ed to help fat best ; 
& blef eli boute grutching fat graurated sche sone. 4420 
fan stint sche no lenger * but bout stryf went 
Into a choys chaumber * f e clerli was peinted, 
fat non went hire with but f e werwolf al-one. 
fan rau^t sche forf a ring a riche & a nobul, 4424 
f e ston fat f eron was sti^t was of so stif vertu, 
fat neuer man vpow mold * mi^t it him on haue, 
ne schuld he with wicchecraft be wicched neuer-more, 
ne per[i]sche 1 with no poysoun ne purliche enuene- 
med ; 4428 

ne wrongli schuld he wiue fat it in wold hadde. 
fat riche ring ful redily with a red silk f rede 
1 MS. "persche." Read "perische." M. 

There was much 
weeping and woe. 

William forgives 
her if she will 
heal the beast. 

She at once goes 
with the werwolf 
into a private 

draws forth a 
magic ring, with a 
stone in it that 
was proof 
against all 

She binds it with 
a red silk thread 



round the wolfs 

She takes a book 
out of a casket, 
and reads in it a 
long time, till he 
becomes a man 

[Fol. 70.] 

William only was 

The werwolf is 
very glad, 

but is ashamed 
of being naked. 

She tells him he 
need not be so, 
for they are alone. 

He must now go 
to the bath. 

Alphonse goes to 
the bath, finding 
it " tidily warm." 

The qneen serves 

f e quen bond als bliue a-boute f e wolwes necke. }rfs 

sef e feif li of a forcer a fair bok sche rau^t, 4-432 

& radde f er-on redli rijt a long while, 

so fat sche made him to man in Jjat mene while, 

as fair as fetys * and als freli schapen, 

as any man vpow mold mi^t on deuise. 4436 

was non fairre in world but will/am allone, 

for he of fairnesse was flour of frekes fat Hue. 

whan f e werwolf wist fat he was man bi-come, 

fair of alle fasou^ as him fel to bene, ' 4440 

he was gretli glad no gum f urt him blame, 

ful wel him liked f e lessun fat f e lady radde. 

sof li fat he was so naked sore he was a-schamed, 

whan f e quen fat of-sey sone sche seide him tille, 

" a ! alphourcs, leue lord lat be alle f o f ou^tes, 4445 

i se wel fou art a-schamed * & so were it no nede ; 

ne buf here in f is bour but our selue tweyne. 

& on f e, sire, se i no si^t * but as it schuld bene, 4448 

ne f e failef no f ing fat fallef a man to haue. 

fare now forf to f i baf fat faire is keuered. 

for it is geinli greif ed in a god asise." /*' 

& alphourcs anon fanne after hire sawe, 4452 

buskes in to f e baf * boute more noyse, 

& fond it treuli a-tired & tidili warme. 

f e quen him comforted * & curtesli him serued 

as mekkeli as sche mi^t in alle maner wise ; 4456 

for no burn nas hem bi but hem-self tweyne. 

n f e curtes quen * ful cunyngli saide, 
she asks him J " swete sire, saie me now so ^ou cn'st help, 

who shall give 

him his clothes ? what gom wol 36 fat $ou giue ^our garnemews nouf e I 
36 ne tok neuer as i trowe of kni^thod fie hordere. 4461 
for-f i f ow telle me of whom * 36 take it f enk, 
for wel 36 wite [what] whi} worf iest is here." 

He says he will Madame," ban seide alphourcs " be marie in heuen, 

take his attire and 

the order of I wol take myn a-tir & fat trie.ordere 4465 




of f e worf iest wei3 * fat weldes now Hue." 
" hoo is fat," seide f e quen " is it 3our fader ] " 
" Nay, bi god," quath alphu?is " fat gart me be 
fourmed, 4468 

It is fat ilk kud kni3t fat 36 alle knowe, 
fat deliuered f e of f e deth fis day of mi-selue. 
a worf ier wie^h in fis world wonef no^ nouf e, 
king ne kmjt as of kin ' ne of kud dedes. 4472 

Mi tir of him wol ich take and fat trie order, 
& loue him as mi lege lord al mi lif time." 
f e quen after william went in-to halle, 
& tok him sli^li bi f e sleue & saide in his ere, 4476 
" sire, 3if f i wille were f e werwolf f e bi-sechef , 
fat tow tit com him to to tire him in his wedes ; 
he ne wol fat non of er fat worchipe him 36116." 
" is fat sof," saide william " mi swete lady hende 1 
cleymef he after clofes 'for cristes loue in heuen? 4481 
deceyue me nou3t with f i dedes but seie me f e sof e." 
"$is, bi cn'st," quaf fe quen " clofes he askes ; 
he is as hoi, heri3ed be god as he was eue?* $ite, 4484 
& manliche in alle maneres as to man falles ; 
hi^es him hastili him to & help he were greif ed ; 
for i wot fat fis folk fayn wold him sene. 4487 

but he wol fat no wijt to chaumber with f e come, 
but meliors f i menskful make & f e quenes doujter, 
Dame florence f e faire for whom was fis werre. 
hem bof e he biddef bring & no wijt elles." 
fan william ful wi^tli as man ful of ioye, 4492 

clipte f e quen & kest & oft crist f onkes, 
fat his felawe was hoi fat hade him holp oft. 
as bliue was him brou3t al fat bi-houed 
of alle comli clofing fat a kni^t schuld haue ; 4496 
no man vporc mold mijt richer deuise. 
fan william wi3tli with meliors & his suster, 
& f e comli quene * spacli forf f ei went 
in-to f e chois chaumber f er changed was f e best 

knighthood from 
the worthiest man 

viz. William, who 
shall be his liege 

[Fol. 70 &.] 

The queen tells 
William the 
werwolf wishes 
him to clothe him. 

" Is it true," he 
says, " that he 
asks for clothes ? ' 

" Yes," says she, 
"he is as whole 
as ever. 

He will have no 
one but you and 
Melior and the 

William kisses 
the queen for 
making his fellow 

William, Melior, 
&c., go to the 



and see a bath 
and a bed, with 
a man in it 
whom they knew 

[Fol. 71.] 

Yet they greet 
him, and 
Alphonse answers, 

" Sir knight, 
you give me a 
poor welcome." 

" True," said 
William, " but I 
conjure you to 
say who you are." 

" t am the 
werwolf, who 
have saved you 
from many 

William embraces 
him with great 

Florence greets 
him, and he 
instantly falls in 
love with her. 

out of pe werwolfs wise to a worpi kni^t. 4501 

pan bi-held pei pe ba)) & a bed bi-side, 
& in pat bed als bliue pat burn pei seien, 
)>at non so semli to here si$t saw pei neuer ere ; 4504 
but of pat companie, be cn'st ' per ne knew him none, 
napeles wilKam wi^tli * worpili him grette, 
& po menskful maidenes * mekli per-after, 
& pan alphou^s a-non answered & saide, 4508 

" cn'st krouned king sire kni^t, mot ^ou saue, 
& pi faire felachipe pat folwep pe after, 
sire kni^t, i am in pi kip & corner to pi owne, 
& pow makes me now * but pis mene semblarct. 4512 
to put pe of peril i haue ney pensched oft, 
& many a scharp schour for pi sake poled, 
to litel pow me knowest or kinhed me kijjes." 
" sertes, sire, Jat is sojj " seide wilh'am fanne, 4516 
" I ne wot in ))is world what fat 36 are ; 
but i corciure 3ou, be cn'st * pat on croyce was peyned, 
]>at 36 seie me swij>e so]) ho-so ^e bene." 
" I am he, J?e werwolf " sede alphourcs jjanne, 4520 
" fat haue suffred for jji sake many sori peynes, 
& pult fe out of periles * \er ]?ou perisched l schuldest, 
nade goddes grete mi^t be * & mi gode help." 
" certes, sire, ]>at is so]) " sede wilh'am fanne, 4524 
& lepes Ii3tli him to & lacchis him in armes ; 
with clipping & kesseng J>ei kidden gret ioye. 
alle pe men vpon mold * ne mi3t half telle 
pe mir]) pat waa maked in pe mene while. 4528 

& 3if willmm was glad wittow forsope, 
Meliors was moche more 3if it so mi3t bene ; 
& florence of pat fare panne gret ferli hadde. 
& sone as sche him saw * loueli sche him grett, 4532 
& he godli a-gayn gret pat gode mayde, 
& for pe beaute pat sche bar as bliue his hert 
turned to hire treuli to loue for euer-more. 
1 Read " perische " (?) 


whan bei in bat gladnesse a gret while hade sete, 

alphourcs asked a-non a-tir for to haue, 4537 2 n f *J nBe 

to fare out as fast * with his fader to speke, clothes, to go and 

see his father. 

& with lordesse of bat lond ]>at him long hade missed. [Foi. 71 ?>.] 

& wilKam wi}tli with-oute any more, 4540 

Greyed him as gaili as any gom Jmrt bene, Z!Taft. 

of alle trie a-tir * bat to kni^t longed, 

so bat noD mijt a-mend l a mite worb, i wene. 

& whan bei were at wille as bei wold he greibed, 4544 

eche on hent ober hi be hand * hendli & faire, 

& hastili in-to be hei3e halle hidden in-fere. 2252?'*" 

whan be perles puple perceyueden hem 2 come, 

Many a lord ful loueli lep hem a^ens, 4548 

as bo bat were geinli glad * on bat gom to loke. 

Gret nmrrbe at bat metyng was mad, he 3011 sure. 

be king of spayne forsobe knew his sone sone, The kin s of 

Spain soon knew 

& gret him ferst as a glad man & oft god bonkes, 4552 MS son. 

bat he so faire hade founde * his formest sone. 

seben be lordes of londe loueli him gretten, 

& his hold hrober he-fore alle ober ; 

saue be king him-self semliest he him gret, 4556 

& most ioye for bat metyng made bat time. brother. 

no tong mi^t telle treuli be sobe, 

be ioye bat was wrou3t with lasse & with more. 

be comli quen of palerne oft crist bonked, 4560 The queen of 

Palermo thanks 

bat hade hire sent of his sond so moche ioye to haue, Christ. 

& hade setteled hire sorwe so sone, pat was huge. 

sone be semli segges were sette in halle ; tSe'tSp proper 

be real rinkes hi reson * at be hei3e dese, 4564 

& alle ober afterward * on be side benches, 

& sete so in solas sadli ful be halle, 

eche dingneli at his degre to deme be sobe. 

whan be noyse was slaked * of be semli hurnes, 4568 

be king of spayne spak to alphouws his sone, 

1 MS. "a-mand." Read "amend." M. 

2 MS. " whan." Read " hem." M. 



& sede, "semli sone sore has me longed 
to se f i freli face * fat i for-lore hadde. 
[Foi. 72.] for fis comli quen f urth ^one kni^tes dedes, 4572 

haf vs alle in hold to harm at hire wille. 
saying it had but swete sone saide it haf ben oft, 

been foretold that , _ _. 

their deliverance fat our deliuerauftce was don on fe one ; 4575 

would be wrought .i-itiijiii -IT 

by him only. f iirth f e schuld we help haue or neuer-more elles. 
f er-fore, heuen king heried mot 36 bene, 
fat haf f e lend lif vs alle to deliuere." 

Aiphonse inquires " swete sire," seide alphouws * " so 2011 crist help, 

what caused the 

war. wharf ore was al fis fare formest bi-gunne ? " 4580 

"bi crist, sone," quaf fe king "to carpe fe sofe, 
The king says, alle be werre & bis wo is our wronge dedes. 

"I desired to have . J 

this damsel for i desired fis damisele fat digne is & iiobul, 

to haue hire to fi forofer fat here bi fe sittef ; 4584 
Her mother would ac hire moder in no maner hire nold me grau?ite. 

not grant it, and 

i wasted their for-f i w^tk with werre * i wasted alle hire londes, 

& bro^t hire at swiche bale fat sche mercy craued, 
in fis maner fat sche most mekli & faire, 4588 

do hire a-wei with hire doubter boute more harme ; 
sche wilned nou^t elles * but fat nold i graunt. 
But this bold k u t jjan com fis kene kni^t & f urth his clene strengf e, 
prisoners." boldli in batayle he bar doun vs alle, 4592 

& pult vs in prison * to payne at his grace ; 
f us sped we vs out of spayne to spire after winnywg." 

Aiphonse answers, A lphou?is fan a-non * answered & saide, 

* " faire fader, bi mi feif folili 36 wrou3ten, 4596 
" YOU did wrong, to wilne after wedlok fat wold nou3t a-sente. 

and can only 

blame yourself. fat mowe 36 wite bi 3our werkes * how wrofli l 30 

spedde ; 

to wicke was 3our coTiseil & 3our wille after ; 
But i hope ail ^if 36 2 haue wonne fe worse * wite it ^oiir-selue. 4600 

can be made to . 

end well." but i hope to heuen king 311 36 wol here mi wordes, 

1 Read " wrongli." M. 

'MS. "he." Read"ze."-M. 



al Jjis bale sclial be brou^t to bote at j>e last." 

to Jje quen of palerne alphoums ])iis saide, 

" a ! menskful madame * mekes alle ^our peple, 4604 

Jjat non spend no speche til i speke haue." 

Jjaii was silens mad to seie al Jje sojje. 

" ladis & ojjer lordes lestenej) now my sawe ! 

Jjis 30 witejj wel alle with-oute any fabul, 4608 

Jjat J?is lond hade be lore at Jje last ende, 

3if Jjise werres hade lasted any while here. 

but god 3011 sent swiche grace of his grete n^t, 

Jjat Jjis kud kni3t with his clene strengjje 4612 

hajj i-bet al 3oure bale & broi^t to 3our wille 

alle }our fon Jjat with fors defoyled 3011 long. <^^r 

3it wot non wiseli wennes he come, 

ne what wei3 he is * but wite schal 36 sone. 4616 

3if Jjat burn wel him bar i blame him but litel ; 

for mater i-now haj? eche man to mene Jje sojje, 

his moder Jjat is in meschef to meyntene & help ; 

& schal come him bi kinde * 3if he crist loue." 4620 

" what bi-tokenej? Jjis tale * tellejj, i be-seche, 

whi seie 30 so 1 " * seide j>e quene Jjanne. 

" sertes, madame," seid alphouras " sojjli me leue. 

Jjis comli kni3t is Jji sone bi crist ]jat me wroi^t ; 4624 

}jou bar him of jji bodi king ebrouws was his fader. 

al Jjis lordchip of Jjis lond is lelli his owne. 

<fe i am ]je werwolf wite 36 for sojje, 

Jjat bi-fore his fader ful 3ore i 3011 bi-reft, 4628 

<fe passed with him mi weie prestli fro 3ou alle. 

pe king & hise kni^tes with kries ful huge, 

Jjei sewed rijt to jje see to sle me 3if ]?ei mi3t. 

but bliue boute bot Jje brode water i passed, 4632 

boute hurt ojjer harm helped, be goddes grace, 

Jjat so sauf sent me oner ' wijj Jji sone sounde. , 

& gode ladi, 3if Jje like loue me neuer Jje worse, 

Jjat i Jje barn away bar to blame had i be ellefs], 4636 

for i wist ful wel wat wo him was toward 
10 * 

Alphonse craves 
silence while he 
speaks further. 

[Fol. 72 6.] 

" Ladies and 
lords, this land 
had been lost if 
the war had 

But this knight 
hath remedied all 
your grief, 

I /* 

and yet no oue 
knows who he is. 

He did quite right 
to help HIS 


" What means 
this ? " said the 

"This knight, 
madame, is THY 
sow, and king 
Ebrouns was his 

I am the werwolf 
who took him 
away from you 

Then the king 
and his knights 
pursued me as 
far as to the sea 
[Straits of 

which I crossed 
over in safety. 



Had I not taken 
him away, he 
would soon have 
been dead. 
[Fol. 73.] 

For Ebrouns' 
brother bribed the 
ladies who had 
William in their 

to poison the 
king and prince 

When I knew it, 
I was grieved, 
and for pity stole 
him away. 

I have ever helped 
him at need, and 
have brought him 

and now yield 
him to thee 

When the queen 
heard this, her 
joy was 

Melior perhaps 
was the gladdest 
of all, that her 
lover was king of 
all that land. 

ne had i so do, lie hade be ded many a day passed. 

J?e king ebrouws brober * be-bou^t bis oft, 

if 1 bis ilk bold km$t * had be broi^t out of line, 4640 

he schold have entred as eyr bis eritage to hold, 

after be kinges day bi dessent of blode. 

& sone as a schrewe schuld be schrewedest he boi^t ; 

he coynted him queyntli with bo tvo ladies, 4644 

bat hade bat time bi sone to kepe in warde, 

& meded hem so moche * wib alle maner Binges, 

& bi-het hem wel more ban i 3011 telle kan, 

Gret lordchip of londes & liking at wille, 4648 

so bat bei him bi-hi^t bi a schort terme, 

bat bei pn'ueli wold enpoysoun be king & his sone, 

to haue do krouned him king to kepe bat reaume. 

but whan i knew al here cast of here wic wille, 4652 

I ne mi3t it suffer for sorwe & for reube, 

bat here wicked wille in bise wise ended. 

& ]>erfor i him tok now haue i told be soj>e, 

& haue him holp herto wanne he hade nede, 4656 

as moche as i nri^t in eny maner wise : 

& hider i brou^t him, be }ou siker * ^our bales for to 

haue him now bi be hand i 3 eld him here to J?e." 

2 be comli quen bat carping hade herde, 
& saw J?at was hire sone * sofli i-proued, 


fer nys man vpow mold mi^t telle J>e ioye 
fat was mad hem bi-twene * in ]?e mene wh[i]le, 
betwene ))e dame & J?e doubter * & hire dere sone, 4664 
with clipping & kesseng & o]>er kinde dede. 
& ^if any mi^t be most meliors was gladdest, 
Jjat hire loueliche lemman was lord of J?at reaume. 
bi kinde as kinges sone & god kni^t him-selue. 4668 

MS. " of." Perhaps we should substitute if. M. 
2 MS. "Mhan." The rubricator has here and elsewhere made 
a mistake, and inserted a capital M for a W. M. 



swiche mwrrthe as was mad at fat metyng f anne, 

& fat of al fat puple fat in f e paleys were, 

tonge mi^t non telle J)e tenf e l del, for sof e. 

& anon, after fat * alphouns panne hem tolde, 4672 

alle f e happes fat lie hadde al holly to f e hende, 

from fat time fat he tok * f e child fro his frendes. 

how f e fader him folwed * fayn him to quelle ; 

& how he bar for]) f e barn over f e brode water ; 4676 

& sef en how he sou^t for]) bi selcouf wei^es, 

bering euer fat barn be ni^tes and daie, 

til he com bi a forest seuen mile fro rome ; 

& how J)e cou-herde com him to & kept J)e child 

after, 4680 

& sef en how f empef'our sou^t out to hunte, 
& fond him in f e forest & faire hade him home, 
& tok him to kepe to his doubter dere ; 
& how f e meke mayde & he * melled of lone, 4684 
<fe hadde here liking in lone a long time ofte ; 
& how J)e kinges sone of grece * kom hire to wedde, 
& on fe morwe fat fe mariage schold haue be 


how fei went a-wai in wite beres skinnes ; 4688 

" f er-after, sire, i f e saued forsof e as fow knowest, 
whanne alle J)e puple prestili pursewed after, 
to haue do fe to defe & J)i dere make. 
& at boneuewt i J>e brou3t fram ]?e breme quarrer, 
whan al fe cunfae was uwbe-cast with clene mew of 

armes, 4693 

to haue J>e take ]>er tit & to dethe hampred ; 
I tok here souerayne sone so saued i fe fere." 
sefen he told hou he dede here hides fan chauwge, 
& dede hem haue hertes skinnes to hiden in hem 

bofe. 4697 

" sef en at a wide water i wan 3ou over bofe, 
a token e $it of fat time * telle i mai f i burde. 
1 MS. "tonfre." See 1. 4715. 

[Pol. 73 6.] 
Alphonse recounts 
all the details- 

how he bore 
William over the 
water ; 

how he carried 
him by strange 
ways to the 
forest near Rome; 

how the cowherd 
found him, and 
then the emperor; 

how he and the 
daughter loved 
each other ; 

how the lovers 
fled, clad in two 
white bears' 
skins ; 

how they escaped 
at Benevento ; 

how they 
exchanged their 
hides for harts' 


and how the a boye hire $af a buffet with a breme ore, 4700 

Meiior with an so fat hire lif lelH nei$ hade sche lore." 

alle here happes holli alphouws tellef fere, 
& what he hade suffred '.-to sauen here Hues. 

wmiam was very TTThan William, hade herd holli his wordes, 4704 

glad at finding he IV 

was king Ebrouns' ' he was gretli glad no gom furt mm wite, 
n '[Foi. 74.] fat al f e puple in )>e place a-pertli knewen 

fat he was kindeli * king ebrouras sone. 

He embraces and fan lai^t he alphouws anon loueli in armes, 4708 
saying, P & clipped him & kessed & kindeli sayde, 

" a ! faire frend alphoims * ioye f e bi-tide, 
"May God requite & god for his grete mi^t ' fi godnesse fe ^elde, 

& fi tenful trauayles * fow hast for me suffred, 4712 

& for my loueli lemman lord it f e quite ! 

For i know not f or j ne wo t i n fa s W0 rld * what wise i mht 

how to requite 

thee the tenth quite f e [f e] tenf edel in al mi lif time. 

but fer nis god vnder god fat i may gete euer, 471/6 
AH i can do shau fat it [ne] schal redeli be fin at fin owne wille ; l 

be done soon, to . 

make all thine. ne no dede fat i may do fat ne schal be do sone, 
& loue lelli what f ou louest al mi lif dawes, 

haTesshTbe 3 & liate Iiei 3 eli in hert ' J> at > ou hate f enkest, 4720 
mme - so fat my hert holli schal hold him at f i wille. 

& f erto hei^eliche am i hold for holli i knowe 
AH that thou hast j, a t a lle f e sawes be sof fat bou saidest ere : 

said is wholly r 

true." sadde sorwes for mi sake suffred astow manye." 4724 

" sertes, sire, fat is sof " seide alphouws f anne, 

" Me > inke ) ) 3 e m[ ^ be hold ' to ( l uite me mi mede '> 
& so i desire fat f ou [do] 2 3if ^ou dere f inkes. 

"$a ! wold god," seide william * " fat i wist nouf e 4728 
" in what way ? " I n what maner bat i mitt mest with be piece, 


William. or fat i wait worldes god * fat fou woldest ^erne." 

" jis, sire," seide alphouws " so me crist help, 

1 Here follow two lines (out of place) which occur again below. 
See 11. 4722, 4723," and the note. 

2 Or insert " wole," as Sir F. Madden suggests. 



f er nis god vnder god fat i gretli willne, 4732 

as o f ing fat f ou woldest * wilfulli me graurct." 

" ^is, i-wisse," seide wilKam " wilne what f e likes, 

f ei} f ou in hast woldest haue ' holli al mi reaume ; 

I wold nowt wilne a mite worf but meliors allone." 

alphouna a-non answered fanne & seide, 4737 

" I kepe nou}t of f i kingdom be crist fat me bou^t, 

ne of f i loueli lemnian lelly but in gode. 

I ne wilne no-f ing but f i suster to be samen wedded, 

to weld here as my wif al my lif tyme." 4741 

" ^a, worf i god," seide willmm " wel were me fanne, 

}if i wist fat f ow woldest * here to wiue haue. 

it were a wonderful werk $if f ou woldest euere 4744 

Meke f e in eny maner to be maried so lowe." 

"^is beter, sire," seide alphouras * "i preie f e of nou^t 


for al f e sorwe fat i haue suffred for f i sake eu^r. 
but graimte me boute grucching * to haue fat gaie 

maide." 4748 

" bi god, sire," seide wilKam * " fat gart me be fourmed, 
f ou schalt [haue] l hire at f in hest & with hire al my 


of er half witterli with-out any lette." 
<; nay, crist forbede," seide alphourcs 2 "for his holi 

blode, 4752 

fat i were so wicked * to wilne ou^t of f i gode ; 
I ne bidde nou$t a bene worf but fat burde one." 
fan wilKam as a glad man godli him f onked, 
& seide, " sertes, nowe [we] 3 schul be * sarnera hole 

frendes, 4756 

lelli bref eren in lawe our lord be it f onked ; 
for al f e welf e of f e world at wille nou^ vs fallef ." 
fan al f e puple in f e paleys prestli, fo[r] ioye, 
Maden al f e m?/rfe fat men mi^t deuise. 4760 

" There is no 
benefit I so long 
for as one thing." 

" I will grant you 
half my kingdom 
anything but 

[Fol. 74 6.] 

" All I ask for is 
thy sister to 

" That were well 
indeed, if thou 
canst marry so 

" Yes indeed j I 
ask for no reward 
but that." 

" Thou shalt have 
her, with half of, 
or all my 

"Nay, I ask but 
that lady only." 

"Now," said 
William, "we 
shall be brothers- 

Then all the 
people rejoiced 

1 Read 

'schalt haue hire." M. ' MS. "alphuows." 

3 Read " nowe we schul." 



& be comli quen ful oft crist bonked, 
bat hade so wi^tli of hire wo so wel hire comforted, 
tid were be tidinges told wide where a-boute 
and the tidings of O f bat ferli bat was fallen bere fast ban ber-after, 4764 

it were soon 

spread every- Qret puple drow to palern to proue be sobe, 
to loke on be lordes in liking at wille. 

As soon as it was 
known that the 
two ladies would 
have betrayed 

[Fol. 75.] 
they were afraid 
they would be 
burnt, drawn, or 

So Gloriande and 
Acelone put on 


and put them- 
selves in 
William's grace. 

" We beg for our 

and hope to be 
allowed to do 

"YTow forto muttge forber as be mater falles. 
^ whan bise [tidinges] l were told to lasse & to 
more, 4768 

bat bo tvo trattes bat willmm * wold haue transited, 
bo ladyes bat had him to loke & leren in ^oube, 
bei wisten witterly barcne * with-oute any lette, 
bat bei schuld be do to debe deulfulli in hast, 4772 
brent in bri^t fur to-drawe, or an-honged, 
as bilk bat [were] 2 worbi for bere wicked dedes 
Gloriaiws & achillones * bo tvo ladies hi^ten 
bliue bei hem bi-bout what bote mi^t hem help, 4776 
sebe here treson was kud & knowe al a-boute. 
hastili bei hent hem on * hei^resse ful rowe 
next here bare bodi & bare fot bei went, 
& faire bi-fore wilKam bei felle on knes bobe, 4780 
& goue hem in his grace for bat grete gilt, 
& knoulecheden al be cas * how bei cast hadde, 
to haue sotiliche sleyn him-self & his fader, 
bi hest of be kinges brober * bat bale to haue wrou^t. 
" lete vs, sire, haue be lif * wil our lord wold. 4785 
we meke vs in ^oure merci * at alle maner poyntes, 
to sle vs or to saue wheber $ou god likes, 
bat we ar worbi to be deth wel we be a-knowe, 4788 
but wold 30 graurct vs 3our grace * for goddes loue of 


to put vs to sum place penau?ice to wirche, 
& late vs haue be lif whil our lord wold, 

1 This word is surely wanted ; cf. 1. 4763. 

Read " that was worthi," or " were worthi." M. 



fat we mi^t a-mende sum of our mis-gilt, 4792 

& for 3our fad[er]e l & for 3011 fei^Jjli to preie. 

3if 30 worche so worchipe mijt 36 gete, 

&, dere lord, of f e deth may no god dede falle, 

"hot a litel wicked wille f er-with wold be slaked." 

al fe barnage as bliue baden for hem 3 erne, 4797 

fat f ei most in alle maner * fat trespas amende. 

& william. fan wi^tli here wille haf graurcted, 

so fat f ei wrou3t in fat wise & wold be gode after. 

sone were fe ladies to an hermitage brou3t, 4801 

& liueden fere in god lif wil our lord wold, 

In penauwce & in prayeres priueli & loude, 

til f ei went of ])is world * whan god wold hew fecche. 

now lete i here of f e ladies & lestenef a-nof er, 4805 

what bi-tidde of f is tale as f is store tellef . 

and to pray for 
you and your 

William grants 
them their lives, 

and they live in 
a hermitage 

till the time of 
their death. 

[Fol. 75 &.] 

Wilk'arn fan with-oute more wi3tli f er-after, 
made him menskful messageres to mene fe 
sofe, 4808 

f e grettest lordes of fat land fat lellest were hold, 
& konyngest of kurtesie & kowden fairest speke. 
to femperour of rome redeli he hem sent, 
& with loueli letteres lelli him bi-sou3t. 4812 

3if fat is wille were with-oute any lette, 
to be fere with his best burnes bi a certayne time, 
to mensk f e mariage * of meliors his dorter, 
and 3if alisauwdrine were fanne aliue, 4816 

fat sche most with him come * curtesli he prayde. 
fan were f e messangeres * in alle maner wise 
so trieliche a-tired to telle f e sof e, 
of hors & of harneys * & [what] 2 hem most neded, 
fat no wie^h of fis world f urt wilne beter ; 4821 
& went forf on here way wi3tly and fast, 
til f ei redli hade rau3t to grete rome euene. 
whan f e bold barounes be-fore f emperour come, 4824 
Read "fadere." M. 2 See line 4187. 

William sends 
messengers to the 
emperor of 

beseeching him to 
come to Palermo 
to his daughter's 

and asking that 
might come too. 

The messengers 
go to Rome ; 


and greet the f u l godlt pei him gret * glaclli, as pei ou^t, 

emperor from . 

Aiphonse king of ferst in alphoims halt pat king was of spayne, 
for pemperour & he hadde be felawes 3016, 

and wimam king sepen in worpi willmms pat king was of poyle, 4828 
& souerayn of cisile as schold a king bene. 

and in Meiior's S epen in meliors name * pat was hise mery donate?-. 


& in pe kinges half of poyle * praiede him fayre, 

to come to to be at palerne with his puple presteli & sone, 4832 

Palermo to his . 

daughter's Di a certeyn day pat set was sone after, 

to menske pe mariage * of meliors his doubter, 
for to wiue he wold here take pat welt pat reaume. 
whawne pe messagers hade miroged of meliors pe 
schene, 4836 

The emperor asks Gretteliche was he gladed & gan for to seie, 
daughter is. " lordinges, for 3our leute * lelli me telles, 

3if 30 wite in any wise * were be fat burde 1 " 
[Foi. 76.] ti Marie, sire." sede be messageres " ae mowe vs wel 

"In Palermo, 

sire. Here is her trOWC, 4840 

pe niilde mayde meliors in palerne now dwelles ; 

Loo here hire owne letteres to leue it }>e beter." 
The king bids a J> e king komauwded a clerk * keneli & swipe 
letter, to loke on po letteres and lelli hem rede, 4844 

pat he mi^t wi^tli wite what pat pei mened. 
and the clerk pe clerk panne deliuerli * vndede po letteres, 

undid it and read />-i -, -, > -i 

as the messengers & lond as pe messageres hade mtwged be-lore, 

how pe king of poyle prestli hade ordeyned, 4848 
at swich a certayn day his semliche doi^ter wedde. 

Then the emperor ~l*awne wist bemperour wel bat bei were treuwe, 

knew it was all \) 

true, * & made pe messagers pe m^?*rpe pat he coupe, 

realiere nere neuer rinkes resseiued in place. 4852 

forfs'to 1 w*i"h" 8 -^- an ^ ma( ^ e pemperour his messageres ont-wende, 
him to the a lle be lordes of bat lond lelli to somouwne 


to be redili a-raied in here richest wise, 

to wend with him wijtli * to pe wedding nobul. 4856 

& wan pei harden his hest pei hie^eden fast, 


& certes on be selue day bat hem was a-signed, so they ail 

. assembled on the 

so nche a route in rome was rialicne a-sembled, appointed day ; 

bat neuer seg vnder su?me ne saw swiche a-nober, 

so tri3liche a-tired of al bat to hem longed ; 4861 

& went whtli here [way! l wen bei were sare, and went their 

way, and 

& alisaundrine with hem as i arst miwged. Alexandrine with 


& wending as bei were * in here way bat time, 4864 

of be menskful messageres bempe?*our bawne asked, On the wa y. the 

emperor hears 

bi what cas his doubter was fare to bat londe, the whole story ; 

& how kendeli sche was knowe * bat king wold hire 


& bei titli him told * al be trewe sobe, 4868 

of alle fortune bat was falle fram comsing to bende, 
In alle maner as i mugged in mater here bi-fore. 
& wharcne bemperour hade herd how [bat] hit ferde, ^J^JHT 
he was gretteli gladed and oft crist bonked 4872 again to the 

of be fortune bi-falle of so faire an hende, 
& mugged bawne al be mater to his meyne sone, 
as bo menskful messagers hade mu??ged be-fore. 4875 
be nmrbe bat banne was maked mijt no tonge telle, ^treyd So 
bat tit was mad for bo tiding whan bei told were. Palermo. 

& so ban held J)ei here way harde & faste, 
til bei to palerne prestili * with al bat pres come. 

William* barme ful wijtli with a faire puple 4880 ^ n a ^J m 
of crouned kinges & kniates many hundred, company goes to 

meet the emperor, 

went a^en bemperour with wel glade chere. 

a gay greting was be?* gret wan bei to-gedir met. 

william & bemperour went alder-form est, 4884 

& alphouws next after & auenauwtli him grette, &**/ 

with alle be nmrbe vpow mold bat men mi^t deuise. 

be king of spayne spacli * spedde him next after, The king of Spain 

for bemperour & he bi-fore felawes hadde bene, 4888 emperor giadiy. 

1 Bead "here way wen they were zare." M. See 11. 4864, 

2 The capital W is mis-written M. See 1. 4923. 



On nearing the 

the queen and 
Melior and 

and the queen of 
Spain come to 
welcome him. 

Great was the 
emperor's joy at 
seeing his 

No need to tell of 

their merry fare. 

[Fol. 77.] 

The joyous 
meeting of 
Alexandrine atid 

Melior tells her 
friend all her 

William and 
Melior tell the 
emperor all their 

& kindli kessed eiper oper whan pei kome to-gadere. 

pe mwrpe pat was mad at pat metyng panne, 

ne may no tong telle treuli pe sope. 

sepen went pei alle samen swetli to-gadere 4892 

to pe perles paleys and prestili pat time, 

with a clene cumpanye pe quen com hem a-^ens, 

pat lady was of pat lond * & ledde in here hondes 

pe menskful mayde meliors & here oune doubter ; 

& hem sewep a selcoupe route of semli ladies ; 4897 

pe quen of spayne spacli pan spedde fast after. 

a mery meting was per mett whan pei nei^ed same, 

with clipping & kessing and ccwtenaurcce hende. 4900 

but sopli whan pemperour sey * his semli donate?*, 

a glader gome vnder god * mi^t non gon on erpe. 

pe melodie pat pei made * no man mi^t telle, 

ne neuer nere gestes vnder god gladliere receyued. 

iioping wanted pei at wille pat pei wold haue, 4905 

pat pei nere semli serued & sette at here ri^ttes. 

Muwge now nel i namore of here merie fare, 

for beter to be pan it was mijt no burn penke. 4908 

as sone as alisauwdrine hade si$t of hire ladi, 

no tunge rni^t telle treuli half pe ioye 

pat pei made at pat metyng whan pei mette same. 

& meliors ful mekli brou^t hire to hire chauwber, 

& told here whan sche sei time * treuli al pe sope, 4913 

al pe sorwe pat sche hade suffred sepe sche hire seie ; 

now of pis mater no more nel ich munge ; 

& alle mwrpe was hem mad among atte fulle. 4916 

wilKam & his worpi make whan pei sei time, 

told pemperour treuli pat hem tidde hadde, 1 

of meschef & of murthe * & ho hem most helped, 

& how pei broujt were of bale to here bote pere. 4920 

& alle perme of pat auentwrre hadde gret ioye, 

& ponked god of his grace * pat so godli hem spedde. 

1 After " hadde " occurs a line made up from this line and the 
next, and not finished, viz. " of mechef & of murfre J?at hem 
tidde h." 



TTThanne l time was, to f e mete fei turned sone, 

' & serued [were] 2 selcouf li ri^t as hem wolde, 4924 
of alle dere deintes of metes and of drynkes ; 
and as fei muriest at f e mete * fat time seten, 
f er come menskful messageres fat men were nobul, 
fro f emperour of grece gret wel f e quene, 4928 

fat ladi was of fat lond & he hire dere fader, 
& from hire brof er partendo fat was hire pert brof er. 
& whan f ise messageres * hade here greting made, 
fan fe soueraynest seg * saide of hem alle, 4932 

" Madame, makes 3011 merie for marie loue in heuen, 
for $our fei^ful fader naf 3011 nou^t for-^ete. 
ac he haf sent 3011 to socoure * so grissiliche an host, 
fat f er nis man vporc mold fat may 3011 with-stond, 
fat fei nelle bring in bale at ^our bidding sone. 4937 
fei kome sailing in fe see here souerayn is 

brof er ; 

partenedon f e perles * al fat puple ledes, 
& se him schal ^our-self hastli, boute faile, 
er f is fridde day be don * doute 3011 non ofer. 
& whan fat comli quen f o tidinges herde, 
a gladdere womman in world 3 * was f er non a-liue, 
to f e menskful messagere made 4 gret ioye, 4944 

& worf ili hem welcomed 36 mow wite fe sof e. 
f e comli quen & f e king curcseiled fan to-gedere, 
fat f e bridhale schuld a-bide til hire brof er come, 
to mensk more fat mariage ^if fei mijt f anne. 4948 
fan on f e fridde day ariued hire brof er fere, 
with a clene cumpanye to carp f e sof e. 
f e grettest lordes of fat lond fat lined fat time ; 
but his ost fat tide he left in f e see stille. 4952 

whan f e quen wist of his come * curtesli & sone, 

1 The large capital letter is mis-written M, as at 1. 4880. 

2 See 1. 5064. 3 MS. " wolrd." 

4 The sense would be clearer if the pronoun " sche " were 
supplied, but it is often omitted in similar cases throughout thia 
poem M. 


All go to meat, 
and are served 
with all dear 

Some messengers 
enter, from the 
emperor of 
Greece and the 
queen's brother 

The chlof of them 
says, "Madame, 

your father hath 
sent an army to 
help you. 

Partenedon your 
brother is. their 

[Fol. 77 &.] 

Then the queen 
was very glad, 
and welcomed the 

It was agreed to 
put off the bridal 
till her brother 

On the third day 
he arrived, with t 
groat company. 



The queen goes 

forth with the 

rest to greet him. 

she receives him 

it was a solemn 
"clip" and kiss, 

None can tell the 

mirth that was 


The queen teiis 

her brother how 

William was her 

[Foi. 78.] 

and how the 

werwolf was 

restored to man's 

shape ; 
and of the 

He was very 

vexed at this, for 

he had wooed 

He would have 

liked to win 

Meiior by force, 

But as he saw it 

could not be, he 

Gladli with grete lordes sche gob him a^ens, 

* . ' 

pe kud emperour of rome & pe king of spayne, 

& his comli quen * & alle pe kni^tes gode. 4956 

pe worpi wilb'am was pe first * pat welcomed him faire, 

& alphoiws after him & after pe kinges. 

pe quen of palern presteli }?ari presecl to hire broper, 

& receyued him as reali as any rink purt bene ; 4960 

pe king of spayne & pe quen * curtesli him gret, 

& pemperour of rome with ri}t gret ioye. 

per was a solempne sijt whan pei sameft mette, 

with clipping & kissing to keppe hem to-gadere. 4964 

pe lady fill loueli * pan lad forp hire broper 

presteli to palerne to pe paleys riche. 

More nmrpe vpCM mold ' mht no man deuise, 

pan was mad to po men to murage pe sope ; 

]S"e wanted hem no-ping pat pei wold haue, 

plenteuosli in eche place pe puple was serued. 

& as pei sete jn solas sone pe quen told 

buxumli to hire broper what bi-tidde pere ; 4972 

how wilKam was hire son * & with his dou^ti dedes 

hade conquered pe king of spayne & ended pat werre ; 

& in what wise be werwolf * was broujt to his state : 

& holli alle pe happes as ^e han herd be-fore; 4976 

-, . . , . . , n . 

how pei went away bope in white beres skinnes. 
pan told sche how alphoufts schuld his nece wedde, 
& willmm worpi ineliors with welpe on pe morwe. 1 
pan femperoures sone of grece was a-greued sore, 4980 

, . , , , , , 

whawne he wist on pe morwe pe manage schuld bene, 
for he wend hire haue wedded whilom in rome. 
& pehh he wist william his nobul newe panne, 
hade he had his ost he wold [haue] a-saide pere 4984 
to haue with stoteye & strengpe stoutli hire wonne. 
but sei he sobli so mwt it nou^t bene, 
ac .suner he most pouh it mm sore rewed, 

1 These two lines, 4978 and 4979, follow line 4987 in the MS. ; 
but are evidently out of place there, and must be inserted here. 



& semblawt made lie sobur so as it him paide, 4988 

but i hote fe in hert it liked him wel ille. 

f ann will/am and his moder & meliors als, 

& alphou?2S anon ri^t of alisaundrine toched, 

to marie here menskfulli * a-morag hem ri3t Jjanne. 4992 

<fe so f ei touched hem be-twene * to tele f e sof e, 

fat brauftdnis alphourcs broker schuld be hire make, 

f e kinges sone of spayne fat comsed alle f e werre. 

& he at his fader hest * hit jjanne graunted, 4996 

& at f e bidding of his broker & wilh'ams hest. 

fan driue f ei forf fe day in dedut & in nmrf e, 

& haden holli at wille what hem haue nedede, 

& sef f e to bedde uche burn * busked him fat time. 

but on j>e morvve manli to mene fe sofe, 5001 

Men mi^t haue seie of segges many on greyed, 1 

In f e worf iest wise * fat seien were euere, 

sef f e he fat vs bou^t in bemleem was bore. 5004 

alle f e clerkes vnder god couf e nou^t descriue 

a-redili to f e ri^tes f e realte of fat day, 

fat was in fat cite for fat solempne fest, 

& of alle men fat manerli mi^t ou^t gete 5008 

of any god gaili to greif e hem midde. 

to muwge of menstracie it mi^t nou^t be aymed, 

so many maner miwstracie at fat mariage were, 

fat whan J>ei made here menstracie * eche man wende, 

fat heuen hastili & erfe schuld hurtel to-gader, 5013 

so desgeli it denede * fat al f erf e quakede. 

f e stretis were alle strewed & stoutli be-hoiiged, 

with gode clofes of gold of alle gay hewes ; 5016 

& burgeys with here burdes in here best wise, 

weyteden out at windowes eche weie a-boute, 

to prie on f e puple * fat priked in f e stretes, 

& to loke on here lord fat lelli fan schold 5020 

be krowned king on fat day to kepe al fat reaurne. 

"greyed" (?) 

appeared to be 
pleased, though 
grieved at heart. 

William and the 
rest wished to 
find a husband for 

and thought that 
Braundnis, prince 
of Spain, would 
suit her. 

Braundnis agrees 
to this. 

They pass the day 
merrily till 

Next day, all 
were seen in their 
finest attire. 

Not all the clerks 
could describe the 
royalty of that 

[Pol. 78 6.J 

nor tell of the 
minstrelsy at the 

The minstrelsy 
dinned so that 
the earth quaked. 

The streets 
were strewn with 
cloth of gold. 


But when the T)ut trewbe now for to telle whan time come of dave. 

time came for the f| . . J 

brides to go to -*-* bat be blisful brides * schold buske to cherche, 

church, their 

attire was past of here a-tir for to telle to badde is my witte, 5024 

description. . .. ...... 

for alle f e men vpon mold ne mi^t it descrme 
a-redili to ])e ri^tes * so riche it were alle. 
There were kings bof e kinges & quenes & of er kud lordes, 

and queens and 

lords, with perteli in alle a-paraile * pursewend furth-oute, 5028 

"harness." of hors & harneys & fat hem haue neded, 

so fat noil mi^t be amended a mite worf , for sof e ; 

as eche gom in his degre godliche ou^t. 

for-fi no more of bat mater nel ich mirage nof e, 5032 

but touche for]? of be tale as tellef f e gest. 

wlian f 6 ^urnes were boui1 ' to buske to chirche, 

Florence, bemperour of rome willmms suster ladde, 

VWilliam's sister. r r 

filke fat alphouws schold to wiue weld. 5036 

The king of Spain & k e k u( j king of spayne curtesli & faire, 

led Melior. 

ladde meliors menskfulli * a-mong alle f e puple. 

AkxanSine led f 6 q uenes *>rof er of palerne partenedon f e bold 

alisauftdrine at fat time auenauratli ladde. 5040 

al with blisse on here blonkes f ei busked to chirche, 
with alle fe mwrfe vpon mold * fat man mijt of fenk. 1 
LPoi. 79.] f e clergie com hem 2 a-^ens ri^t gailiche a-tyred, 

them in ful pertliche on procession prestli as f ei ou^t, 5044 

gave William the & komen to here king & dede him fe croyce kesse. 
fan with worchip & wele went to f e cherche, 

The patriarchs be patriarkes & ober prelates * prestli were reuested. 

and prelates were ' 

soon apparelled, to make f e mariage ,menskfulli as it ou^t. 5048 

& after f e lawe of f e lond lelliche to telle, 

and the couples jj e j were f er wedded worchipfulli and fayre. 

& lelli, for alisauTidrines lord ne hade non londes, 

Towns, countries, i, er were t^ ^jf hQ m to treuH fele townes, 5052 

and castles are 

given to comli castelles and couf and cuntres wide, 

Alexandrine's . . 

husband. to hue wif worchip & wele in world al here liue. 

NO clerk could no clerk vnder crist ne kowbe nouat descriue 

describe the 

mirth. fe murthe for fat mariage fat was maked fanne, 5056 
1 Catchword" J?e clergie." 2 MS. " him." Bead " hem." M. 



f e richesse ne f e riaulte to rekene f e so))e, 

ne f e solempne seruise * fat seyn was fat time. 

but whan be seruise was seid * as it schold bene, The service 


fat fel to a mariage be-maked at cherche, 5060 

fat puple prestli a$en to f e paleys wente 

wif al f e mwrf e of menstracye fat man mi^t on f enk. 

& treuli whan time was f ei twrned to mete, they returned to 

the palace, and 

& serued were as selcouf li as hem-self wolde 5064 went to meat. 

desiren of eny deyntes of metes & drinkes. 

It were toor forto telle treuli al fe so be, it were hard to 

tell all about the 

& to reherce f e aray ari^t of fat riche feste, rich feast. 

for-fi i leue fis li^tli * ac leuef fis for treufe, 5068 

f er mi^t no mon it amende a mite worf , i leue. 

whan bordes were born a-doun & burnes hade When they had 

, washed after 

wascnen, mea t, the 

Men mi3t haue seie to mewstrales moche god $if, 
sterne stedes & stef & ful stoute robes, 5072 

Gret garisun of gold & greifli gode iuweles. 
f e fest of fat mariage a monef fulle lasted, The feast lasted a 

& eche day was gret god giue al a-boute, 
to more & to lasse * fat at f e mariage were. 5076 

fan lau^t f e lordes here leue * at f e monf es ende ; [Foi. 79 &.] 

partenedon parted first of palerne f e quenes brof er ; Partenedon was 
for he hade ferrest to fare formes fc he went. home; 

& wilham wif his wi3es * we/it him wif on gate, 5080 
& semli wif alle solas * to f e see him broi^t, 
& his menskful moder meliors, & his suster. 
prestili f e quen of palerne fan preied hire brof er, and the queen 
to grete hire feifful fader fele times & ofte, 5084 her father. 
" & f onk him kindli of f e help fat he to me sent, 
& telle him treuli as it bi-tidde here." 
fan lau^t f ei eche leue at of er lelli to telle ; 

partenedon passed to schepe & his puple after, 5088 Then Partenedon 
& went wi^tli to saile f e wind was at f e best, Greece. 

& saileden wif game & gle to grece til f ei come, 
fan told he tyt to his fader treuli f e sof e, 



He told hia father 
all the events, 
how his sister was 
helped by her 
son, and Melior 
married to his 

The emperor 
wondered, but 
was glad his 
nephew was so 

and that his 
daughter had 
been so well 


of fortune fat was falle fram comsing to f ende. 5092 

how his semli suster was holpen Jmrth hire sone, 

& how fat maide meliors was wedded fat time, 

to his owne neweu f ou^h it him noi^t liked. 5095 

& whan f emperour hade herde [holly] l f o wordes, 

he was a-wondred gretli as he wel mi^t, 

but glad he was fat his neweu * so nobul was wox, 

& preised so perles al of er fat he passe]?, 5099 

of alle kni^tes vnder [heuene] 2 fat knowe were f anne. 

& fat his doubter of here duresse was so deliuered, 

Gretli he f onked god * of his grete mi^t 5 

& lined fan in lisse * al his lif after. 5103 k 

but go we now from f e gregoyse & ginne of anof er, u^ 

& of f e puple in palerne how f ei passed, telle. 

Next, the 
emperor of Rome 
went homewards, 

and William and 
the rest escorted 
him for five 

[Fol. 80.] 

The emperor 
advises his 
daughter, saying, 

"Be courteous to 
all, meek to thy 
servants, and 
leal to thy lord. 

l%e real emperour of rome remewed next after 

Y redili towardes rome with al his route nobul. 

wilKam & his moder meliors 3 & his suster, 5108 

f e king of spayne & his sones * & here semli puple, 

werct wif him on gate wel an fine myle, 

to conueye him curtesli * as kindnesse it wold, 

wif al f e mwrf vpon mold * fat men mi^t on f enk. 

& as f ei went bi f e weie wittow for sof e, 

ful mekli to meliors f emperour f us saide, 

" now, dere dor^ter, i f e preie do bi mi rede. 

lok f ou bere f e buxumli & be god & hende, 

konnyng & kurtes to komwne & to grete ; 

be meke & mercyabul ' to men fat f e serue, 

and be lei to f i lord and to fis ladi after, 

fat is his menskful moder * & moche f ow hire loue. 

& alle f e lordes of fis lond loue wel after, 

& loke, doubter, bi f i lif as f ow me louest dere, 

J>at neuer f e pore porayle * be piled for f i sake, 

1 See 1. 24G. 

2 Read " vnder god" or "vnder heuene"M.. 

3 MS. repeats " meliors." 






ne taxed to taliage but tentyfli fow help, 5124 

fat al f is lond be lad in lawe as it ou^t ; 

fan wol al f e pore puple preie for J>e ^erne, 

to Hue long in god liif & f i lord alse. 

stifli loke fowst[r]iue *fo[r] state of holi cherche, 5128 

to meyntene it manli on alle mane?- wise. 

Gif gretli of j?i god for goddes loue of heuen ; 

be merciabul to alle men * fat in mechef arn ; 

so schaltow gete god los & gretli be menskked, 5132 

as ban al fin aunceteres or fow were bi-geten. 

do Jms, mi dere doubter & drede fow f e neuer, 

fat fow ne schalt haue heuen blisse after f is Hue." 

ful mekli seide meliors wif meling of teres, 5136 

" i hope, sire, to heuen king ^our hest so wirche, 

fat no barn fat is born * schal blame mi dedes." 

ful tyt after f o tales f ei token here leue, 

clipping & kesseng * kurtesli eche ofer. 

but f e mournyng fat meliors made fat time, 

for hire fader schold fare from hire so sone, 

treuli it were ful tor to telle f e sof e. 

ac femperour ful hendeli held hire in is armes, 

& comforted here kindeli and f e quen preiede 

to be meke & merciabule * to meliors his doubter, 

" & cheresche here & chaste ^if fat chauwce falles, 

fat sche wold miswerche wrongli any time." 5148 

" 3is, bi crist, sire," quaf f e quen " kare nou^t f er- 


i loue hire as miin owne lif * leue f ou for sof e, 
wel i wot sche wol worche * al-way fe gode. 5151 

for-f i here wille schal be wrou^t * what sche wol ^erne 
fat sche ne schal want in no wise what f e hert Hkes.'' 
f emperour hire f roli f onked many f ousand sif e, 
& after fat, anon ri3t to alisauwdrine he seide, 5155 
" God has f e nou^t for-gete my gode hende mayde; 
for worchipfulli artou wedded to welde a kinges sone. 
ful busili i f e bidde fat burn euer honoure, 
11 * 



Never let the 
poor be robbed on 
thine account, 

and the poor will 
pray for thee. 

Strive to maintain 
the church. 

Be pitiful to all 
in trouble. 

Do thus, and thou 
shalt win the 
bliss of heaven." 

Melior, weeping, 
says she hopes 
none will ever 
blame her. 

It were hard to 
tell how Melior 
mourned at her 

But he comforted 

[Fol. 80 &.] 
her, asking the 
queen to be kind 
to her, and to 
chasten her when 
she does wrong. 

The queen 
promises, saying 
she will doubtless 
always do right. 

The emperor 
tells Alexandrine 
that God has not 
forgotten her. 



"Your command 
shall be kept," 
she replied. 

& wirche him al f e worchip * in world f atou maye ; 

Jjanne schal eche lud f e loue * & for fi lif preie." 5160 

" 3 our hest, sire, schal "be holde " * sede alisaimdrine 

" so fat 30 ne schul here * of me nou}t but gode, 

I hope, furth goddes grace * but gomes on me lye." 
Then the emperor femperour fan ti^tli tok leue of hem alle, 5164 

and went to ' & wendes forf on his way wi3tli to rome, 

& liuede ))ere in liking a long time after. 

now reste we of romaynes & reken we ferre, 
we now speak of & spcke we of be spaynols wil we haue space. 5168 

the Spaniards. 

hou f ei sped hem to spayne spack f er-after. 

William and his 
mother and 
Melior return to 
the palace at 

The king of Spain 
and Braundine 
and his sons 
propose to take 

[Fol. 81.] 

The king of Spain 
thanks king 

William is very 
sorry to lose 
Alphonse, and 

TTThan f e king of palerne & his perles moder, 

& f e meke meliors his menskful quene, 
were come a-je to here court * to carpe fe sofe, 5172 
f ei passed in-to palerne to f e paleis riche, 
with al f e nmrf e vporc mold * fat man mi^t of fink, 
but on f e morwe manli * to mene f e sofe, 
fe king of spayne spacli * spac to take leue, 5176 

for him & alle his felawchipe to fare fat time, 
bof e him-self & brau/idine jjat was his bold quene, 
& his semli sones bo)>e alphouws & his brofer, 
& here worfi wiues * fat were alle at onis. 5180 

king wilKm fe king * of spayne Jjonkes 
of al )?e faire fordede * fat he hade for hem wrou^t, 1 
furh fe grete grace fat god hade him sent ; 5183 
for caire wold f ei to here cuntre & mst him bi-teche. 
whan f e king was war f ei wold nedes wen[d], 2 
Gret sorwe for alphouws sake sank to his herte, 
for he schuld his felawchipe * for-go at fat time. 5187 
but whan fat he nedes 3 most * he nam him bi hond, 
& seide, siking sore * " now alphourcs, swete brof er, 

1 MS. " woru^t." 

2 MS. " wen nedes.' 
8 MS. " nedest." 

Read "nedes wend." M. 



sef f e f ou cairest in-to f i cuntre to kepe f i reaume, 

I bidde f e as buxurali as broker schal a-nof er, 

3 if it bi-tide eni time fat fow tene haue, 5192 

with werre or of er wrong with eny wi}t in erf e, 

or with f e sori sarazins schuldest haue to done, 

sende to me f i sond swif e vpon hast, 

& i schal hastili me hi3e bi him fat me bou^t, 5196 

to venge f e verali for ou$t fat bi-tidef ." 

" f e selue, sire, seie i be f e " seide alphourcs f anne, 

" sone to come to f i sond schal f er non me lette." 

eij>er f onked ofer many f ousand l sifes, 5200 

& lau^t sef e here leue fou^h hem lof were. 

" If, Alphonse, 
thou art ever in 
trouble, or art 
assailed by the 

send a message to 
me, and I will 
come and help 

" I say the same 
by thee," said 
Alphonse ; 

" nothing shall 
prevent me from 
coming to thee-" 

"Kanne mekli will?'arns moder & meliors he kissed, 

y bi-kenned hem to cn'st on croyce fat was peyned, 

& mekli f e quen fan * to hire doubter meled, 5204 

& kenned hire curtesli * to kepe wel hire mensk, 

bad hire be buxuw * & wel hire burn loue, 

& haue pite on f e pore * & prestli hem help, 

& gretliche herie god & do alle gode dedes. 5208 

& sclie, sore siking seide fat sche wold, 

sche hoped, f urth goddes grace & hastli f er-after, 

clipping & kessing to crist f ei hem bi-tau3t. 

& spacli fe spaynols sped hem to schipe ; 5212 

whan f ei were arayde * eche ring, 2 as f ei wold, 

swif e f ei setten vp sayles & sou^ten on gate 

with al maner mwrf e fat man mi^t of fink, 

for wind & gode wederes hade f ei at wille ; 5216 

& spedden hem spacli * til spayne fat f ei come. 

fan alle f e lordes of fat lond & of er lasse & more, 

fat were ou3t worf i of alle fat wide reaume, 

hi3eden hem to f e hauene hendeli hem a^ens, 5220 

& welcomed him worf ili as f ei wel oujt ; 

& of alphouws come alle were glade. 

1 MS. " Jjousans." 
2 "rink"(?) See 1. 5353. 

Then Alphonse 

kissed William's 

mother and 


and the queen 

gave Florence 

good advice. 

She, sighing 
sorely, promised 
to follow it. 

The Spaniards 
embark, and 

[Pol. 81 6.] 
sailed away with 
a fair wind. 

The Spanish lords 
come out to meet 
them at the 



All went on to 
the palace. 

& so al fat puple to f e palays passede sone, 
with al maner mwrf e fat men make couf e. 

The king of Spain f e king of spayne spacli * to speke J>e sofe, 
Aiphonse as king, krouned alphouws to king to kepe fat reaume, 

as he himself 
very old. 

I now return to 


for him-self was febul & fallen in elde, 

to liue f e?*-after in lisse wil our lord wold. 5228 

f us was alphoufts fere king after fat time, 

& held a-redili to ri^t f e riche & f e pore, 

so fat eche burn him blessed bi ni3tes & daie[s]. 

of him a-while wol i stint & of wilh'am speke, 5232 

f e kud king of poyle * fat i of karped ere. 

William and his 
people return to 
the palace at 

He abolished old 
bad laws, and 
kept the good 
ones, making new 
ones also. 

If he was beloved, 
Melior was more 

[Pol. 82.] 

The emperor of 
Rome died and 
was buried. 

The Roman lords 
send to William 
and Melior to 
come and live in 

Opacli as f e spaynols * sped hem to sayle, 

^ wilh'am with his folk * went wi^tli 

to paleys of palerne ; * his puple him sewed, 5236 

with alle nmrf e of menstracie fat mew mi^t on f enk. 

fan wilKam wi^tli as a wis king schold, 

pes amowg f e puple he put to f e reaume, 

a-leide alle Infer lawes fat long hadde ben vsed, 5240 

& gart holde f e gode and gaf mo newe, 

fat profitabul to f e puple were proued & hold ; 

so fat neuer cristen king * kau^t more loue 

fan wilkam dede in a wile * wite 36 for sofe. 5244 

& }if he geynli was god to alle gode werkes, 

& wel bi-loued in his lond with lasse & wif more, 

$it was meliors as moche his menskful quene, 

or more ^if sche imjt in any maner wise ; 5248 

so prestli sche wold plese f e pore & f e riche. 

fan bi-tid it in fat time to telle f e sofe, 

f e riche emperour of rome ended his daies, 

deide, & was be-dolue as dere god wold. 5252 

& alle f e lordes of fat lond lelli at o sent, 

sent wilKam to seie so as was bi-falle ; 

& to meliors his quene bi messageres nobul, 

as to here lege lord lelli bi ri^t, 5256 

f urth meling of f e mariage * of meliors f e schene. 


hendli al in hast f ei preyed him fider hi^e. 

to vnder-fonge in fee al fat faire reaume, 

& erden in fat empire as emperour & maister. 5260 

whan f e worf i wilKam wist al fat fare, 

& treuli hade vnderston ! f e tidinges to f ende, 

to f e menskful messageres he made glad chere, 

& welcomed worfili witow for sojje. 5264 

naf eles meliors & he made moche sorwe 

for f emperour was forf-fare faire to cra'st. 

sone f ei cau^t cumfort for f is f ei knewe bof e, 

fat def wold come to alle fat cr/st hade fourmed, 

to emperours & erles to eche fat lif hadde. 5269 

& god fan of his grace godliche fei f onked, 

& seide f ei wold his sondes * suffer, & his wille. 

but wilh'am ful wi^tli with-oute any more, 5272 

sent as swif e hise sondes sof li in-to spayne, 

bi messageres milde fa moche god couf e, 

& bid alphourcs his brofer * schuld bliue come, 5275 

& bring wif him liis [wif fat] 2 was his worf i suster. 

alisauwdrine & hire lord alphoorts he bad hem preie, 

J>at he dede hem com wif him * for cas fat mi^t falle, 

& his feif ful fader * ^if he a-liue were. 

(ac he was ded & doluen as dere god wold, 5280 

& alphouras held in his hond holli al fat reaume, 

as kinde king krowned forth, cuwseil of his peres). 

& whan f e menskful messangers * here message wisten, 

& hade letteres of here lord to lelen here sawes, 

Jjei went wi^tli in here way with-oute any more, 5285 

sped hem in-to spayne spacli in a while, 

& to f e kud king alphourcs * kif ed here arnd. 


as emperor and 

He and Melioi 
make the 
messengers good 

but are sorry to 
hear of the 
emperor's death. 

William sends 
messengers to 
Spain to 

asking him to 
come with 
Florence and 
Alexandrine and 
her lord and the 
old king. 

(But the old king 
was dead and 

[Fol. 82 6.] 

The messenger 
soon arrived in 

W h 

an 3 alphonns witerli wist of here wille, 5288 when Alphonse 

. , ., , , . , , . knew his brother- 

fat f e ncne emperour of rome was redeli god bi- m-iaw was to be 

taU 3 t, emperor of Rome. 

See the note. 

2 Eead "his wif that was." M. 

The capital "W is mis-written M. 



he was very glad, 

and summoned 


Braundinis and 

Alexandrine come 

to Palermo. 

The great joy of 

William and 

for a week. 

ready, waiiam 

set oat for Borne, 

providing rich 

apparel for Melior 

and his sister and 

fat his buxura brof er schuld be lord fere-after, 

he was gretli glad and oft god f onked, 

& marie his moder fat him swiche grace sente ; 5292 

& swif e lett of-sende ' alle his segges nobul, 

after alle f e lordes of fat lond f e lasse & f e more, 

& of er perles puple * him prestili to serue. 

whan fei gaili were greif * as hem god f 0113 1, 5296 

f ei passeden toward palern as fast as fei mi^t, 

alphoutts & his worbi wif wilk'ams sister, 

& brauwdinis his bold brober & alisauwdrine his wif, 

wif hiwdredes of kene kni^tes i knew nou^t f e names. 

& redili whan fei were come f er fei ariue schuld, 

wilKam wif his wi^es went hem a^ens. 

but no man vpoft mold mht telle be ioye 


fat fe bold breferen bi-tweyne [hem] l made, 5304 

wilh'am & alphouws * whan fei mette samen, 

& wif his semli sister sef f en sone f er-after, 

& wif his of er brof er ' brauwdinis f e bolde, 

& after wif alysauwdrine & alle ofer seff e ; 5308 

J^ P rest ^ ^^ a ^ f a * P u pl e ' to palerne fei went, 
& made hem f er as merie as man mi^t deuise, 
wif alle derworf e deinteyes * of drynkes & metes. 
& fus fat perles puple in palerne hem rested 5312 
sadli al a seuen ni^t hem-seluen to ese. 
& bi fat eche burn * on his best wise 
was P urue y e( l prestli ' of al fat hem neded, 
^ wilh'am bat worbi king was ban wi^tli aare, 5316 
wif al his real route remewed toward rome, 
fan made he his moder be menskfully greif ed, 
Mid him & meliors his quen in nmrbe to wende, 
& wif his semli sister to solas here hertes. 5320 

fan wif al his real route he rides on gate, 
Redili to-wardes rome f o ri^tes gates, 
with al maner mwrf e fat men mi^t on f enk. 
& as fei caired ouer cuntre * & come nei3 rome, 5324 
1 Read "bi tweyne hem made." M. 



J>er com him a-^ens of kinges & ofer grete 

J>e fairest ferde of folk J?at euer bi-fore was seie ; 

no man vpon molde nu'3t anie j>e noumber. 

& worchipfulli J>ei welcomed willwim here lorde, 5328 

& al his l freli felawchip freli J>ei gret, 

& receyued hem as realy as any rinkes mi^t ; 

Riden ri$t in-to rome with reaulte and murfye. 

ac no tonge ne may ]>e atir of J>e cite telle, 5332 

so richeli was al araied in rome for his come. 

J>e prelates on procession * prestili out comen, 

& alle J>e belles in burw busili were range, 

for ioye Jrat here lege lord his lordchip schuld take. 

J>an passed al J>at puple to J?e paleys euene, 5337 

& eche man was esed euenli at wille, 

wanted hem no J>ing Jjat ]>ei haue wold, 

for plente to al J>e puple was purueide at ]>e fulle. 

& on ]>e morw at masse to murage )>e sojje, 5341 

wilh'am with al his worcliip emperour was maked, 

& meliors his comli quen was crooned emperice. 

]>er nis no clerk vnder mat ]>at coufe half descriue 

Jje reaulte Jjat was araied in rome for fat fest, 5345 

Ne J>e tijjedel of hire atir to telle J>e ri^t, 

for al j>e men vpon mold. it amende ne nu^t, 

nou^t ]>at fel to swiche a fest forsofe, half a mite. 5348 

for-}>i wende i wol a while * wite $e for so]?e, 

to reherce fe aray of ]?e real fest, 

& telle former of J>is tale what tidde after. 

On nearing Rome, 
kings and nobles 
come forth to 
meet them. 

All ride to Rome, 
and find the city 
richly decked out. 

The prelates meet 
them in 
procession, and 
the bolla are rung. 

Next day, at 
mass, William is 
crowned emperor, 
and Melior 

Never was a more 
royal festival. 

[Fol. 83 6.] 

T^ulle fiftene daies J>at fest was holden, 5352 

wij> al )>e realte of rome * J>at euer 2 rink of herde. 
no tong mi^t telle ]?e twenti]>e parte 
of J>e mede to menstrales * fat mene time was $eue, 
of robes wij) riche pane & oj>er richesse grete, 5356 
sterne stedes & strong & ofer stoute ^iftes, 


2 MS. 

; hes." 

but see 1. 4232. 

The feast lasted 
fifteen days. 

The minstrels 
had presents of 
rich robes and 



The feast ended, 
William sent for 
the cowherd. 

He asks the 
cowherd if he 
knows him. 

"Yes, by your 
leave, you were as 
my son for seven 

Praised be God, 
who hath 
preserved you 
from poverty." 

" True, you 
fostered me, and 
shall lose nothing 
by it." 

William sends for 
his steward, and 
gives the cowherd 
a fair castle 

[Fol. 84.] 

and a " tidy " 

and bade the 
see that men 
were obedient to 
the cowherd's 

so fat eche man f er-mide mi3t hold him a-paied. 
& er f e fest fulli was fare to f e ende, 

f emperour fat newe was crouned, 5360 

as a curteys king on f e kowherd 
fat him hade fostered to-fore, seuen 
& sent sone after him & his semli wiue. 
& whan f e kowherde kom f e king to him saide, 5364 
" sire kowherde, knowestow me ou^t so f e crist 

help ? " 

J)e kowherd kneled sone & karped fese wordes, 
" 3a ! lord, wif ^our leue ful litel i 301! knewe. 
I fostered ^ou on mi net for sof e, as me finkef, 5368 
& seide 36 were my sone * seuen ^er and more. 
f e riche emperour of rome fat regned here fat time, 
wan 3ou fro me a-wei wo was me f er-fore. 
but herded be fe hi^e king 3011 fus haj> holpe, 5372 
& pult 3ou to f is pli$t * fram pouert euer-more ! " 
wilh'am f e worf i emp#rour ful wi3tli fus saide, 
" bi crist, sire, f ou hast seid * al f e sof e euene ; 
]jou me fostredes ful faire as fel for fin astate, 5376 
& bi our lord, as i leue * fat schaltou lese neuer ! " 
anon fan het he in hast do him forto come 
his stiward wif-oute stint to sti3tli alle his londes, 
& bi-fore kud kni3tes and ofer kene lordes, 5380 
he 3af to f e kowherde a kastel ful nobul, 
f e fairest vpora fold fat euer freke seie, 
& best set to f e si3t him-selue to kepe ; 
and al fat touched fer to a tidi erldome, 5384 

to f e kowherd & his wif f e king 3af fat time, 
as freli as eni freke for euer couf e deuise. 
& hastili het eche a baili fat hade it to kepe, 
to do eche burn be buxum bi ni3tes & daiefs], 1 5388 
to f e cowherdes comauwdemerat as to here kindf* 


as f ei louede here Hues neuer to lette his wille ; 
1 MS. " daie ;" but " daies " is better ; see 1. 5490. 



& sent his stiward as swif e to sese him f er-inne. 

& hastili was his wille wrou^t witow for sofe. 5392 

f us was f e kowherd out of kare kindeli holpen, 

he & his wilsura wif wel to liuen for euer. 

of f e kinde couherde * now nel i telle no more, 

but lete him in his blisse & his burde alse, 5396 

& touche we ferre as J)is tale forf eres. 

Fan fis faire fest was finischid at fe .xv daies 

eche a lord ful loueli his leue gan take 
of emperour & emperice * & oft hem fonked 5400 
of f e worchip & wele fat f ei hem wrou3t hadde. 
f emperour to f e grete god * ful godli hem bi-tau^t ; 
but omage arst of hem alle hendeli he tok, 
Mekli as f e maner is his men to bi-come, 5404 

to com keneli to his kry as to here kinde lord. 
& he ful godly hem fonked & to god bi-tau^t, 
& fan went f ei here way whider f aim god liked, 
eche lord to his owne lond * & lenged f er in blisse. 
& king alphoufls a-non after alle were went, 5409 
& his woichipful wif be-fore wilh'am comen, 
& brauwdyns his broker * and alisaurcdrine his burde ; 
at emperour & emperice euereche on at ones 5412 
loueli lau^ten here leue to here lond to wend, 
sone fan, sof li to seie * f er was sorwe riue, 
whan fat wilKam was war * fat f ei wend wold, 
Moche mournyng fei made & meliors alse ; 5416 
but sef e it mi3t be no beter suffer hem be-houed. 
william bi f e hond hent alphou?^s his brof er, 
& nei^ wepande for wo wi^tli fus saide, 
" brof er, }if it be bi god fat vs wroujt, 5420 

I wold it were f i wille wif vs forto lenge, 
hit forf inkes me sore fat we schul de-parte ; 
but sefe it nel be non ofer 110113 1 for to striue, 5423 
I bi-kenne 3ou to krist fat on croyce was peyned, 

Thus were the 
cowherd and his 
wife saved from 
the hardship of 

The festival 
ended, each lord 
went to his own 

but William first 
took homage of 
them all. 

Alphonse and 
Braundinis and 
their wives 
took their leave 
to go home. 

William and 
Melior were much 
grieved at their 
[Fol. 84 6J 

William takes 
Alphonse by the 
hand, saying, 

" I would thou 
couldst stay here, 



and I pray thee, 
if any one wars 
against thee, 

send to me and I 
will come to 

" The same say I 
by thee," replied 

The emperor 
William's mother 
tells Florence to 
love and obey her 

and she promises 
on her knees to 
do so. 

They give 
Alexandrine the 
same advice, 
which she says 
she will follow. 

At last they have 
to take leave, to 

[Fol. 85.] 
the great sorrow 
of all. 

The king of Spain 
mounted his 
horse, and went 
home with his 

&, brof er, i f e bidde bi al fat euer f ow louedest, 
}if destine falle of ani dede fat f ou to done haue, 
fat eny wi^t wif werre * wirche a^ens f i paie, tf^ 
swif e send me to say & sone i come to f e, 5428 

fat no liuend lud schal me lette neuere, 
wil me lastef f e lif for loue ne for awe ; 
til f ow be wel wroke wol i neuer stinte." 
" $a, blessed be f ow, bold broker " * seide alphouns l 
fan, 5432 

f e same sey i be f e so me wel time ! " 
feiffullere frenchipe saw neuer frek in erf e, 
fat more plenerli hem profered to plese eche of er, 
& to help ofer in hast ho-so hade nede. 5436 

f empe?*ours moder wilh'am * and meliors alse, 
seide to hire doubter f e semli quen of spayne, 
" loueli doubter, leue lif loue f i lord euere, 
& be euer busili aboute him buxuwli to serue, 5440 
& lede him euer wif f i lore * his lond to kepe ; 
so schaltow lelli be loued wi]j lasse & wij? more." 
& sche kneling on here knes curtesli saide, 
sche hoped to heuen king whil here lif lasted, 5444 
to wirche as J>ei here wissed with-oute any lette. 
& to alisauwdrine a-non ri^t J?ei sayde 
sadli, in same wise sche schold hire lord loue ; 
& sche sore sikande seide fat sche wold. 5448 

& whan J? ei sainerc had seide what hem-self liked, 
& time was atte laste atwinne forto de-parte, 
fer was siking & sorwe on bof e sides sadde, 
weping & wringinge for wo at here hertes, 5452 

& clippinge and kessing fei cau^t eche ofer, 
bi-kenned hem to crist * fat on croyce was peyned, 
& soute sef e on-sunder f ou^h it hem sore greued. 
f e king of spayne spacli spedde him fan to horse, 
& went forf in is way wif-oute any more ; 5457 

& al his faire felawchip folwed him after, 

1 The MS. has " williom," an obvious blunder ; see 1. 5198. 



& sped hem banne spacli to spayne bat bei come. They were royally 

* J received on their 

fer were J>ei reali resceyued as god ri^t it wold, 5460 return. 

with alle maner mwrf e fat man mi^t on f enke ; 

& fere f ei lenged in lisse al hire line after, 

& ledden wel fat lond to gode lawes euere, 

so fat eche burn hem blessed * fat euer f ei bore were. 

of hem of spayne to speke; my speche now i lete, 5465 or the king of 

Spain I say no 

but lete hem line in lisse at oure lordes wille, more, 

of f e riche emperour of rome redeliche to telle. 


TIThanne f e king of spayne spedli was faren, 5468 

wilk'am with him tok al his worf i meyne, 
& his menskful moder & here maydenes alle, 
& rides f urth pempire of rome richeli & faire, 
to alle solempne cites- & semliche holdes, 5472 

to knowe f e kuntres as a king oii^t ; 
lau^t omage of eche lud ])at longed to f e reaume. 
& whan fat dede was don deliuerli & sone, 
Gode lawes furth his lond lelly he sette, 5476 

& held hem so harde * i hete f e for sof e, \J$ 

fat robboures ne reuqwres mijt route none, ' f ' 
f at f ei nere hastili hange or with hors to-drawe. 
ilatereres & fals men * fram him sone he chased, 5480 
Lieres ne losengeres loued he neuer none, 
but tok to him tidely trewe cuwsayl euere, 
fat al fe puple for him preide J>e pore & fe riche ; 
so wisli he wrou3t to sauen his reaume. 5484 

& }if he meke were of maneres meliors his quene, 
was al swiche on hire side to telle fe tre[w]f e, 
so gracious to goddes mew & alle gode werkes, 
so pitevows to fe pore hem prestili to help, 5488 
fat eche man hade ioye * to here of here speke, 
& busily for hire bede bi ny^tes and daies. 
& also will/'ams moder fat menskful quene, 
so god was & gracious * to eche gomes paye, 5492 

so witty & willeful to wirche alle gode dedes, 

After this William 
made a progress 
through his 

to know all his 
countries as a 
king ought. 

He established 
good laws, so that 
robbers might 
soon be hanged or 
drawn asunder. 

Flatterers he 
chased from him, 
and loved no liars. 

Rich and poor 
prayed for him. 

[Fol. 86 6~] 

Melior was so 
gracious to God's 
men and to good 

that all prayed 
for her. 

William's mother 
was so gracious 
that all blessed 



Then she 
remembered her 
dream, that her 
right arm lay 
over Rome, and 
her left over 

William was her 
right arm, and 
Florence her left 

She thanks God 
for all her bliss. 


fat eclie burn hire blessed busili euer-more, 
& hei^li preiede to heuen king to hold here lines. 
fan com here in mynde * at fat mene while, 5496 

fat here sweuen was sof fat sum time hire mette, 
fat here rrjt arm redeli * oner rome a-teyned, 
& lelli here lift arm laye ouer spayne. 
fan wist sche wijtli what it be-tokened, 5500 

here sone fat regned in rome * here ri^t arme ment ; 
fat here der-worf doubter * was drawe to spayne, 
here lif time to be fere ladi here left arm schewed. 
God Jjanked sche godli of al his grete mijt, 5504 

& his menskful moder f e milde qnen of heuen, 
fat out of bale hade hire brou^t * to blisse so faire. 

William and 
Melior had two 

One was emperor 
of Rome after his 
father, the other 
was king of 
Calabria and 

So came William 
to be emperor of 
Rome after all his 


And so shall all 

[Fol. 86.] 
they that seek 
good prosper. 

"Uus william & his worf i quen winteres fele, 

* liueden in liking & lisse as our lord wolde, 5508 

& haden tvo sones sanies * ful semliche childeren, 

fat sef f en Jmrth goddes grace were grete lordes after. 

fat on was emperour of rome & regned after his fader, 

fat ofer was a kud king of calabre & poyle ; 5512 

& mi^ti men & menskful were f ei in here time, 

& feifful as here fader * to fre & to f ewe. 

f us f is worf i wilb'am was emperour of rome, 

fat hadde many hard happe hade f ere-bi-fore, 5516 

& be in gret baret and bale sum time ; 

of alle bales was he bro^t blessed be goddes nu^t ! 

& so schal eue?ich seg fat sechef to f e gode, 

& giues him in goddes grace & godliche ay wirchef . 

In fise wise haf wilKam al his werke ended, 5521 

Thus hath 
William ended all 

his work, as fully as f e frensche fully wold aske. 

following the 

French as well as & as his witte him wold serue f ou^h it were febul. 

at eche marines 

he conld. 

The metre is the 
best he could 

but f ou^h f e metur be nou3t mad 

paye, 5524 

wite him nou^t fat it wrou^t he wold haue do beter, 


$if is witte in eny wei^es wold him haue seined. 

but, faire frendes, for goddes loue & for ^our owne Fair Mends, 

?e bat liken in loue * swiche binges to here. 5528 pray for the good 

* f lord who caused 

prei^es ! for fat gode lord fat gart f is do make, this to be done, 

f e hende erl of hereford humfray de boune ; sS, earl of 

f e gode king edwardes doubter was his dere moder ; 
he let make bis mater in bis maner speche, 5532 He had it done 

for those who 

for hem )>at knowe no frensche ne neuer vnderstofw]. 2 kn(W no French. 
biddif fat blisful burn fat bou^t vs on f e rode, 
& to his moder marie of mercy fat is welle,' 

e lord god lif wil he in erfe lenges, 5536 

& whan he wendes of bis world welbe with-oute ende, happiness without 

end after death. 

to lenge in J>at liking ioye fat lestej) euer-more." 

& god gif alle god grace fat gladli so biddes, God give grace to 

& pertli in paradis * a place for to haue. Amen. 5540 in 'paradise. 


1 MS. " preyed." 

2 Read " vnderstonde." M. See note to 1. 5262. 




Yee jjt lengen in londe Lordes, and oojjer, 
Beurnes, or bachelers bat boldely thinken 
Wheber in werre, or in wo wightly to dwell, 
For to lachen hem loose in hur lifetime, 
Or dere thinken to doo deedes of armes, 
To be proued for pn's & prest of hemselne, 1 
Tend yee tytely to mee & take goode heede. 
I shall sigge forsothe * ensaumples.ynow 
Of one, be boldest beurn & best of his deeds, 
That euer steede bestrode or sterne was holden ! 
Now shall I carp of a King kid in his time, 
bat had londes, & leedes 2 & lordships feole ; 3 
Amyntas be mightie was be man hoten : 
Maister of Macedoine be marches hee aught, 
Bothe feeldes, & frithes .faire all aboute ; 
Trie towres, & tounes * terme of his life, 
And kept J>e croune as a King sholde. 
jjen this cumlich King & keene in his time, 
Had wedde a wife as hym well thought, 
And long ladden hur life in lond togeder. 
Twoo seemlich sonnes soone they hadden ; 
)}e alder 4 hight Alisaunder as I right tell ; 
And sir Philip forsoothe his frobroder hight. 6 

1 MS. hymselue, with e written above the y. 

2 MS. "leethes," with rf written above the th. 

3 MS. "feU," with feole written above it. 

4 MS. alder, with e over a. See note. 

6 Here follows the catchword, "Cas fel, dat dis K." 


[Fol. 1 ft.] 
Ye lords and 
others, who seek 
to acquire praise, 

attend all to me. 

I shall tell of the 
best man that ever 
bestrode steed. 

Amyntas was 
a mighty king of 


He wedded a wife, 
by whom he had 
20 two sons; 

Alexander the 
elder son, and 



[FoL 2.] 

Amyntas fell sick 
and died. 

Alexander the 
eldest son was 
crowned king, 

but soon died. 

His mother 
Eurydice caused 
his death. 

She lusted after 
her own children. 

Alexander refused, 
and she killed 

Thus he departed 
this life. 

[Fol. 2 &.] 

Case fell, J>at this Kyng as Christe wolde Jjanne, 24 

Was with siknes of-sought & soone ber-after, 

Hee was graythed to grace & to God went. 

His alder-aldust l sonne * J>at Alisaunder hight, 

))o was crouned King to keepe be reigne. 28 

"Well hee ladde be londe while hee lyfe hadde, 

But his term was tint or it tyme were. 

And all be cause of bi's case I con soone tell ; 

How hee was doolefully ded & doone of his life. 32 

Bat made his moder J)e Queene fat moste was 

adouted ; 

Eurydice hue hight unkinde of her deedes. 
Hue loued so lecherie * & lustes of synne, 
J)at her chylder hue chase unchastly to haue. 36 

For Alisaunder, hur sonne assent so ne wolde 
To fulfill so foule her fleshlych sinnes, 
Hue let kyll J>& Kyng with care at his hert, 
In be formest yere that hee first reigned. 40 

And 'Sus lafte hee his life * our Lorde haue his soule ! 
For a feller in fight found men seelde, 
While him lasted his life londes to yeeme. 2 
Now let wee Jus lued lengen in bliss, 44 

And sithe myng wee more of Jus mery tale. 

Many years before 
this, Philip was 
fostered and 
brought up 

by Epaminondas, 
king of Thebes. 

This king 
cherished the 
child well. 

Fel[e] wintres tofore in his faders life, 
Than was Philip be free to fosteryng take, 
In courte [of an] unkouthe kith * with a King ryche, 48 
That was chuse 3 of be childe * & choicelich hym kept. 
Hee that fostred, & founde Philip in youthe, 
King of Tebes that time truly was holden, 
Epaminondas hee hyght full hardy to nieete. 52 

So hee cherished be childe cheefe ouer all, 
jpat hee was woxen full weele & wyght of his deede, 

1 An e is written above the first a in this word. 

2 Catchword Now let wee dis lued, &c. 

3 A y is written above the . 



Forto abyde any beurn in battle, or eles. 1 

When his broder with bale brought was of life, 56 

Ryght was, fat f zs renk * reigned hym after 

To bee crouned a King in his right riche, 

As maister of Macedoine * amonges f e greate, 

For to leade f e lond as hym leefe thought, 60 

Men to holden of hym fat hed was of all, 

Philip fared him forthe in a fayre wyse, 

To receiuen his right & reigne on his londes ; 

But when f e Lordes of fe lond * lelich wysten 64 

Of hur neew cuwmen King fat his kith asketh, 

With greate werre fat wonne f ei werned hym soone, 

That by force of hur fight ftei 2 firked hym 'Sennes, 3 

That hee ne must in his marche with his menne 

dwell, 68 

Ne beleue in his lond ; fat liked hym yll. 
Whan Philip felt tho folk so ferse of hur deedes, 
Ayen to Tebes hee turned teenid full sore. 
To f e Kyng of this case hee carped soone, 72 

How hee was kept at his coome with a keene route, 
That hee was faine with his folke to flee from his owne. 
Epaminondas f e King was carefull in hert, 
Till hee were wroken of f e wrong * fat f ei wrought 

hadden. 76 

Hee graythed hym a greate oste grym to beholde, 
And cheued forthe, with f e 4 childe what chaunse so 


So with Philip f e free hee fared on in haste, 
To clayme his Kingdome & catchen f e shrews, 80 
That beraften hym "his ryght * with rufull deedes. 
Than, shortly to showe * f ei sharplich went, 
And foughten for Philip his fone to dustroye, 
Tooke towres, & townefs] * tamid 5 Knightes, 84 

1 MS. " oreles." 2 M g. " del." 

3 MS. " dennes," with thence above it. 

4 MS. Dou, as if for " Sou ; " but " J?e " is written above it. 

5 MS. " tamed," with an e over the a. 


Philip was now 
the rightful heir 
to the crown. 

He therefore went 
to Macedonia. 

His lords with- 
stood him. 

[Pol. 8.] 

Philip returned to 


and joined Philip 
to punish the 

The Thebans 
fought for Philip, 
and discomfited 
his foes. 



The lords fled 
to Athens. 

The king of 
Thebes attacked 

[Fol. 3 &.] 
and took it. 

Then was Philip 
crowned king, 
400 years after 
Rome was built. 
[B.C. 859; 
A.U.C. 395.] 

Philip is made 

He defeats the 



They acknowledge 
Mm as lord. 

Felled J>e falsse folke ferked l hem hard, 

With skathe were )>ei skoumfyt 2 * skape bei ne myght , 

Who-so weldes a wrong J>e worsse hym 3 betides, 

For hee, 3 ]>at reigneth in ryght reskueth troth. 88 

For fere of sir Philip fledde they all, 

And turned tit to a towne fat Attanus hyght, 

A stij> stede, & a strong & straite for to winne, 

And kept keenely Jjat cost fro J>e Kyng than, 92 

That hee ne myght with J>o menne medle no while. 

The King of Tebs for teene targed no lenger, 

But sought to be Citie & a-saute made. 

They "beseeged it so on sides aboute, 96 

That they tooke J>e towne & traytoures sleew. 

Thus faire Philip, J?e free his fomen awaited, 

And thus sought hee his lond with lo^elike 4 dyntes. 

Than Jns cumly Knight was crouned soone, 100 

Of Macedoine made Kyng maugre them all. 

Fore hundred yere holly as I here tell, 

Sin J>e Citie of Roome sett was in erth, 

Philip in his freedam * faire gan dwell, 104 

So too reigne on his nyght ' as rink in his owne. 

Now is hee crouned King & keeppes his reigne, 

And swi)je hardie is hee * happes too fonde. 

Now fares 'Philip be free too fonden his myght, 108 

And attles to be Assyriens aunteres too seeche ; 

And nere blynd J?e beurn of battle stern, 

Till hee had fenked ]>e folke too fare at his wyll, 

And wonne be won with werre full keene, 112 

Folke to fare with hym as hee faine wolde, 

To chesew 5 hym for cheefe Lorde & chaunge hym neuer. 

Philip full ferslich in his fyght spedde, 

And prooued in his powre as Prince full noble. 116 

Whan hee had so them hollich ifenked, 

1 MS. seems to have " ferkerd ;" see 1. 67. 2 MS. skourakyt. 
3 See the note on these two words. 4 MS. lodelik*. 

5 MS. chose n, with e above o. 



Hee sought too a Citie full seemely too knowe, 
Larissea hy^t, \a\, helde full hardie men in, 
One J>e klenist coste j>at any King aught. 120 

Philip fetches hym folke & foundes full soone 
Too bidden jjem battle & brodes in haste, 
For to lache hym as Lorde ]>e lond for to haue, 
Or deraine it with dintes * & deedes of armes. 124 

Ferse were Jjo folke & foughten in haste, 
Or j>ei lesen J?eir lond * their life for too spill. 
Longe lasted J>at strife but lelli too knowe, 
By fin force of his fight * Philip it winnes. 128 

Now hath Philip in fyght freely wonne 
The Citie of Assyriens with selkouthe dintes ; 
And lordship of Larisse laught too his will ; 
And intoo Greece hee gose with a grim peeple. 132 
Than hee turnes too a towne Tessalonie it hyght ; 
And assailes it soone J?e Citie to haue. 
Too [sese] 2 onely j?e towne or any o]>er goodes, 
Hee ne nyed it nought but needely too haue 136 
All )>o mightfull menne ]pat in J>e marches dwelt, 
Too bryng at his baner for bolde ]?ei were, 
And a-losed in lond for leeflich Knightes. 
For jrc's enchesoun hee chused too chasen hem Jwre, 
Till J>ei were at his wyll as hee wolde ax. 141 

But or hee tooke so their toune teene gan spring ; 
Many a dulfull dint deled jjei there. 
But all Jbei were unware wisly too knowe 144 

Of \>at sorowfull asaute fat they so had ; 
For hadde J?ei knowe ]>e kast of ]>e Kyng stern, 
They had kept well his cumme with carefull dintes. 
Jjei see no succour in no syde aboute, 148 

That was come to hur koste J?e king for to lett ; 
And Philip with his fresh folke so fast J>em assailes, 
That J?ei gradden hur grij> his grace to haue, 
Him to taken jjeir toune & trulich to serue, 152 

1 MS. holde, with e above o. 2 See the iiote. 

He next attacks 

[PoL 4.] 

The people are 
fierce, and fight 

He takes Larissa. 

He attacks 

He did not care to 
rule over the 
town, but to make 
the men in it his. 

It is a hard 


No one comes to 
help them. 

They capitulate. 


For to wend at his wyll whereso hym liked, 
And redy to his retainaunce ryght as hee wolde. 

Philip now takes ^ow is Philip full grym in fyght for to meete, 
And many mightfull menne may with hym leade. 
Attend, fe trie toune * hee tooke too his wyll, 157 
The folke too fare with hym when hee fonde time. 

and the city of Jje Citie of Assyrie * is sett too his paye, 

And all J>e beurnes in Jje borowe boune too his heste. 

The Lordship of Larisse is lauht top himselue, 161 
Men too curame too his crie & kif en f eir might. 

and Thessaionica. Tessalonie fe trewe holde is turned too hym alse, 

With all fe weies in fe won his werre too keepe. 164 
3Tow is fat peeple full prest & preeued of strength 
For too wirchen his will & wend at his neede. 

pwiip is doughty Philip, for his ferse folke in fele l ober landes, 

and dreadful. 

Doughtye men douten * for dreedfull hee seemes. 168 

By euery koste, fat hee com kid was his might, 

For when hee medled him moste f e maistrie hee had. 

i next speak of To profre bis process prestly too here. 

Erabel, King of Erubel 

Moioseis. j karp O f a kid king * Arisba was hote ; 172 

The Marques of Molosor 2 menskliche hee aught, 
For hee was King of f e kif * & knight wel a-losed. 

He had a sister, Hee had a suster in sight seemely to sonde, 

The moste lufsum of life fat euere lud wyst ; 176 
[Pol. 5.3 Olympias be onorable ouer all hue hyght. 

named Olympias. 

Rose red was hur rode * full riall of schape : 

With large forhed & long loueliche tresses, 

she had golden Glisiande as goldwire growen on length ; 180 

eyes', gr **** Bryght browse ibent blisfull of chere ; 

Grete yien, & graie gracious lippes ; 

Bothe cheeks, & chinne * choice too beholde ; 

1 MS. fale. 

2 MS. Molosor, with a'* over the two jfirst o's / so in 1. 204. 
Marques should perhaps be marches. 



Mouth meete pertoo moste for too praise. 184 a meet moutn, 

Hur nose namelich faire hur necke full scheene ; 

Schuft shulders aright well ischaped armes ; well-shaped arms, 

Hondes hendely wrought helplich, sweete ; 

Faire fyngers unfolde fetise nailes ; 188 fair fingers, 

Sides seemely sett seemlich long. seemly sides, 

Hupes had hue faire & hih was hue pan ; Mr hips, 

Hur pies all porou-oute pristliche ischape, 

With likand legges louely too scene ; 192 

And Jje fairest feete pat euer freke kende, 

With ton l tidily wrought ' & tender of hur skinne. 

Liliwhite was hur liche to likne pe beurde ; 

Where is per lengged in lond * a Lady so sweete? 196 

Der sprong neuer spicerie so speciall in erpe, 

'Net triacle in his taste * so trie is too knowe, sweeter. 

As that Ladie, with loue too lachen in armes ! 

" 16 

Wherfore I carp of tys case * knowe yee may. 200 
Philip pe free king that ferse was of myght, 
For pe beurde so bry#7it was of blee scheene, 
He had his liking ilaide * pat Ladie too wedde. 
Too Molosor with his menne * hee meeued in haste, 204 
Craued soone at pe Kyng pat comelich beurde, 
For too welde too his wife as hee will hadde. 
%e king was full curtais & coflich hym grauntes, 
For had hee werned 2 pat wjght wo had hee suffred, 
For pat freelich fode Philip, wolde eles 209 

Haue geten [hire] with grim stroke of grounden tooles. 
pat time thought pe Kyng to targe no lenger ; 
But bring pat blisfull to pe bern soone. 212 

To kyng Philip hee comme as curteis of deede, 
And laffc hym pe Ladie * to lache at his wyll. 
For hee thought on this thing proliche 3 in hert, 

1 MS. toze, with ton above. 

2 Over this word is the gloss si prohibuisset. 

3 MS. proliche, with- e over the o. 

Philip desires to 
wed her. 

and craves her of 
her brother. 

[Fol. 5 b.] 

He dares not 
refuse Philip. 

He brings the 
lady to Philip. 

He thought that, 



were Philip his 

none would dare 
offend him. 

Bat he made a 
For, after Philip 
had made her 
his queen, 

he invades 


His men seize 
the cities. 

[Pol. 6.] 

Brubel goes into 
exile, and 
continues ia 
sorrow till hte 

3if hee had too his help in his hie neede 216 

Of Macedoine |je King a mighty man holdew, 

To alie him too ]>at Lorde & his loue winne, 

))er shoulde no bydyng bern so bolde bee in erth, 

Too teene hym untruly term of his reigne ; 220 

Ne to greeue )>e gome for gremjje of his help, 

The while ~Philip ]>e free hym frendship kid. 

Hee was bitraide in his trust for truly J?er-after, 

When Sir 'Philip was fare with jje faire beurde, 224 

And wedded \>at wight with worship & ioye, 

To bee Ladie of his land & his leeue make, 

Men to queme hur as Queene & qmklich hur serue, 

Bothe beurdes & bern[es] boune l too hur wyll, 228 

To Molosor with maine his menne gan hee bryng. 

Y-armed at all pointes J>ei auntred hem 'Sider ; 

Mani a lud of J?e lond raid hi to grounde, 

And many a seemeli segge * sorowe they wrought. 232 

J)ei laft for J>o fe lond Lordshipes tooke, 

Seseden 2 ]>e cities and seemelich tounes, 

Keuered hem casteles )>e Kyng too distn'e ; 

For his susteres sake cease they nolde, 236 

That hee with werre ne wan J>e won fat hee aught, 

And )>e Kyng of his ki]> wiih, care ])ei pinte. 

And "Philip unfaithfully j?e faire coste had, 


Arisba in exile euer was after, 240 

And neuer comme too his ki]> but caught was in teene. 
With doole dried hee so his dayes in sorowe, 
To hee gaf 3 up his goste with God for too dwell. 

Of J>at carefall kyng carp I no farre, 244 

But leaue hym in languor & lysten too more, 
Philip seeks to be How "Philip chases as cheefe chaunces too fonde, 4 

feared in all lands. 

Too bee adouted as deth in diuers londes. 

1 MS. seems to have boane. 

2 MS. ffefeden, the en being above the line. 

3 MS. gaue, with f above ue. 4 MS. fynde, with o over the y 



When lie had so hem [hampred he] hendely fetched 

His make too Macedoine with mirthes ynow. 249 

He laught leue at hits wife & laft hur still 

For too line in hur londe in liking of hert, 

That no gome under God greeuen hur myght. 252 

Philip his faire folke ferselich araies, 

Too Greece he gra[i]j>es hym now with a grete will. 


Hee comme too Methone full cumlich a place, 

Of any borowe best buylt & bolde menne J>ere, 1 256 

One ]>e hugest holde & hard for too wynne, 

That was in Greece o ]?e grounde grained too stond. 

Hee brought his menne to J>e borowe 2 & bliue it asailes, 

With prese of his power * hee profers J>em fyght. 260 

Many a cumly Knight & oj>er kid peeple 

On euery side was sett asaute too make. 

Joough 3 Philip fared wiih folke ferefull in fyght, 

Litle gained his greefe for grim thei were, 264 

To warden jjeir walles wiih weies ynow. 

J)at citie wer sure men sett for too keepe, 

With mich riall araie redy too fight, 

With atling of areblast 4 & archers ryfe. 268 

Well fejjered flon floungen aboute, 

Grim arowes & graie wiih grounden hedes 

Wer enforced to flie her fone for to greeue. 

So bolde were in J?e borowe wiih balefull strokes, 272 

)3at of Philips folke * fele they slew, 

And many mightfull men maymed hee J?ere, 

))at J>e prent of J?at prese * passed neuer. 

And Philip )>e ferse King foule was maimed ; 276 

A schaft wiih a scharp hed shet 5 oute his yie, 

That neuer sibjjen forsobe sawe he therin. 

j)e gremj)e of bo grim folke glod to his hert, 

1 MS. J>ere, with d (for $) over the ]>, See the note on bolde. 

2 MS. has another o above the first o. 

3 MS. Though, with \> over the Th. 

4 MS. areblast, with i over it, between the a and r, 

5 MS. shet, with o over the e. 

He takes leave 
of his wife. 

He comes to 

He attacks 
Methone with 
his army. 

He finds them 
ready to fight. 

[Fol. 6 b.] 
They vex him 
with arblasts and 

They slay many 
of his men. 

A shaft shoots out 
his own eye. 



He makes a vow 
to be avenged. 

[Pol. 7.] 

For his eger enemies his yie to lese. 280 

Hee made a uery uow auenged too beene 

Of fat teenefull tach fat hee tooke fere, 

And swore swiftlich his othe aswage hee ne sholde, 

With all f e maine fat hee might * too merken l hem care, 

For to take J>e toune * f ough hee teene had, 285 

All f e segges in sight * sorowe too kif e. 

[Pol. 7 &.] 

He renews the 
attack fiercely. 

His men throw 
stones at the walls 
from engines, 
and crack the 

They beat down 
the walls. 

The citizens 

Thus was the 
city won. 

Philip enforceth hym now his folke for to gie ; 
Hee rydes thorough-oute f e ronk 2 araies him neew. 
Many mightfull menne made hee stryue, 289 

With archers & of er folke auntred hym nere. 
))ei lete flie to f e floeke ferefull sondes, 3 
Gainws 4 grounden saryght gonne they dryue, 292 

Stones stirred they f o & stightlich layde 
On hur engines full gist 5 to ungome f e walles. 
]5ei craked f e cournales with carefull dyntes, 
j?at spedly to-sprong & spradde beside. 296 

j)e Kyng with his keene ost coflich fights, 
And kif es all fat hee can f e kif for to haue ; 
))ei [sesen] 6 on f e citie soothe for too tell, 
Etur borowe bet so doune with balefull strokes, 300 
And hemself in f e saute sorowfully wounded ; 
And many a lifeles lud layed to fe grounde, 
Jjat fei ne stirred of f e stede strife for to make. 
Hur 3ates 3eede fei too & youlden hem soone, 304 
To Philip farde fei forthe as fenked 7 wightes, 
Profred hym fe pris holde * & preies 8 in haste 
To deeme what hee doo will for hur deede yll. 
)us 9 was fe citie of-sett * & siffen so wonne ; 308 
But many a balefull beurn bought it full dere, 

1 Cf. marked in 1. 932. 2 MS. rank, with o over the a. 

s MS. soundes or sonndes. 4 MS. Gamew. 

5 MS. iust, with gist above it ; and gist is marked. 

6 See note. 7 Over fenked is tJie gloss, uanquissbed. 
8 MS. praies, with e over the a. MS. Dus, with \> over the D. 




Or kid Methone too f e Kyng fell. 

In Greece, many a grete toune grim was of strength, 

And ]>e menne of fat marche misproude were ; 312 

Thei were so ding of feir deede ded[a]in l fat they had, 

J)at any gome under God gouern hem sholde. 

But as they sayden hemself and assent made, 

]3ei nere encline to no King hur kif for too gye. 316 

They wrought by feir owne will & wolde nought 


To seche fern a Souereine 2 fe Citie to ^eme. 
Farre fen feir owne folke fare they nolde, 
What lud liked hem best f e Lordship hee gat, 3 320 
And on chees for cheefe & chaunged lome. 
All swich cities fat seemelich were, 
Philip fenkes in fyght & fayled lyte, 
That all Greece hee ne gatt with his grim werk. 324 
In what maner & how men may i lere, 
))at hee withlich 4 whanne 5 f e worship of Greece, 
To bee holden of hym * holly f e raigne, 
For to gye f e gomes as hym goode thought. 328 

Now tell wee of Tebes that tristy 6 was holde, 
There as Philip f e free to fostring dwelt, 
How f e ludes of the land a-losed for gode, 
Wer enforced to fight with hur fone hard. 332 

j)er turned a-^e Tebes twoo trie places, 
)5e sikerest cities that any seg wist ; 
J?e Lordship of Lacedemonie lof ed hem than, 
And of Phocos f e folke fast hem assailes. 336 

])Q werre wox 7 in fat won wonderly stern, 

1 MS. dedin, with disdeine over it. Cf. 1. 584. 

2 MS. Souereine, with a over ei. 

3 MS. hi J>at, with ee over i, and g over the \>. 

4 MS. wightly, with the older spelling withlich over it. 

5 MS. wanne, with wh over the w. See " Werwolf," 1. 2852. 

6 MS. trusty, with i over the u. 

7 MS. wax, with o over the a. 

In Greece were 
many great 

They would let no 
one govern them. 

They did as they 
liked best. 

They elected what 
chief they pleased. 

Philip conquers 
them all. 

[Fol. 8.] 

I now speak of 

The Thebans 
are attacked by 
the Lacedemon- 
ians and Phocians. 

The war between 
them is very 



They fight on 
foot and on 

The Thebans 
are vexed at 
their enemies' 
bat are not 
afraid of them. 

The Thebans get 
the upper hand, 
and put their foes 
to a heavy 

which they must 
pay or die. 

Not raising the 
sum, the Phocians 
resume the war. 

Philomelus is 
chosen their chief. 

[Pol. 8 6.] 

They know they 
must pay or die. 

And eijxsr on hur enemies egerly wrought. 

On a season isett assembled they bojje, 

With all J>e maine J?at they might metten ifere ; 340 

Araide rinkes aright reulich smiten, 

On foote & on faire horsse fought ]?ei samme. 

Priken l on a plaine feelde preeued Knightes, 

Bolde were bore doune on bothe twoo halues. 344 

Of Tebes J>e trie folke wer teened in hert, 

For hur ferefull fone so ferslich spedde, 

With wrayth of a woode will wonde 2 ]?ei nolde, 

To riden into the route rappes to deale. 348 

Steedes stirred of J>e stede strane men under, 

And oother folke on'hur feete Mowed them after. 

The Lacedemonieins lowe laide were, 

And of Phocus folke * feld they also. 352 

The Tebenieins teenfully tooke this ojjer, 

And to a riche raunson J?e rinkes they putt, 

That amounted [to] more then they might paye, 

Or dereine with right with rede of Jjemself, 356 

To prefer hem as prisoners till they payde had, 

To let lonely Jjat goode or hur life tine. 

\)G companie was carefull & kest 3 in hur hert, 

)pat Jjei J>at raunson with right arere ne might, 360 

))ei wer so sorowfull hemself that summe to rere, 

J)at j?ei ne spared J>at space * to spenen 4 hur Hues. 

A proude Knight of jje prese hur Prince J?ei made, 

Philomelo 5 J>e fell man was ]?e freke hote, 364 

J3e folke of Phocus too araie & ]>e fight 3 erne, 

With ludes of Lacedemonie to leggen on hard ; 

For they kende J>e case & kneew eche one, 

But thei prestly payde that precious summe, 368 

Jpei sholde leesen hur life fei J?em lothe thou^t. 

1 An e over the i. 2 MS. wonde, with e over the o. 

3 MS. kast, with e over the a ; also the e is marked. 

4 MS. spend, with nen (marked) over the d. 

5 MS. Philomela, with o over the a; see 1. 421. 



And ^if f ei ferde ] to fight their fone for to nye, 

With skathe to bee skoumfit <fe askape neuer, 

Jjei wisten all full well wisly to knowe, 372 

That more dreede fen deth drie f ei ne might ; 

As goode thought hem go till they grounde sought, 

To meete with hur fomen * & manlich deie, 2 

As bee cowardly killd * for cateles want. 376 

Forthe twrned thei tid hur teene to uenge, 

All to lachen or leese or hur lyfe tine. 

Full stoutely with stiff will f ei stirred on hur gate, 

To teene f e Tebenieins * f ei turned to fight. 330 

j)ei dradden litle hur deth & doughtily wrought, 

jpei putt fern in perril & prikeden aboute, 

)3ei rought lite of hur life * & laiden on hard ; 

For fere, ne fantasie faile they nolde. 384 

])ei were so hardie too harm * happes to fonde, 

J?at f ei fat stint at hur stroke stirred no more ; 

So f ei felden hur fone by force of her dintes. 

For greefe of hur grim stroke grunt full many, 388 

jpat hem rued f e res fat f ei ne rest had, 

Whan f ei f e bikering abide with bostefull deedes. 

))us Phosus 3 with fyght felden this of ei ; 

J)ei tooken hur tresour & teened hem sore. 392 

J2ei of Tebes with teene twrnede fro thanne 

Ruefull & redeles biraft of hur goodes. 

In sorowe bene they of-sett * to siken in hert, 

3if f ei ne haue none help hem 4 to auenge. 396 

For ^is 5 feye folk fter 5 * so fouli was harmed, 
Till f ei were wreken of fat wo wolde f ei nought 

blinne ; 

To seeche more socour assented they all. 
])Q mightie King of Macedoyne * moste was adouted 
Of any wight in f e worlde f ei wist f e soothe. 401 

1 MS. farde, with e over the a. 

2 MS. dye, with deie (marked] above it. z MS. fcosus. 
* MS. >em. 5 MS. dis, der ; and so is written fo. 

Wherefore they 
prefer to fight. 

Better fall than 
be killed as 

They attack the 



They fell their 
foes by sheer 

Thus the Phociaiis 
win the battle. 

The Thebans are 
rueful, and seek 

They resolve to 
seek succour. 



[Pol. 11.] 
They go to fetch 
Philip, and proffer 
him their 

To fetch Philip, J?e folke farde in an haste, 
And comen ryght to J?e kith J>ere jje King dwelt, 
Besoughten hym of socour hur Soueraine to bene, 404 
To be Lorde of hur land J?eir lawes to keepe, 
Jjei to holden of hym fe hye & the lowe, 
"With fat hee wolde with hem wend in an haste, 
Hur enemies egerly in ernest to meete. 408 

Philip grauntes & gose graithes his peple, 
Til ]?ei to Tebes wer turnd targe f ei nolde. 
With his ferefull folke to Phocus hee rides, 
And is wilfull in werk * to wirchen hem care. 412 

Folke of Phocus to fere or the fight comme, 
Werew ware of hur werk & went for help. 
Jjei armed J>e Atteniens & aunter hem jjider, 
Strained in stel ger l on steedes of might, 416 

With grim graifed gomes * of Lacedemonie, 
All redie araied to ryden hem till. 
Hem lacked a leader Jje ludes to araie, 
Hur Prince in )>e forme prese * was prened to J?e erth, 
Philomelo J>e faire Knight in J>e fight died. 421 

When Jjei proffred hem prest & J>e pris wonne, 
For J>ei myssed ]>at man they made hem a neew. 
Enomanws, an eger Kny^/it in erth to fight, 424 

jpei made master of hem ]>e menne for too leade, 
And busken to battaile as bostfull in armes, 
With a leflich lust lachte togeder. 
Of Phocus J?e feU Duke in J>e fight rydes ; 428 

Enomanws Jje bolde beurn J>e battle araies, 
Hee was chosen for cheefe in chasing of werre, 
Too bee Jjeir dereworthe Duke for doughtie hee 

Now beene J>e parties prest to proffren hur dintes, 
With baners brode displaide busken to meete, 43S 
[Foi. 11 6.] Gurden in goode speede grislich farde, 

1 MS. stelger. 

Philip sets out for 
Thebes, ready to 
attack the 

The Phocians 
send for help to 

The Lacedemon- 
ians also join 

Philomelus had 

[Onomarchus] is 
chosen leader. 

He is duke of 

Both sides are 
ready for battle. 



Bothe blonk&? & beurnfesj bareii to grounde. 

Jjer was feld many frekes fat on f e feelde lay, 436 

Euery segge for hymself bisetten hur might, 

))at many a wounded vryght walowed }>ere. 

But "Philip with his wight men f e werre gan ^eme, ! 

J)at by strength of her strife f ei straught to foote 440 

All so many as his menne * mighten areche. 

Jpus his peple on jje plain all f e pris 2 wonne, 

J)at none stirred of Jje stede fere jjei stroke sett. 

J)e ludes of Lacedemonie lof ed in hert, 444 

jjat euer jjei stinten in strife to sterue in f e place. 

Of Phocus jje ferse men forthoughten hem all, 

})at euer jjei farde to fight with Philip jje keene. 

Jpus jjis cumlich Kyng fat ilche kith Wynnes ; 448 

Lorde of Lacedemoine was f e lud f anne, 

And Phocus by fin strokes freelich hee walte, 

And hathe all Greece at his graunte for his grete yie. 

Many are felled, 
and wounded 
wights wallow 
on the field. 

Philip and his 
men overcome all 
they can reach. 

Both Lacedse- 

and Phocians 
repent their 

Thus Philip is 
lord of 

Lacedsemonia and 

Now cease wee f e sawe of f is seg sterne, 452 

And of a Kyng wel i-kid karp wee now, 
J?at entred in ^Egypt * euer on his liue, 
To leng in fat Lordeship & f e lond aught. 
Of what kinne hee comme * can I nought fynde 
In no buke 3 fat i bed 4 when I beganne here 
\)Q Latine to f is language * lelliche turne. 
Nectanabus f e noble man his name was hote, 
})e nede of Mgremauncie hee nas nought to lern. 
In art of Astronomic able hee was holde, 
And cheefe of enchauntment chaunces to tell. 
Hee was [kene] on his craft & cunnyng of deede, 
Egipt by eritage entred hee neuer ; 464 

Hee wanne it by witchcraft for y-wis hee was 
knowe. 5 

1 MS. ^enn or jeme; see 1. 365. 

2 MS. pris, with ce over the s. 

3 MS. booke, with u above the oo. 

4 MS. bed, with had above it. 5 See the note. 

We now speak of 
a king of Egypt. 

456 I find nothing 

about his kindred 
in any book. 

His name was 
Nectanabus, and 
4 gQ he was skilled in 
necromancy and 

He did not gain 
Egypt by 
inheritance, but 
by witchcraft. 



A prince of Persia 
comes to 
Nectanabus, and 

[Fol. 12.] 

" The king of 
Persia is going to 
attack you." 

Nectanabus does 
nothing in 

but secretly fills 
an earthen pot 
full of rain-water. 

By his craft he 
sees ships coming, 
full of armed 

A proude Prince & a pris fro Perss l was fare, 

jpat helde of f is hye King hollich his londes. 

To noble Nectanabws nam he his gate, 468 

And tolde this tydyng to f e Kyng soone, 

How hym was care to curame by costes aboute. 

" J?e Kyng of Perce with prese of peple full huge 

Graithes hym grim folke & greue }ou thenketh. 2 472 

But yee cast at his corame to keepen hym hence, 

Yee shall lose your lond & your life also." 

For no care of f z's case f e King in lus lond 

Kleped 3 no Knighthod ne no kid peeple, 476 

Hee ne araide no route f e raigne too keepe, 

But passed priuily in place full derne. 

A prest erjjen pott hee proferes him till ; 

Of rain-water ryght full J)e rink gon it dress ; 480 

A bright braseyn }erd * brode on his hond. 

And by f e conning of craft * fat hee kid hadde, 

Hee sawe saile on f e sea seemelich Knightes, 

Bothe schippes & schoute[s] with schawes of myght, 

Well i-armed, iwis * werre too holde, 485 

J?e egerest of Egipt in ernest too meete. 

The prince says, 
" Sir, I told you 
the truth. 

Artaxerxes is 
coming with nine 


Whan hee had fat happe hollich awaited, 
})Q Prince to f e pris Kyng prestly saide, 488 

" Sir, I tolde you trouth trist 4 yee no noof er, 
Yee beene greeny bigo but grace you~falle. 
Artasarses f e Kyng & armed Knightes, 
Oute of Perce beth prest passing hider, 492 

With nine grete nations too nye fee here. 
Perce is J>e principall * & Perthe fat oof er, 
Of Medie full mich folke murder fee think ; 
Of Syria [a] siker oste sechen too fight; 496 

1 MS. Perss, with ss marked, and ce above it. 

2 MS. you thinketh, with $ above the y, and e above the i. 

3 MS. Kliped, with e above the i. 

4 MS. trist, with u above the i. 



With menne of Mesopotame too mark f e teene ; 

Of Augmi & Arabes armed Princes ; 

Jjer beene of Bosorij beurnes ynow ; 

Of Arofagi all men that armes now welde. 500 

Yee bene enforced to fight with f ws fell beurnes, 

And oof er weies of f e weste werre too make ; 

Jpis ilk tydyng of teene trowe yee mo we, 1 

And but yee bett beene araide bale you springeth." 

Augmi, Arabians, 
Bosorii, and the 

503 Trust these 
tidings, and 
beware ! " 

Nectanabus anonne right nyed hym tyll, 
And gleming gainelich too f e gome saide 
" Keepe well thyne owne koste fat f ei no kowme 


[Fol. 12 6.] 
" Take care of 
your own lands. 

J3at is take too fee * truly too ^eme. 508 

J)ou kif es no Knighthod * too karp as a Prince, 

But as a gome wer agast * f ou grendes thy speeche. 

jjei ftei 3 turn such teene this time hider, 

With all fe might of hur maine mee too distroie, 512 

J?e uertue of il uictorie of unwele peeple, 

Is noghi stabled in strength of no stiff prese. 

Thorou graunte of f e greate God if him goode thinker, 

In fight or in fell turn * ^Ser 4 as flight is of dintes, 516 

In battail or bolde stede bigly too wirch, 

As mich may a meane man as a more stern, 

For f ou seeste well thiself (saide f e king fan), 

A Lioun in a launde may lightlych driue 520 

Of hertes an nolle herde as happes ilome 5 ; 

For no strength, ne strife * no stifnes of members, 

But as gracious Godde grauntes too beene." 

You do not speak 
like a prince. 

Though they try 
to destroy me, 
victory is not on 
the side of 

By God's help, 

a mean man may 
do as much as a 
sterner one. 

A lion can drive a 
whole herd of 

Strength is from 
God only." 

Anon as Nectanabus had namned f ese wordes, Neetanabus goes 

Hee passed in his Paleis too a priuie seU, 525 to a secret ce11 ' 

Hee tooke prestly a pott too preeue yet more. 

1 MS. may, with owe above ay. 2 MS. dare, with \> above d. 
3 MS. der, for fcer ; but we must read fcei. 
* MS. der, with ]> above the d. 5 Before and above i is wh. 



He makes ships Hee wraught shipps of wax & rain-water hentes ; 

rain-water in a Hee puttes it in fe pott & a palme braunche 528 
Hee helde hard in his bond & his art kijjes ; 1 
With all fe wyle of his werk J>e waie gon enchaunte, 

By his sorcery, he By segging of sorsery J>at hee sei 2 ]?ere 

Barbary floating Fleete in Jje floode farre fro J>e lond, 532 

Of Barbre J?e bryght God brem too beholde; 

and the god of jje gaye God of Egipt glisiande bright, 

Egypt sailing . . 

there too. So sailed in J>e sea in that same tyme. 

Hee bihelde how Jje God J>at heried was in Barbre 
Gouerned hur goodes by grace of his mjght. 537 

He sees the god of jje seg sei 2 well himself * bat socour him fayles, 

Barbary will not 

let the people For no grace hur grete God graunt ne 3 might ; 

Of hem hoped hee help too haue at his neede, 540 
But hee kneew by that kast J?ei kouth n.oght help. 

He shaves off hair Jje beurn for a barbour bliue let send, 

and beard, doffs 

his armour, and His herd, heire, & hw hedde hett hee too schaue. 

Hee cast of his Knightweede & clojjes hym neew, 544 
With white sendal in syght seemely too knowe, 
[Foi. is.] Of gold swith gret-won * graithes hee Sanne ; 4 

His gold and All that Astronomie aught too long, 

instruments of 

astronomy he With ginnes of Gemetrie too ioinen his werkes, 548 
Hee let trusse full tid * & takes nomore, 
But fares with few folke farre fro J>e londe. 

and passes into Hee passes as a Prophet priuely ]?anne 

Etlnopia,andlives ^ ^.^ ^ Ethiope . & eft ^ ^ ^ 553 

jjere hee lenged in Jjat land as a lud straunge 
Men kneew hym for no king kunnyng hee seemes. 
when his men Whan his menskfull menne might nought fynde 
they pray to their Hur ked King in Egipt carefull J?ei were. 556 

To hur God Seraphin * J 

Koure doune on hur knees [&] karpen J>ese wordes. 

1 MS. kipes, with ee above the i. A p is often (in copies) written 
by mistake instead of]}. 

2 MS. sei, with aw above ei. 

3 An o is written above the e. * MS. danne. 


" Seemely Seraphin " saide they thanne, " seraphin, tell us 

"Tell us sum tydyng of our true Prince, 560 Nectanabus!" 
Noble Nectanabus that now is awaye ! " 

Hur God grathliche spake & too be gomes saide, The god replies, 

" He has gone 

" Kares l nought for yowr Kyng fis kith hath hee lete, away for fear of 

For peril of f e proude Kyng * from Perce fat wendes ; 

Hee shall hye hym againe & help you faire, He will come 


And schend fern schamelich fat sholde you greue." 

Of f is swift answer f ei wer swith glad, The y w ere glad, 

and carved a god 

And graueden a greate ston a God as it were, 568 of stone, 

I-corue after a Kyng full craftie of werk. 

]5e frekes in that faire ston at his feete soone at whose feet they 

. wrote every word 

Let write euery worde wisly too knowe, that seraphin had 

That Seraphin fat Soueraine saide hem till, 572 said ' 
In mynde that more folke myght it arede. 

Now nolde Nectanabus no while dwell, soon after, 

m n f , TT- AMI i Nectanabus goes 

loo f e Uourte 01 f e Kyng till hee corame were, to Philip's court 

Too looke on Olympias fe onorable Queene, 576 to see Olympias - 

J)at was alosed in lond of diueres raignes, 

For one f e brightest of blee * fat bore was in erth. 

Whan f e seg had seene that seemely Ladie, He greets her, 

Too greete that gracious hee gose in a haste, 580 saym * 

Hee cummes too fat comely & coflich saide : 

"Haile ! quemfull Qaeene quaintly shape ! [Foi. is&.j 

Moste of all Macedoine menskfull Ladie ! " 583 "Hani gracious 

Hee was dedaine on his deede " Madame" too segge would not say- 

Too any Ladie in lond for lordlich hee karpes. 

))e Queene quitt hym his speche & quikly saide, The queen says, 

"M n ster 

" Maister, welcome, ywis will[e] yee sitte ? " welcome'; 

)?e Ladie laches f is lude & ledes in hand ; 588 

By hur side fat seg too sitten hue makes. 

))at worthlych too fe's wight wilsfuHy saide : 

" Fro what kith bee yee comme kennes mee now j whence do you 

Ert f ou aught of Egipt in ernest too tell ? " 592 r 

1 MS. Kare, with s above the e. 
13 * 


"Queen, you " Queene," saide hee quikly " fou quemest my hert ; 

gil?whenihe^ A full speciall speeche spoken yee haue. 

of Egypt. Where euer menne saye 'Egipt' myne eres ar prest, 

For fat wortlich l worde * waketh my bliss. 596 

The men of It is a Knightly kith ' & kid men inne, 

Egypt understand 

dreams, and the Of any wightes in wonne wysest i-holde. 

J?ei bene rinkes aright * in reching of sweuenes, 
Too preeue*mich priuie thyng & pypyng of birdes. 
Jpe ludene 2 of fat language lelli f ei knowe, 601 

And bothe of burdes & bern[es] f e burth too tell. 

T am an I a m a lude of fat lond * lered therin, 


prophet." Too preche as a Prophet preeued of witt." 604- 

When hee f ese tales her till had tolde soone, 
])G face of fat faire thyng fast hee beholdes. 

^Tenmewhat Lude," saide fe Lady "let mee iknowe 607 

thought at seeing What thing thurlude thy thought f o fou mee bihelde?' 

" Forsoothe," saide that seg " seemely Queene, 
" A bright god I segge, God sent mee too saue thee now, 
save thee from For too waste thy wo wiih wille fat I owe. 

Thorou bone 3 of a bright God busked I hider, 612 
Too defend fro doole fee dere worth Queene." 

[Foi. 14.] Whan hee with speede had spoke * his speche to 

f e end, 
He fetches a brass A brem brasen borde bringes hee soone, 

tablet set in ivory, 

and decked with Imped in iuory too incle fe truthe, 616 

gold and silver. ,.., , ^ .-, , -, .,. , . . , 

With goode siluer & golde gailich atired. 
In this blisfull borde beholde men myght 
Three circles were Three circles isett ' seemelich rounde. 

)^ e nrs ^ c i r ^ e i n himself seemely was holde, 620 

fa twelue si g nes in si g ht ' sett ferin-. 

If any wight in this wonne * wilnes fern knowe, 

Kairas to f e Kalender * & kenne yee may. 
in the second was Sithen in fe seconde circle -soothely too lere, 624 

1 MS. worclich. Cf. 1. 1024. 2 MS. lude ne. 

3 MS. bone, with a second above the o. 


Was craftely conteined fe course of fe sonne ; the course of the 

And f e mark of fe moone made in f e third, in the third, that 

))at bliss was for a beurn fat borde too biholde. 

jpan fettes hee a forcer freelich ischape, 628 Then he fetched 

]5at wraught was of iuory wonderly faire ; 

Seuin sterres bat stounde * stoutlich imaked, with seven 

shining stars 

Hee showes forthe scheenely shynand bright. i n u t 

])Q bern couth ferby boldely tell, 632 by which he knew 

... a man's birth- 

When a gome were igett * by grace 01 ms witt. hour. 

Foure stones in fath l ' forthe gon hee bryng, He chose four 

stones, belonging 

J3at lay longyng * too the louelich sterres ; to planets. 

Many thinges of man myght hee showe, 636 

By studie 2 of f e stones in what state hee were. 

" Maister," quath f e Queene " quainte of thy werkes, ^^^^ 

If bee liketh bat I leeue thy lufsum deedes, my dear lord 


Tell mee tidly Jje time & term of ]>e ^eres, 

In what daie my dere Lorde fat douhti is holde, 

Was iborne of J>e burd fat hee best loued ? " 

))e King by his kunnyng castes it soone ; 

By ginnes of Gemetrie hee ioifully teller 644 

Bothe >e date, & j>e daie & ]>e dere tyme, SL'^eX. 

Jpat Philip was forth brought of his faire mooder. 

Whan this rink had arad & redely showed, [FoU 14 & - ] 

All Jje burth of J>e bern by his art one, 648 

" Ladie," saide hee, " louelyche liketh bee au^t eles, He asks if she 

1 would know 

j)at I shoolde fee showe in a short time 2 " aught else ? 

44 Maister," saide fat menskfull " mee likes too knowe, 

What Philip my free lorde fat fairest of londe, 652 

Wil wirch by mee? * for weies mee tolde, 

Hee wyll forsake mee soone * & seeche hym a neew, for she has heard 

he will forsake 

Whan hee is cumme too f ia kith * too kithe mee her. 

For yee ne hajie noghi i-herd holly be wrath, 656 (As you have not 

J " heard Philip's 

By what cause f e Kyng coueted in hert cause for wrath, 

1 tell you note. 
1 Stc. Read " fei)?." 3 MS. studie, with i above (he u. 



Once Philip went 
to the temple of 
Amraon, and 

" What wiU 
happen to 
Olympias ? " 

"She wiU have a 
child, the greatest 
man on earth. 

He will not be 

Therefore was 
Philip wrathful 
against her.) 

answers, " It is 

[Pol. 15.] 

When Philip has 
forsaken you, he 
will have to take 
you back again." 

" Who will be so 
bold as to make 
him do so ? " 

" A god shall 

Too lof e this Ladie mee list you tell. 

As Philip farde to fight in a ferce place, 

Hee turned too a temple atired too-rightes, 660 

His grete God Amon grates too 3elde ; 

Hee kneeles coflich adoune & kries hym till, 

And saide, " Seemely God send mee too knowe, 

Of onorable Olympias fat I on think, 664 

What shall hur happe to haue fat hende is of deede 1 ?" 

His God gaue an ansuer & too f e gome saide, 

" Hur chaunce is too haue a childe fat cheefe shall in 


Of any ludes fat Hue in Lordship wex. 668 

#e bern shall not bee Sine l ' bolde f o f ou seeme, 
But geten of a-noof er gome * in fat gaye burde." 
Jjen was ])e King carefull & kest 2 for wrath 
For too bring fat beurde in baile for euer. 672 
Menne tolde this tydyng too ]>e true Queene, 
Jperfore hur lyked fat lud his lore too knowe. 

" Now," saide Nectanabus anon too fe Lady, 675 
" }?e sawe fat f ou haste saide uncertain is founde ; 
But Sei 8 f ou ne hap noght yet too haue fat sorowe, 
jpat fere shall bifall fee * within few yeres. 4 
"Whan Philip in his foule will hathe fee for-lete, 
Maugre his malice * or his menne sterne, 680 

Him tides to take fee a3ain trowe f ou no nooder." 
" Maister," quod fe Queene "queme yee me might, 
Of this unkouth case too karp f e soothe. 
When Philip f e ferefull forsake mee thynkes, 684 
Who durst bee so bolde fat bides in erth, 
Too make hym, maugre his menne mee for too take?" 
))us saide f e seg " Such one I knowe ; 
A God fat is gracious & grete of his myght 688 

1 MS. J>ine ; but above thesis a* witJwut the cross stroke. 

2 Over the e in kest is a. 

3 MS. dei, with though above it as a gloss. 
* Catchword Whan Phelip. 


Shall busk too thy horde bed by pee too ligge, 

And fro this harmfull happe help fee faire." thou have help." 

pe Ladie full louely of pe lud askes, 

"Which dereworthe dright desires mee too haue?" 

pis King carpes anon * & cofly saide, 693 

" Hee is noght yonge of his yeres pat yernes pee take, 

Noper olde of his age but onely too showe, 

In a meane maner mightfull hee seemes. 696 

Hee hath hye on hut hed homes of syluer, 

With golde gailye begonne glisiing bright, 

With here on "his hedde & his herd also. 

Hee wyll nye [fee] too-night & neede pee bihooues 700 

Bee full prest too his paie & profer pee faire." 

" 3if I may trowe thy tale - trulich," hue saide, 

" I shall hilich [pee] herie with hert and wyll, th as a prophet, 

"Noghi praise pee as a Prophet pat passeth in londe, 

But as a gracious Godde greate I pee thynk, 705 

And bileeue on thy lore all my lifetime." 

pan nolde Nectanabus no lenger abide, 
But gothe too a greene grounde pere grases wer sett ; worts, 
Farre fro pe Paleis hee fares all alone, 709 

And laches in a launde full louely wortes. 
Hee grindes hem grathly * & gripes in honde, 
Hee wringes oute pe wet wus and went on his gate. tFoi. is j 

and wrings out of 

Hee passed intoo pe Paleis in a preeuy wyse. 713 them the wet 

When it dreew too pe derk & pe daie slaked, 

pe burd busked too bedde & brought was on slepe, Atdusk,oiympio8 

pis King with his conning kithes his werkes, 716 

With wiles of witchcraft & wicked deedes, 

pat by fauour of pe fende & his foule craftes 

Hee grathes hym as a God & gothe too pe burde ; ^ayTrnmseif as 

As hue slumbred on slepe slilich hee wendes, 720 a s d 

And lyeth by pat Ladie pat louely was holde. 

Whan hee his will had wraught hee wendes in haste, a^ goes to her, 

' and soon returns. 

And straihte oute of pe stede * with a stiff wyll. 



She awakes in 

She had dreamt 
of Ammon, with 
silver horns and 
face like a 
burning coal. 

Ammon was a 
god shaped like a 

All the land 
worshipped him. 

Olympias had 
dreamt that he 
drew near her, 
and said, 

" Now is he 
conceived that 
shall keep thee 
from care." 

J3an f e burde in her bed braide of hur slepe, 724 

And whan shee wakyng was shee wondred in hert. 

Hue mett on f e midnight of mirth full riue, 1 

Jjat grete God Amon gan f if er wend, 

And had seemelich isett * siluern homes, 728 

And bright biased his blee as a brend glede. 

))en was Amon ywis of worship a-losed, 

And igrett for a God gretest in lond. 

Hee was ishape as a sheepe shinand bright, 732 

I-painted full prisely & precious stones 

Wer sticked on fat stock stoute too beholde. 

All f e ludes of f e lond Lordes & eles 

Set hym for soueraine f eir sokour too beene, 736 

And saide fere sacrifice * in selkouth times. 

Jpanne or-trowed Olympias * f e onorable Queene, 

J}at hee neihed fat night nye too her syde, 

And fonded hur fleshly ch or hee fare wolde. 740 

Whan hee in his lykyng fat Ladie lauht had, 

Hur seemed in fat same stede fat hee saide after, 

" Worldly wooman * well may fee lyke, 

For thy keeper of care is concerned now." 744 

[Fol. 16.] 

She sends next 
day for 

She tells him her 
dream, and says. 

" I know not the 
truth of it, for I 
was asleep." 

He answers, " It 
is quite true. 

A morowe on f e mirie daie f is menskfnll Queene 
Arises up redely and a rink sendee 
Anon too Nectanabus & needely hym praies, 
Jjat he cony corame * too carpen her tyll. 748 

ftan laft Jrc's lud noght long ther-after, 
But camme too fat louely too kenne of her lore. 
))e Queene tolde hym till * f e tales too f e ende, 
Of her dereworth dreme * fat draihte hur in slepe, 752 
And hue saide too fat seg " Soothe of ei eles 
3if it were, I ne wott for wislich I slept, 
Whan I fat sweuen so sweete * swiftly mette." 

," saide Nectanabus "ne trowe f ou no noof er, 756 
ilk sawe was soothe & certain iprooued. 

1 MS. riue, with f above ue. 


For sif bou lene mee leue too leng biside, Give me leave to 

be near thee ; 

for. too stand in a stede of a straite place, 

Too waite at a windowe & warn bee after, 760 

I shoolde trie fe truthe & tell J?ee soone, uTs^or^isI 

Wheber i faithfull or falss founde thy sawe. 

For I warne ]>ee well with worship & ioye, 

Hee wyll tee nye too-nyght * in a neew fourme. 764 To-night thou 

-i i wilt see him "* a 

In dreme as a dragoun dreche hee J?ee thenkes, new form. 

, . , He will be a 

And sithen showe hym hee shall a shawe as it were, 

Mich liche i too mee by mark of my face." 

" Sir," saide J>at seemelich " J>i sawes bee mirye, 768 myself." 

bou shalt stond in a stede still biside ; "Sir, thou shait 

be near. If it be 

3if it bee certain & soothe biself shall i chese, true, thou shait 

Too faj>er J>e free that I forth bryng." fetS?-*" 

])e burd bad hastely by hur boure side, 772 

Jjat swich' 2 a place 3 were prest too prooue J?e truthe. 4 

Whan ]?e leme & ]?e light of fe leefe sonne [Foi. 21.] 

"Was idrawne adowne * & dym were cloudes, At night, the 

Jje Ladie lay on hur bed & lysted too slepe, 776 

And this wonderfull weie waites his place ; 
Hee stoode still on ]>e stede & stirred no foote. 
And sleyly, when Jje first slepe slaked on wightes, 5 
Hee chases by. enchauntement be chamber within, 780 Nectanabus takes 

the form of a 

And with a dragones drem dreew too j)e bedde. dragon, 

}}an hee meeues too hur mouthe & makes his lidene, 

And kisses J?at cumly & kithe^ his wyll ; comes * 

And sithen hee seemed a seg hymself as it were, 784 

And spake too her speedily these speciall wordes ; 

" On fee is getten a gome j?e grimmest in erth, and tells her she 

J3at all weies in fe worlde worship shall." mighty son. 

J3us quaintely jji's Queene was quemed with gyle, 788 

1 MS. liche, with ke above che. 

2 MS. swich, with u above the wi. 

3 MS. place, with is over ce ; perhaps the older copy had plais. 

4 Catchword Whan $e leme of $e liht of $e leue sonne. 

5 MS. nights, with w above n. 



At daybreak he 

The lady arises 
and is attired. 

She sends for 

and asks what 
Philip will do to 

He says that 
Ammon will 
protect her. 

And wend gamene with a God gracious of might, 

Whan a libbing lud * lay in hur armes. 

j)is rink, or J>e sonne rist romes a morowe, 

And passes in ]?e Paleis * prestlich hym one. 792 

And far forthe on ]>e daye whan J?e faire burde 

Had long Jjere layne * & had lyst too ryse, 

Dereworth damseles drowen l them Jnper ; 

Too seme ]>at seemely ]>ei setten hur hondes. 796 

Whan hue was redie araid & riall on sight, 

Hue sendee soone for J>e segge & saide fese wordes, 

" Menskfull maister * makeles of witt, 

Tell mee now truly & targe 2 no lenger, 800 

What kid King Philip J>at keene is of hert, 

Deemes with mee too doo * mee dreedes it sore 1 " 

}?e lud too this Lady full louely saide, 

" Of Philip haue jjou no fere for faitly too knowe, 804 

Amon J?e grete God by graunte of my boone, 

Schall fee wisse fro wo & wreche of his teene." 3 

[Fol. 21 6.] 

He gathers herbs, 
squeezes and dries 

He takes a sea- 
fowl, and anoints 
it with the juice 
of herbs. 

Philip, by his 

)3an farde Nectanabus forthe fro J>at place, 
Hee wendes too a wildernes * & waites him erbes, 808 
Hee tempres hem tidly & takes hem after, 
And hee draines in a dish till J>ei dry were. 
j?an fetches hee a seafoule faire of his wynges, 
And sawes of sorsery hee saide therouer ; 812 

Of his grounden gras * ]>e wus can hee take, 
))eron hee brynges J>e brid & bathes his piliis. 
By help of ]>e Hellfeende * hee hauntes his werkes, 
To gille Philip in Greece whan J>e gome slept. 816 
Whan it nied J>e night * nedelich & soone, 
Philip fared too bed * & fell on a slepe. 
))e chaunce of enchauntment chased his mynde, 
))at hee was draiht with dreme thorou deuiles engines, 
met fat man on his mirie slepe, 821 

1 MS. drowen, with eew above owen. 2 Above the ge is ie. 

3 Catchword" Danne ferd Neck" 


))at liee sawe on his sight * his seemely make, 

How bat louelich lif laide was a bedde, dreams that he 

sees Olympias 

And a gracious God * gripte hur in armes. with Ammon, 

Hee lay by Jjat Lady his liking hee wrou^M ; 825 

And whan his deede l so deerne doone was in haste, 

Amiddes hur membre * too maken it close, 

Hee sawe hym sowen 2 a seme * by seeming of sweuen, 

And with a gaie golde ring * hee gan it asele ; 829 who marked her 

A ston stiked Jjerein * stoutlich igraue ; 

be cast of be sonne course was corue berin ; on the seal was 

the Zodiac, a 

A litle Hones hed louelich ishape, 832 lion's head, and 

With a swith faire swerd sweetelich imaked, 

Was isett on fe sell }je seme all amiddes. 

Whan Philip on J>e forthe daie first gan arise, 

Hee cliped hym his clerkes full conning of witt, 836 He asks what the 

Full noble Nigremanciens j>an 3 [nyed] hee in haste, 

J)at kouth such sweuens swiftly arede. 

Hee minges his metyng amonges hem all, 

And what it might bee too meane fe menne gan hee ask. 

His enchauntiour cheefe jjat J?e chaunce herde, 841 [Foi. 22.] 

Too J>e cumly Kyng * kid these wordes, 

And saide, " Sir, forsoothe thy seemely make His magi say, 

By a gracious God shall go with childe. 844 

be prent bat was i-putt on hur priuie membre that the seal-mark 

signifies what her 

With Jje gaie golde ring graue too-rightes, son shall be like. 

)3e leue Hones hed * jjat laide was amid, 

As mich amounteth too meane as I may tell, 848 

When hur barn is ibore bolde shall hee wex, 

And bee kid for a King kene of his deedes. 

As be Houn is Lorde of liuing beastes, He wil1 1 feared 

r like a lion. 

So J>e ludes in J>e lond * alouten him shall. 852 

Jpe sonne course 4 of be sell * sinifieth also, Tne **** means 

he will conquer all 

pat hee shall fare as farre as any freke dwelles, to the far East, 

1 MS. deene, an obvious error. See note. 

2 MS. sowen, with ew above owen. 3 Over the j? is d, for fc. 
4 MS. coum; we 1. 831. 


And right too f e sonne rist l * his raigne shall last. 
J3e swerd sweetlich imade in sweuen too rede, 856 
Bitokneth full treewly in times here-after, 
J}at hee shall grow full grim * & graithlich 2 winne, 
The sword, that With stern strokes of swerd * & striuing of dintes, 
in battle. m ' Bothe boldes & boroufes] & bern[es] to his will, 860 

And seemely cities as soueraine in erth." 
Philip says, Philip saide, " Forsoope mee seemed fat tyme, 
son would be her That I sawe f e God * go graith too hur bedde. 
comforter." hee ^ ^ had ^^ . < Woman,' he saide, 

' Thy keeper is concerned thy comefort too bene, 865 
))at fee & Philip f e free * of fone shall auenge.' " 
" Sir," said fe enchauntiour "soothely too mene, 
Whan fe God ga,n speake too fe gaie beurde, 868 
How hue concerned had f e help of hur teene, 
Faire Philip & hur freely too keepe, 
" That means, he J)at is wisly too witte hee will you defend 
and he/from Fro paines & peril fat perce fee ne shall. 872 

Of this mirie meting well may f ou lyke, 
Of swiche 3 happes so hende herde I nere tell." 

[Foi. 22 &.] In f e same sesoun * soothely too showe, 

Philip farde too fight as I tofore saide. 876 

The Thebans ))at time, f e Tebeniens hee turned too fight 
A^ain f e ferefull folke of Phocus 4 f e riche, 

With ludes of Lacedemoine lasches too deale. 
A^ain Philip too fare feele f er 5 come. 880 

Nectanabus Nectanabus anon right * vriih his nice werke^, 

becomes a dragon, r^ QQ ^ Q ^ Q j, e g Qme . g ra jthes hym SOOne, 

Deraide as a dragoun dreedfull in fight. 

Hee wendes too f e werre with Philip too holde ; 884 

In sight, 6 of f e same shape hee seemed fan, 

1 MS. rist, with e above i, making rest, which is wrong (1. 791). 

2 MS. has a gloss, greately, which is wrong. 

3 MS. swiche, with u above wi. 

4 MS. has an 8 above the c. 5 A d above the \>. 
8 Above sight is written sute. 



As whan hee farde tofore too f e faire Queene. 

J3an hee farde in fat fight as hee folke sleew, 

And hrutned in that battle buernes ynow. 

For dreede of f is dragoun menne dreew fern fence, 

And fell doune in f e feelde fenked in haste. 

J)e dreede of Ipis dragoun fat drof l men aboute, 

So fought for Philip - & feld mo Knightes 892 

ftan all f of Macedonie * & more of Ms peeple. 

Whan this Kyng had kill[e]d with careful! strokes 

)3e Lacedemoniens fat life loren 2 hadde, 

And Phocuswiik ferse dynt * freelich ywonne 896 

Thorou drede of f e dragoun & drift of his Knightes, 

j)e fell folke of Attens fledden hym soone, 

And thought to sauen hemself fro sorowe of his wrethe. 

888 and fights for 

Philip defeats the 

Philip after jws fight * in a foule time, 900 

"Was going too [ride] ouer Greece as a grete Prince. 3 
J)e armed Attenieins auntred hym till, 
}3ei wern ware of his comrae & his waie stoppes. 
|2e King kif es 4 his gnm too keueren him gate, 904 
But all his werk was in waste * fei werned his 

thoughtes. 5 

.For hee ne sholde hem shend * & shamelich take 
Hur seemely cities too sorowen hem all, 
Enforced were f e entres with egre men fele, 
J)at hee ne might in fat marche no maner wend. 
Whan f e seg sawe well no sokour ne speede, 
He was gretely agrise 6 & greeued in hert, 
For hee ne might in f o men his malice kith. 
To Tebes & Tessalonie fat truly hym holpe, 

Philip's progress 
is opposed by tile- 

[Fol. 23.] 

9.08 The P asses are 

manned against 


He goes to 

1 MS. droue, with f above ue. 

2 MS. loren, with ne above en. 

3 This line is corrupt ; see note. 

4 MS. keepes, with i above ee ; the p being obviously miswritlen 
for J, as elsewhere. Cf. 1. 529. 

5 Catchword " For he ne scholde." 

6 MS. agrise, with d above the e to the right. 


His treachery. 

He kills the 
princes and dukes 
of Thebes. 

He burns their 

and harms them 
as much as he had 
helped them. 

Thus did he out 
of spite. 

[Fol. 23 ft.] 

He next attacks 
[Olynthus ?] 

The men must 
yield or fight. 

Hee went as a woode man his wrath too auenge. 

Whan hee comme too fat coste f ei kepten hym faire, 

And gon too hur gates * & grathlich hem openes, 916 

And lete f e rink riden in with his route sterne ; 

And weies hym welcomes * with worship & ioye. 

))ei trowed no tresoun untruly too haue ; 

But Philip J>e ferefull faire thei grette, 920 

And lete hym prik with his prese * in hur pns holdes. 

As soone as f e seg was f e citie within, 

Hee, wrathfull [of] wille wronglich fare, 

Hee lete catch f e King & kyllen hym soone, 924 

And his Princes of price prestlich hee quelde. 

Douhtie Dukes with doole too deth gon hee bryng, 

And oof er Lordes of lond liueles hee made. 

Hee brende holdes & borous * & beurnes therin, 928 

And all went too wo fat they with mett. 

As mich as Philip tofore hem frendship wrought, 

Whan hee fought for fern & Phocus distriede, 1 

As mich maugre & more * hee marked hem after, 932 

Too be-traie them untruly fat trusten hym till. 

On weies & women awrak hee his teene, 

And solde them too seruise in sorowe too Hue, 

And robbed of riches all f e riche tounes. 936 

J)us hee wrought fat wrong with wreche of his anger, 

For teene of f e Attenieins fat turned him too kepe. 2 

Whan hee f is cursed case unkyndely wrought, 

Hee ne laft no leng[er] in that lond fan. 940 

For too fonde more fight his folke gan hee leade, 

And fares too a countrie with Knightes ynow, 

J^ere a citie was sett seemely & noble, 

J)at Cappadoce was cleped a full kid place. 944 

Many doughtie of deede dwelt f erin, 

})at wern fresh too fight & fell of hur deedes. 

Philip bedes hem biker & biddes fern yeelde 

1 MS. distroide, with ie above oi. 
2 Catchword" Whan he dis kursede caw." 



At last he takes 

the town. 

J5eir faire citie in faith or fight ]>ei shall. 948 

J)e seges in J>e citie * Jjemself so kept, 

ftat Philip lafte J>ere long & litle hee spedde. 

But hee ne stint of his strife noghi a stounde while, 

Till hee had take ]je toune fat tristy was holde, 952 

And made all J?e menne meeke too his wyll. 

Whan hee had wonne Jr/s won & wrought more teene, 

"With mirth too Macedoine hee makes his chace. 

Hee priked too his Paleis with Princes & Dukes, 956 He returns home. 

And many a seemely seg * J>at sued hym Jjanne. 

Of hym ]?e Queene was ware & wendes with ioye, r ^iveshiTn 

And romed light too J>e rink receiued him faire. 

Philip kisses his fere as fell for too doone, 960 

And kneew by hur countenaunce hue cowceiued had. 

Dame," saide bat douhtie " how haste bou doone nowl phili P sa y s 8he 

' has done amiss 

Who hath fee unclene i-kept * sithen I comme fro pee 1 
))ou haste medled amis * methynk, by thy chere. 964 
Natheless I not 3it nai, as I trowe, 
$of jjou haue cheuesed fee a chylde as ]>i chaunce 

fallen ; 

For it is l geten of a God thy gilt is J>e lasse. 
Of all J?e happe Ipat fou liaste hollich ifounde, 
I had minde on my slepe by meting of sweuen, 
A3aines mee & all men Ipat may thee biholde, 
Blameles fou might bee of thy berem-chaunce. 
No wight of thy werk wite J?ee might, 
Sithen it is sonde of a God soothelich i-prooued." 



for he had learnt 

in a dream 

an about her. 

[Foi. 24.3 

It betid in a time tidly therafter, 
J)at Philip made of folke a feaste fuU ryche. 
All his Princes of price praied hee thider, 976 

And oofer Lordes of lond ne laft hee none. 
Whan hee is fare fro fight his folke for too feaste, 
In Macedoine with his men this mirth hee made. 
As soone as J>ei were sett & serued too-rightes, 980 
1 MS. it it. 



appears as a 

Ho goes up to the 
queen and kisses 

Philip says it is 
the dragon who 
helped him. 

The dragon 
flies away. 

!N"ectanabus by ISTigremauncie * neew hym attires, 

And in a dragounes drem hee dreew to J?e halle. 

Hee cowme first too ]?e King & too )>e kid Queene, 

And sithen hee buskes aboute * pe bordes echone, 984 

Hee drouned as a dragon * dredefull of noyes, 

)}at all J?e gomes were agrise of his grim sight. 

))an farde hee forthe too J>e faire Queene, 

And hee holdes his hed -right in hur lappe, 988 

And kisses pat cumly in knoweing of all. 

Philip saide too his fere * freely pese wordes, 

"Dame, of this dragoun I doo pee too knowe, 

And euery liuand lud * pat lenges herin, 992 

In a brem battail abrode in pe feelde, 

Whan I was greeny bigo l ' with a grim peeple, 

Hee co?ftme flie too feelde & my fone schende, 

Jpat I was holpe by hym hem too distrie." 996 

Whan Jra's tale was tolde & tended of all, 

])Q dragoun dreew him awaie with drift of his winges. 

Another time, 

a bird lays an 
egg in 
Philip's lap. 

[Fol. 24 6.J 

An adder comes 
out of the shell, 

In a somer seasoun * soone therafter, 
As Philip satt by hymself soothe for too tell, 1000 
A faire breeding brid * bremlich went, 
And in pe lappe of pat lud louely hee sittes. 
Or Jns freelich foule farde of pe place, 
Hee bredde an ai on his barm & braides him pan. 
Philip wondred was of this werk quainte, 1005 

And satte still on pe stede stirred no foote. 
\)Q ai fell on J?e flore in the frekes sight, 
And )?e shell to-shett on J)e schire grounde. 1008 

Whan it cofli too-clef 2 per crep oute an addre, 
And buskes full boldely aboute )>e shell. 
Whan this worme 3 had went wislich aboute, 
Hee wolde haue gliden in againe graithlich & soone. 

1 MS. bigo, with ne above o to tJie right. 

2 MS. too clef, with eue above f. 

8 MS. worme, with wrom above it ; no doubt the older MS. Jiad 



But or hee had in his hed hee hastely deide, 1 1013 
And dreew nere too his denne but deide bi-side. 
Philip for Jws ferlich fast gan wende 
To noble ]S T igremauncieins ]>at hym nyli were, 1016 
And asked hem an answer * JHS aunter too reede, 
For cheef of enchauntment chosen J?ei were. 
'" Sir," saide one enchauntiour * " you? seemely make 
Shall bere such a barn in a brem tyde, 1020 

J)at by might of his maine & maistrie of Kinges, 
All so wide as ]?/s worlde shall welden his raigne. 2 
Whan hee aboute hath ibene * abrode in J?e londes, 
And iwonne at his will * )?e wortlych 3 places, 1024 
J)e kith J>at hee cowme fro * or hee com till, 
Hee shall bee doluen & ded as destenie fallen. 
As j?e addre of J>e ai * auntred aboute, 
And wolde haue shoten in J>e schell or hee schent 
were, 1028 

'So shall fare by Jje freke Jwt ferre may bee knowe. 
Whan hee hath reigned a roum as richest of all, 
Or hee may too his marche with his maine wende, 
Jjerc hee was fostred & fed him fallen too dye." 1032 

but dies before it 
can creep in 

It means that his 
son shall be a 
great conqueror, 

but will die 
before reaching 

JS"ow will I cease JMS sawe & segge you more 
'Of hym )>at hight Alisaunder holly J>e birth. 4 

[A portion of the story being here lost, the omission 
is supplied from a French prose text of a similar type.] 

[Le terme de 1'effantement la royne approchoit, et 
lui commen^oit le ventre moult a douloir. Si fist 
;appeller ISTectanebuz et lui dist : " J'ai grant douleur The <i ueen calls 

for Nectanabu.>. 

en mon ventre." Nectanebuz compta 1'eure et lui 
dist : " Sousleve toy, royne, ung poy de ton siege, car 

1 MS. deide dyed, and deide is marked. 

2 Above the a is an e. 

3 MS. wortlych, with worthly above it. Cf. 1. 596. 

4 Here follows the catchword" Swiche fortune fel," but the 
next leaf is blank. For an account of the piece here inserted to 
complete the sense, see the note. 




Alexander is 

Earthquakes and 
thunder, snow 
aud sleet. 

Philip perceives 
that the child is 

The child is well 
taken care of. 

His hair, eyes, 
and teeth. 

ellemens sont orendroit orribles du soleil." Et la royne 
se leva, et la douleur se passa maintenant. Apres ung 
poy, lui dist : " Siez toy, royne." Et elie s' asist, et 
enfanta ung filz. Et quant li enfens chey sur.terre, et 
la terra croulla, et foudra tonnoirie, et signes grans 
furent veus par tout le monde. La noif meslee avec 
gresil chey du ciel et ouvry le terre conime des l pierres. 
La nuit targa a venir, et celle fa plus longue des autoes. 
Dont le roy Philippe fu moult esmayez, et dist a la 
royne : " Femme, j'ay pensay en mon cuer que cest 
enfant me feust nourris en aucune maniere, pour ce qu'il 
n'est de moy conceus. Mais pour ce que j'entens qu'il 
est conceus de Dieu, et pour ce que je voy les elemens 
changier en sa naissance, vueil-je qu'il soit aussi bien 
nourris en ma memoire, comme s'il feust miens propres. 
Et vueil qu'il ait nom Alexandre, aussi comme avait 
nom mon aultre filz que j'avais de mon aultre femme." 

Maintenant les dames de leans prindrent 1'enffant 
et le nourirent par grant diligence. Et sachez qu'il ne- 
ressembloit au pere ne a la mere, mais avoit propre sem- 
blance. Car ses cheveux estoient comme crin de lyon, 
ses yeulx estoient grans et resplendissans, et ne 
resembloit pas 1'un a 1'autre. Car Tun estoit noir et 
Tautre vair. Ses dens estoient trop agues et sa re- 
gardence estoit comme du lyon. Et combien que sa 
sestature feust petite, non pour quant aux signes qui se 
demonstroient, sembloit il bien que Alixandre devoit 

How Aristotle 
taught him the 7 

He surpasses his 


Apres, il fu de aage pour mectre a 1'escolle. Le 
roy Philippe lui fist mectre et plusieurs autres enffans 
gentilzhommes avec lui, lequel enffant les surmontoit 
tous de toutes choses en lettres et en paroles. Et aussi 
fait il en ysnelette et en vigueur. Dont il advint, 

i MS. deux. 


quant il eut xii ans, il fit si aprins des sept ars par 

Aristote, le ineilleur qui oncques feust, que il ne 

treuvoit homme qui tant en seust comme il faisoit. 

Quant Alixandre ot xii ans accomplis, on lui bailla ^J^* 8 * 01 

escuiers sages et congnoissans, qui avoient este par le 

pais et par les terres, et avoient use toute leur vie les 

armes. Et ceux 1'aprindrent et enseignerent si bien de 

toutes choses qui aux armes appartenoient, que il en he is taught to 

. , wield arms. 

toutes choses seurmontoit ses compaignons. Quant le 

rci Philippe congnut la grant vigueur qui estoit en luy, 

si lui dist : "Filz Alixandre, je ayme moult la ysnellete Philip's remark. 

de ton corps et le soutil engin de ton courage. Mais 

tristre suis que ta semblance ne resemble a lamienne." 1 

Quant ce ouy la royne Olimpias, si se doubta moult, et oiympias says to 

appella Nectanebuz, et lui dit :] 

" Master on molde * what may mee befall 1 [FoL 17.] 

Of "Philip sore am I aferd for his fell speeche, 1036 

For hee sayed too my soonne in ayght of myne yie, "Philip complains 

TT , . , , , . . , that Alexander is 

Hee was purlich payed * of his prise werkes, n ot like Mm." ' 

But hee chaunged his chere * & too J>e chylde sayed, 
' That ]?ow ne art lyke mee, lude mee lykes full yll ; ' 
Therfore my mynde & my moode is marred 2 too care, 
For his woorde am I wrou^/it wofull in hert." 1042 
" Queene," qwoth Nectanabus [care J?ou no more, 3 ] "Nevermind 
For the sake of thy soonne [J?at schal saue be at your son win help 

The Lude looked on-loft late on an eeue, 1045 
And on a starre too stare hee stynt full long, De eve > 

Nectanabus looks 

Hee hoped to haue there of his heites desyres ; on tne stars ' 

Too catche sum cunnyng hee kest up his yie. 1048 
When Alisaunder jjat sawe hee sayed full soone, 
" Father, wherfore is J>at farly too tell, 

1 M S. moye. 2 Ms mar i e d, with r above i. 

3 Two half-lines are here lost, and are supplied from conjecture; 
blank spaces are left for them in the MS. 




Alexander asks 
him to point out 
his favourite 

He says he must 
wait till 

[Fol. 17 &.] 

He asks if he 
knows his own 

"Yes; my son 
will kill me." 

That thow lookest on-loft * so long at Jus tyme ? " 
" Soonne," sayed fe segge * "in syght I beholde 
A brem sterre & a \)ryght ' that mee best lykes." 1053 
" Leeue l fader," quoth J>e freke "fonde I, mee tell, 
The sterre fat yee staren on * sticketh it in heuin ? " 
" Yea, forsoothe, deare soonne " sayed hee than, 
" It is in heuin full hy beholde who-so myghk." 1057 
" And may yee, syr," sayed f e chylde " by sum maner 


Schowe mee schortly in shape fat schynyng sterre 1" 
" Yea, wooste f ou see, my soonne in certeyn tymes, 
The inkest howre of Jw's ny^/it * ny by my syde, 
Withoute fe citie," he sayed "in certeyn places, 1062 
So, lo ! myghtst f ou see * fat seemely sterre ! " 
" That ilk for to see " * hee sayed, " I desyre, 
And I shall wend thee wit/i when fee well lykes. 
But canst foil by any craft * kenne mee now 1066 

What death dry f ou shalt by destinie shape ? " 
" Yea," soonne, sayed hee f o "in certein I knowe, 
That I shall drye f e death in dreedefull dedes stoundes, 
By encheson of my chylde * such chaunce shall fall ; 
But whan, wott I not well * ne in what place." 1071 

Nectanabus goes 

down beside a 


Nectanabus in bat nya/it * as hym neede 
Passeth forthe pnuely f e Paleis without, 2 
Hee gooth downe by fe dyche fat deepe was of 
grounde, 1074 

Euyll it is of syght the walles besyde. 
[" Sone," sayde Nectanabus * " see ^ond )>e sterres,] 3 


He points out the JoyfullJupiter Myrthfull Mercurie, 

The leame of his lyght ' lykes well my hert ! " 
So hee stynted fat stounde . & styrred no foote, 
Hee pored on fe planetes * pass ere hee woolde. 


1 MS. Leeue, with fe above ue. 

2 Here follows a half-line out of place, " the walles besyde," 
line " Euyll it is of syght " Icing left incomplete. 

3 A line is here lost. 


Hee braides too be bank of be brode water, Alexander pushes 

him into the 

By pe shoulderes hym tooke & shift hym in myddes, ditch. 

With a wrathfull wyll J>ese woordes hee sayed : 

"Wretched worldly wyght why wylst pou knowe 

The priuitie of planetes or precious starres, 1085 

Syn pou art erthly thyself 1 in an yll tyme 

Kaughtst pou in pat craft cmmyng of happes 

Let them bat in heuin bee knowe hy thynge* : 1088 "Oniygoas 

should know 

That lore longes too Godde & too no lud eles, heavenly things.' 

Thow pat worldly art wraught thy wytt J>ou bisett 

On euery erthly thyng & ern J?ou nomore ! " 

The segge sayed this sawe sounk or hee wer, 1092 

"Truthe haue I bee tolde in tymes ypassed" i have always 

told you the 

And with pat sawe pe soule fro pe seg hee partes. truth." 

Alisaunder anonne ryght armed in hert, 

Hee did hym downe too be dyche as hee no dreede Alexander takes 

him out dead. 

had ; 1096 

Hee sprainde in a sprite & spradde it aboute, 
[And cau^t vp pe cors and cayres to pe queene.] ! 
" Saye mee, seemely sunne, what pou bryngst 1 " [] 

" Ich haue broght," quoth pe burn * " a ded body here, 
That noble Nectanabus * too name was hote." 1101 
"Sunne," sayed pat seemelich "my sorowe is pe more !" 
*' It is thy foule fowlye * pat this fare wrought, Alexander 


Yowr caremll conscience yee casten so large, oiympias. 

That yee wern no wyght ' but wyrch as yee lyst." 1105 

The Queene quoth -nought againe but qm'ckly & soone she cannot reply. 

Too burye pat burn pe beurd gan heate. 

Of this lyueles lud ne lyst mee tell, 1108 

Of hym I cease my sawe & seche too more. 

Ther was a Prince full price of powre y-holde, 
Keeper of Cappadoce that Kyng Philip aught. 
A huge horsse & a hy hee had that tyme, 1112 A HOBSS. 

The moste seemely in sy#7it pat euer seg wyst. 

1 A line is here lost, and supplied from conjecture. 



There was a 
horse that fed on 

He was kept 
chained up. 

Messengers took 
him to Philip as a 

Philip has a cave 
built for him. 

[Pol. 18 &.] 

Traitors were 
thrown to him to 

Philip dreams, 
that whoever 
tames the horse 

will be king of 

Hee bore a liedde as a bole y-brested to-ryght, 

And had hard on his hedde homes y-grow, 

Menne wern his meate that hee moste looued ; 1116 

for as many as hee myy/it murdre hee woolde. 

Hee was byglich ybownde * on bothe twoo halues, 

Bothe his chaul & his chynne \vith chaynes of yren 

Many locks wer laft his leggs aboute, 1120 

That hee nas loose in no lime hides to greeue, 

To byte, ne to braundise ne to break no wows. 

for hee so myghty was made in all maner thyngs, 

Of such a body as hee bore fe blonke so sterne, 1124 

Was neuer steede in no stede fat stynt upon erth. 

Intoo meery Macedoine f e messengers f ei camrae, 

~Fiom what kith f ei camme cofly they tolde, 

Let greete hym with God * & goode wyll, 1 1128 

And their presaunt of price proffred hym tyll. 

Hee had blyss of fat beaste & blythely hym thanks. 

[A caue he comanded to coynt men inouj,] 2 

Dupe 3 as a dunioun * dyked in erth, 1132 

All about bygge with barrs of yern. 

Therfore f e Kyng had cast too keepe fat steede, 

In fat caue craftely * enclosed with gynne. 

For if a trayter wer y-take in tyme therafter, 1136 

Or any thriftles theefe for thyngs accused, 

They shoolde bee cast in fat caue too fat kene blonk, 

And bee deuoured with doole as f e doome woolde. 

Anon as euer fe nyght nyied on erth, 1140 

Philip farde too bedde & fell on a sleepe. 

Of a myghtfull Godde * hee mett fat tyme, 

That on his bedsyde satt & JMS sawe tolde 

" Who prickes 4 on a playne feelde f e perelous beaste, 

Hee shall raigne as a ryng ryall & noble, 1145 

1 This line occurs in the MS. two lines higher up, clearly out 
of place. 

2 A line is here again lost, and supplied from conjecture. 

3 MS. Dupe, with ee above u. 

4 MS. Tho pricked, which is unintelligible. 


And bee Kyng of thy kith Knyghtes too leade, 
When J>ou art doone & dedde & thy daye endes." 



When Alisaunder was of age as I shall tell, 1148 
Of full fifteene yere faren too pe end, 
Hee was hardye & hende * happes to fond, 
And such wys of his witt in worldly thynges ; 
Lered on letrure was pe lud then, 1152 

And of latin pe lore lellich hee wyst. 
In a tyme betyd * as I tell after, 
That many menne of Attenes wit?i> myckle oofer 


Did pern forthe on a day * by pe dupe l caue, 1156 
There pe steede in stoode strayned in bonder. 
They sawe lygge in theyr looke * legges & armes, 
Fayre handes & feete freaten too the bonne, 
Of menne pat myslych wer murdred therm, 1160 
By iustes 2 unioyfull iugged too death. 
When Alisaunder was ware of pe wylde bfeaste], 
That was of body so bolde * bremlych yshaped, 
Too hym hee heelde forthe "his hand ; pe horss it 
awaytes. 1164 

Hee layed pe neck oute along & lycked his hande*, 
And sythe hee foldes his feete & falles too pe> grounde, 
And abowed [to] pe burn on his best wyse. 
When Alisaunder so sawe in his syght there, 1168 
How pe, steede was styll & no stryfe made, 
Bale thought fat burn too bynde pat steede, 
That so meeke was of moode & made no noyes. 
Hee unclosed pe caue unclainte pe barres, 1172 

And straihte into pe stede stroked hym fayre. 
Hee raught forthe hw right hand & his rigge frotw*, 
And coies hym as he kan wzt/i his clene handes. 
jpan hee loses his lockes his legges unbyndes, 1176 

1 MS. Deepe, with u above ee ; see 1. 1132. 

2 Indistinct and uncertain. 

Alexander was 
now 15. 

He knew Latin. 

Some Athenians 
see the horse 
lying amid men's 

[Fol J9.J 

The horse licks 



He enters the 

He unfastens the 
steed's bonds, 



and it is as 
meek as a lamb. 

He rides him 

Philip is 

[Pol. 19 b.] 

and tells his son 
his dream. 

That hoc nas fast in no foote * bifore ne bihynde. 

Therof f e blonk was blythe & blainte no furre l 

But meeke was of maneres withou.t& mischaunce. 3 

Was nere lambe in no land lower of chere, 1180 

No hownde to his hous-lorde 3 * so hende to queme, 

J)at was leuer to lyke f e lude fat hym aught, 

])en was f e blonk to f e beurn fat hym bistint. 

])an wendes fis weih fe caue withoute, 1184 

And f e horss with his hand hendely bringe*. 

Soone hee leapes on-loft & lete hym worthe, 4 

To fare 5 as hym lyst faine * in feelde or in towne. 

The steede strauht on his gate & stired hym under, 

And wrought no wod res but his waye holdes. 1189 

When sire "Philip gan see f e seg so too ryde, 

And his blonk behelde abated of wrath, 

Of f e michel meekenes marueil hee had, 11 92 

That f e steede so stern stynt of his fare. 

He sayde, " Sonne Alisaunder of f is same chaunce 

Iche had mynde in my slepe * by metyng fownde. 

A greate glisiande God ' grathly mee tolde, 1196 

That f ou shalt raigne when I rotte 6 on my ryche 


" Faf er," sayde f e freke " if f ou foreknowes 
That I shall leade thy landes * when thy life endor, 
Let mee be proued as Prince in pres where I wend, 
And fende mee finliche well to fonde my strength." 

Philip goea to 

Of this bounden beaste blynne [we f e] speche, 
Of King Philip fe keene karp wee now. 1203 

When Philip had with his folke faren on Greece, 
And taken tresure ynough in townes full riche, 
Hee hurd tell of a towne thriftily walled, 

1 An i above the u. 2 che above unce. 3 untes above us. 
4 MS. worche, with t above c. s An \ above and between a and r. 
6 MS. rotte, with royte above it, which may have been miswritten 
for rotye in the older copy. 



A citie sett by peece with full siker wardes, 

Byzaunce fe bolde sted was fe borowe liote ; 1208 

None better hym aboute fat any beurn wyst. 

It was chosen for cheefe to cheftaren in, 

And many merchauntes f er-in ' fat much goode aught. 

All fe Lordes of fe lond * fat large was founde, 1212 

Helde it hur cheefe holde when happe camrae of 


Many menne of f e easte of merchauntes ynow, 
Wer brought to f e borowe too biggen & sell. 
No defaute nas founde in fat faire place, 1216 

On euery syde f e sea of-souhte ! the walles. 
Pausanias a pm King none prester ifounde, 
While hym lasted his lyfe on his lond riche, 
Let build fe borowe too byde therin, 1220 

When hee was ferkid with fyght of his fone grimme. 
That bolde borou Byzance fat buyld was to-rihtz^, 
Was called syn in fat coste Constantinoble 2 , 
Of Roome a riche Emperour fat reigned sythe, 1224 
Constantine hee was cleped a Kny^t well alosed, 
The sonne of saint Elaine f e seemelich Ladie, 
That weihes 3 worshipen yet * for hur werk hende, 
A neew name too fat borowe hee named fan, 1228 
And called it Constantinople fat knowen is wyde. 
For fat stalworthe sted so strong was founded, 
Philip 4 hoped fat holde with his help to wynne, 
For too keepe in that kith cumlich & riche 1232 

All hi* tresour ytryed for, in tresoun or gyle, 
That none robbed f e rink of f ese riche thyngos. 
Philip with his ferefull folke fast hym arayes, 
For too prouen his pride at fe pns borowe. 1236 

Many men from 
the East bought 
and sold there. 

Pausanias built it. 


It was afterwards 
called Constan- 

from Constantino 
son of Helen. 

Since it was so 
strong, Philip 
wanted it 

to keep his 
treasures in. 

1 MS. of souhte, with f above the s, and also saftie above the 
latter part of souhte. 

3 MS. Constantinople, with b above the p ; see Werwolf, 1. 1425. 
3 MS. wightes, with weihes (marked] above it. 
MS. For Ph. ; but we must omit this second For. 



Forthe rydes f e Kyng vriiJi his route huge, 
Philip besieges it. And hath f e citie besett on sydes aboute ; 

On floode & on faire lond "his folke gan hee sett, 1239 

3if hee myght derie vrii/i dint fat dereworthe place. 

This seg biseeged so * f e citie full long, 

With all f e maine f t hee myght made his assautes, 

But all J>e ludes fat hee ladde for loue ne for aie, 1 

No myght apeire fe place of a peny brede. 1244 

For fat freelich freke ' as I fore tolde, 

The kid Knight Pausanias fat King was of Spart, 

That borowe in his best state let build so strong, 

That all f e wightes in f e worlde it wynne ne myght, 

But }if fode lacked too ludes within. 1249 

His men could 
not take it. 

It was too strong 
for them. 

[The next page is "blank, and the rest is wanting.'] 

%* For an account of the continuation of the story, see 
the note at the end of the " Notes to Alisaunder," and consult 
the Preface. 

MS. awe, with aie above it. 



P. 1. The first quire of the MS. consisted of 12 folios, or 6 pairs of 
'leaves. Of these the three outer pairs have been slit up the back, which 
has occasioned the loss of the first three leaves, and of the tenth, which 
was once joined on to the third. The eleventh and twelfth are fastened in 
merely by their edges. The part omitted by the loss of fol. 10 corresponds 
to 144 lines of the French text, whilst the first three missing leaves corre- 
spond only to 186 lines of the same. This is to be accounted for, most pro- 
bably, by the fact that the English translator did very much as he 
pleased, in some places following his original closely, in others condens- 
ing the story, and in others again giving us descriptions and explanations 
entirely, as it would appear, of his own invention. See note to 1. 3. 

P. 2. Of the later French prose version of the story a short specimen 
may suffice, as it is obviously inferior to the old version in rime. 

The following corresponds to 11. 18 32 on pages 1 and 2 : 

" Et nous signifie Ihistoire au premier liure que iadis fut vn Roy de 
1 Cecille due de Calabre & seigneur de la pouille nomine Ebron riche / puis- 
sant / craint & redoute sur tous princes de son temps / tellement que 
roy : Prince : ne autre neust ose sur luy entrependre ne guerroyer. 
Dequoy aduerty Lempereur de Grece luy donna a femme & espouse sa 
fille : tant belle sage / gente & plaine de vertus : & deuote enuers dieu 
que rien plus. Nommee estoit Felixe plaine de toute felicite. Laqwelle a 
cause de son bon bruict & religion augmentoit & accroissoit merueil- 
leusement la renowmee du roy Ebron son mary tant que toutes gens 
prenoieut plaisir a les voir & acquerir leur beneuolence." From the 
Paris edition, printed by N. Bonfons. 

A considerable portion of the commencement of the story is repeated 
in the English version near the end (11. 4624 4806) where we 
find Embrons, Gloriande, and Acelone named Ebrouns, Gloriauns, and 
Achillones. A perusal of this repetition of the story gives us a very fair 
idea of the way in which the English translator must have begun his 
poem. Ebrouns died soon after the affair with the Werwolf, and his 
brother too (I suppose), for he is never again spoken of as alive. Queen 
Felice lived to a good old age, ending her days in happiness and peace. 
The Werwolf turns out to be the Prince Alphouns or Alphonse, eldest son 
of the king of Spain. 

P. 4, 1. 115. Far was the local name of the Strait of Messina, called 

220 NOTES (PAGES 6 9). 

Faro di Messina, or Far de Meschims ; thus we read of " fluvium mag- 
num, qui dicitur Le Far de Mesclrines " in Benedict of Peterborough (ed^ 
Stubbs, 1867), vol. 2, p. 125 ; and again, at p. 138 of the same work, we 
find the following. " Et est notandum quod in fluvio illo del Far de- 
Meschines sunt ilia duo pericula maris maxima, scilicet Silla et Caribdis. 
Quarum una, Silla, est ad introitum del Farprope la Baignare, et altera, 
scilicet Caribdis, est prope exitum del Far" Two formidable perils 
these, for the Werwolf to encounter on his way ; but he seems to have 
safely avoided them ! 

P. 6, 1. 170. The exact distance of this forest from Rome is afterwards 
stated to be seven miles. See 1. 4679. 

L. 1. (English text). The first two extant lines of the poem represent 
the concluding phrase of the extract from the French que tot li plaist Ce 
que la beste de luifait. The next line in the French text is, Uns vachiers 
qui vaches gardoit, &c. 

3 35. These thirty-three lines are represented in the French text by 
only seven short lines, which run thus : 

Uns vachiers qui vaches gardoit, 

qui en cele forest manoit, 

el bois estoit avoec sa proie, 

.i. chien tenoit en sa coroie, 

de pasture la nuit repaire ; 

li chiens senti lenfant et flaire, 

forment abaie, et cil le hue, &c. 

Hence it is clear that the excellent lines, 20 31, are original ; and they 
shew that our own author was a man of very considerable poetical power. 
So again, the idea in 1. 59 

"appeles and alle Binges J>at childern after wilnen," 
is entirely his own, and proves that he knew how to add a graceful touch 
to the poem he copied from. 

P. 7, 1. 19. towawe was explained by Sir F. Madden as meaning to the 
wall; but I fancy it is but one word. See To-wawe in the Glossary. 

P. 9, 11. 8093. Having shewn (note to 1. 3) how the translator has 
there written 33 lines where his original had but 7, it seems right to give 
an extract shewing, on the other hand, that he has here only 14 lines 
where his original has 26, some of them being very curious. 

" or oies 

del leu qui estoit repairies 

de la viande quala enquerre 

par les vilains et par la terre ; 

avoec lenfant tant en avoit 

que a grant paine laportoit. 

et quant lenfant na retrouve, 

onques mis lion, de mere ne, 

ne vist a beste tel duel faire, 

qui li oist uller et braire, 

et les pies ensamble detordre, 

NOTES (PAGES 9, 10). 221 

et la terre engouler et mordre, 

esrachier lerbe et esgrater, 

et Boi couchier et relever ; 

et comme il socit et confont, 

et querre aval et querre amont, 

et les larmes fondre des ex, 

bien peust dire, si grans dex 

ne fu par nule beste fais. 

lors ert saillis ens el markais, 

si met a la terre le nes, 

tout si com lenfes ert ales 

desi ou le mist li vilains. 

le suit li leus de rage plains ; 

tant la sui a esperon, 

que venus est a la maison." 

P. 9, 1. 80. The letter I, like r, is one that sometimes shifts its place 
in a word. As we find brid for bird, so we find wordle for worlde ; and 
-wolnk may be intentionally put for wlonk. Cf. carfti for crafti, 1. 3221. 

83. no neij = non ei], i. e. no egg. So thi narmes for thin annes, thy 
-arms, in 1. 666. 

84. grinne]*. The MS. has ginne]). Sir F. Madden's note is " A verb 
is wanting after ginneth. We may, probably, supply it by ' so balfully 
he ginneth greue,' or by some similar word." But this rather spoils the 
rhythm of the line. Mr Morris says " it seems probable that ginne]) = 
howl, utter, send out, from AS. ginan, to open, yawn" This is some- 
what farfetched. It is simpler to suppose that it is rniswritten for 
.grinne}, which is not an inappropriate word, and is familiar to us from 
the expression in the Psalms to grin like a dog, i. e. to grin with rage 
and spite. But it is still more to the point to observe that there is, as it 
were, some authority for the grinning of werwolves, if we compare with 
the text the following quotation " Jjai grennede for gladschipe euchan 
toward o'Ser, as wode wulues J>et fainen of hare praie." Morris : Early 
English Homilies, p. 277 (E. E. T. S. to be published shortly). Cf. also 
"The Lyon did both gape and gren." Bp. Percy's Folio MS. Carle of 
Carlile, 213. 

P. 10, 1. 121. Between this line and the next, the translator has missed 
a portion of the original, viz. the lines following : 
" de mult de gens estoit loee ; 
de son signer avoit .i. fil, 
biau damoisel, franc et gentil ; 
Brandins ot non, ce dist lescris." 

" She was praised by many people. She had by her lord one son, a 
fine lad, frank and gentle ; he bore the name of Brandins [or Braundins], 
as says the writing." The name of Brandins being so very like Brande, 
the translator may easily have lost his place, and omitted the passage 
unintentionally. Braundins is mentioned afterwards, as the reader will 

222 NOTES (PAGES n ie). 

136. a noynemcnt = an oynement, i.e. an ointment, unguent. Cf. note 
to 1. 83. See 1. 139. 

141. " All the form of man so amiss bad she shaped (transformed).'* 
Morris ; note to the line in " Specimens of Early English." 

143, 144. " But truly he never after possessed any other resemblance 
that belongs to human nature, but (was) a wild werwolf." The con- 
struction is involved. 

P. 11, 11. 156 160. Here the translator, finding a tendency to re- 
petition in his original, cuts matters short, omitting how the werwolf 
lived two years in Apulia, and grew fierce and big and strong ; and how, 
hearing of the treachery of King Embrouns' brother, he resolved to steal 
away William in the manner already described. It is needless to say 
that 11. 161 169 are wholly interpolated. 

P. 12. 1. 206. There is something amiss with this line; it hardly 
makes sense as it stands. In 1. 35 the phrase is " to hold to baie ; " in 
1. 46 it is " to hold at a baye." So here, if one may be permitted to 
change " & " into " at," we have, 

to haue bruttenet Jjat bor at ]?e abaie se]?])en, 
i.e. " to have afterwards destroyed the boar, (when held) at bay." 

P. 14, 1. 251. In the original, William very properly grounds his re- 
fusal on the fact that he does not know who the emperor is, or what he 
wants to do. 

" non ferai, sire, et por coi, 
car je ne sai que vos voles, 
qui vos estes, ne que queres ; 
ne se voles riens, se bien non, 
ja ne me face Dix pardon ! " 

261. " Read wend" and again elsewhere, in 1. 5185. This elision of 
a final d in such words as hond, lond, sheld. held, &c. is by no means un- 
common in ancient poetry, and arises simply from pronunciation." M. 
We find wend in 1. 229. 

267 272. Hereabouts the translator condenses his original with 
great judgment. The " churl's " grumbling, as there given, is not very 

P. 15, 11. 293295. The French merely says, 
" en ceste forest le trouvai, 

asses pres dont nous somes ore." 
The man who could turn this prosaic statement into 

"how he him fond in Jjat forest jjere fast bi-side, 
clothed in comly closing 'for any Jcinges sone, 
vnder an holw ok ' tyurth help of his dogge " 

had certainly both poetic power and a lively imagination. Indeed, the 
translation is very superior to the original, as far as I have compared the 
two It should be observed that, immediately after writing the two linea 
printed above in italics, the translator boldly omits about 16 lines of the 
cowherd's rather prosy story. 

P. 16, 1. 325. Mr Morris explains/orders by making it equivalent to 

NOTES (PAGES 16 19). 


fayre dedes, kind actions. That this is incorrect appears from the fourth 
line on fol. 81 (1. 5182), 

" of al ]?e faire fordede ' jjat he hade for hem wrou^t." 
The expression "fair fair deed " would be unmeaning tautology. See 
the glossary. 

329 343. The translator here follows the original pretty closely, 
giving, however, rather the sense than the exact words. 

P. 17, 1. 347. " This is not an error of the scribe, as at first supposed, 
but formed by the same analogy, as alizt for alighted, comfort for comfort- 
ed, gerde for girded, &c. It occurs often in the Wycliffite versions of the 
Bible." M. The very word comaund ( commanded) occurs in 11. 
2557 and 2564 of the alliterative Romance on the Destruction of Troy. 
P. 17, 1. 360 365. Compare the original text 
" Salues inoi Huet le nain, 
et Hugenet et Aubelot, 
et Martinet le fil Heugot, 
et Akarin et Crestien, 
et Thumassin le fil Paien, 
et tos mes autres compaignons ;" &c. 

In 1. 362, Sir F. Madden printed dwery, but he says, " This word is 
doubtful in the MS. and may either be read owery (as printed by Harts- 
horne) or dvwrth. It seems to be intended to represent the F. dru, drue, 
B. Bret, drew, drud, signifying a loved friend or companion. But if the 
final letter be supposed to take the place of g, it may then mean dwarf, 
from S. dwerg."" 

The excellent suggestion at the end of this notice of the word is now 
seen to be perfectly right ; for dwerth (dwarf) is simply the translation 
of le nain, Lat. nanus ; and just as dwerlp is written for dwerg, so our 
author continually writes Jmr]> for lpur$ through. 

For kinnesman in 1. 365, I should propose to read Thomasin or 
Thomasyn. It would improve the alliteration , of which there is none in 
the line as it stands. 

P. 18, 1. 379. She would have slain herself by refusing food, according 
to the French text. 

" jamais sa bouche ne mangast, 

se cil ne la reconfortast." 

388, 389. These "boars and bears, many horse loads, harts and hinds, 
and many other beasts " have all grown out of four boars only, like Fal- 
etaff's " men in buckram." The French merely says, 

de iiij senglers quorent pris. 
403. held = eld, age. Compare 

et meisme de tel aage 
com GmlMames pooit bien estre. 

P. 19, 1. 423. The translator here misses a very curious statement, 
not perhaps understanding the allusion. Nor do I. 
de riches dras batus a or, 
coin sil fust fix roi Alphinor, 

224 NOTES (PAGES 19 28). 

qui sire et rois est de hongrie, 
qui si est de tos biens plentive ; 
ne adonques a icel tans 
navoit mie plus de . iiii . ans 
et norri puis . vii . ans tos plains. 

Here we not only learn, once more, that William was about 11 years old 
when arriving at the emperor's court (see p. 2, 1. 35, and p. 15, 1. 296), 
but we are told that the child was found in rich apparel adorned with 
beaten gold, as if he had been son to the king Alphinor, who is lord and 
king of Hungary, (and) who is so abundantly possessed of wealth. 
429 432. The French text has 

" li damoisiax," fait lemperere, 
" je cuit, par le baron saint Pere, 
quil est de mult tres haute gens ; 
car mult par est et biax, et gens," &c. 
P. 23, 1. 433. The French text continues thus : 
et souspirer et baaillier, 
et refroidier et reschaufer, 
muer color et tressuer, 
et trambler tot en itel guiwe, 
comine se fievre mestoit prise, &c. 
P. 24, 1. 455. Compare 

dont ai je tort qui en blasmoie 
mon cuer. 

460. The French text throws no light on the true reading. The am 
in the MS. is indistinct. Sir F. Madden suggested " nad J)ei ben, i may 
boute bale," &c., which I have adopted, with the slight change of may 
into mijt. 

470. We should have expected to find brouner rather than broun. 
472. There seems something wrong here. I had proposed to read 
" to the harde asente," i. e. assent to the infliction. Sir F. Madden 
considers that the introduction of to offends the ear, and proposes, 
but with diffidence, " the hardere asente," i. e. assent with difficulty. 
The French does not help one, being much more concise in this pas- 

P. 25. After 1. 500 we should expect some such line as, 

" So heried ouer al and so hey} holden." 

P. 28, 1. 576. The catchwords are written, as usual, at the bottom of 
the last page of each quire. 

584. The MS. has " he kosin ful nere," instead of " here kosin." 
This is due to the omission of the small flourish which is used as a con- 
traction for er. In the same way we find " fide " instead of " Jjidere " 
in 1. 47, and elsewhere. 

592. For Idlest, Sir F. Madden has leuest. The two words would be 
exceedingly alike, for the scribe makes his Ts so short that they are very 
little longer than the first stroke of a u. But over the second downstroke 
(which is a little shorter than the first) a long fine stroke can be detected, 

NOTES (PAGES 28 34). 225 

which is his method of dotting an i. Leuest means most dearly, and 
leliest is most leally, so that the sense is much the same. 

600. The MS. has 1. 601 before 600, but the emendation so obvi- 
ously assists the sense, that it hardly requires apology. 

P. 29, 1. 611. For this line and the preceding the MS. has 
" & ofter J?an ix. times hit take]? me a-daye, 

& ten times on J>e ni^t nou^t ones lesse." 

I have taken the considerable liberty of changing the places of nine and 
ten, because the alliteration of both lines is thereby improved. The ten is 
as well suited to the chief-letter in talce]>, as nine is to the initials 
of ni$t and nouyt. I do not suppose that any one will quarrel with the 
alteration of the sense. When we consider that these numbers were 
selected for no other reason than to secure alliteration it must be right to 
place them where they best fulfil that object. 

625. For " cosynes " read " cosyne." M. This suggestion is sup- 
ported by 11. 594 and 602. But there is no harm in retaining cosynes, 
as it is used to denote a female cousin, as in Lancelot of the Laik, 11. 1185, 
1270, 2287, and 2802. 

P. 30, 1. 645. I suspect that " answeres " ought to have been " an- 
swered." Cf. note to 1. 1076. 

649. The MS. has merely " after Jjrowe," which makes the line halt. 

P. 31, 1. 692. The MS. having here the letters " ihu " it is difficult to 
write the word otherwise than " ihesu." Otherwise the h is a cor- 
ruption of the Greek H or e, so that " iesu " would be a truer form. On the 
contraction IHC for IHCOYC, out of which I.H.S. has been made (the mark 
of contraction being at the same time turned into a small cross), see 
Hone's Ancient Mysteries Described, p. 282. 

698. The c and t being much alike, Metynt may be meant for Metync, 
but Metyng is better spelling ; see 1. 706. 

P. 32, 11. 712, 713. The construction is " For there is no lord in 
any land, enjoying life no emperor nor renowned king known to be so 
rich that he is not of sufficiently low birth to wed that seemly lady." 

723. The word houes nowhere occurs again in the poem, the usual 
form being bihoues. The alliteration also points out that the initial bi 
is really required. 

P. 33, 1. 753. "Read, tok him til a sete." M. But I am not sure 
that this ingenious emendation is altogether required ; tid may be here, 
as elsewhere, another spelling of tit = soon, quickly. 

756. Here " For J>at" seems to mean " for whom" See 1. 769. 

771. The MS. seems to have " chanber" in 685 and here ; but it is 
probably a mere slip for " chauber," the spelling adopted in 11. 755 and 769. 

P. 34, 1. 788. " This is not so much an error as an abbreviation be- 
fore an infinitive, which has occurred to me often in other MSS. It 
should properly be '/or to slake.' Bryant places this, very unnecessarily, 
among the list of provincialisms." M. Forto is very common in this 
MS. See 1. 783 just above. Another form is forte, which occurs in Piers 
Plowman, Text A. vii. 277. 


226 NOTES (PAGES 34 46). 

793. Sir P. Madden prints " as a wo werjj wei^h," with a reference to 
the common phrase " wo worth." The MS. may also be read " wo wery " 
= wo-weary, weary with wo. The word " worj) " is spelt elsewhere in 
the MS. with an o. 

799. wher, whether. 

804. Go we is a form of invitation. Of. " go we dyne, go we " in Piers 
Plowman; A. prol. 105. It occurs again in 1. 1184. 

P. 35, 1. 824. " to glade with uch gome," i. e. to gladden each man 
with. See note to 1. 1825. 

843. J?a is put for \at frequently in the present poem. See 11. 765 
and 903. 

P. 36, 1. 862. whiles, wiles. So also we find where for were. 

P. 37, 1. 883. " So completely was that word wound in to his heart.'* 
But this is rather a forced phrase, and it would have been quite as well 
if the scribe had written 

so witerly was Jjat wi^h wounded to herte, 
i. e. so completely was that man wounded to the heart. 

909. Repeated, nearly, from 1. 433. 

P. 38, 1. 920. Read " ther ne schal wizth." M. I copy "no wi3th " 
from 1. 786. 

P. 39, 1. 964. salerne. " The city of Salerno was famous from very 
early times for its university and school of medicine, which was pro- 
tected and flourished most under the Norman princes." English Cyclo- 
pedia. Cf. Morte Arthure, ed. Perry, 1. 4312. 

P. 41,1. 1021. " There is some error here, apparently, in the MS." M. 
If hete is to stand, it may mean to bid, from the A.S. hatan, to bid, pro- 
mise. Then the line means "and to bid her then to play as she pleased 
in the meanwhile." Here = her. Cf. 1. 1716. 

1028. For antresse we should expect to find " aunteres." 

P. 42, 1. 1069. " Ouer gart gret ost. Gart appears here to be an 
error of the scribe, and should be omitted." M. Not so ; over-gart 
means excessively. See Stratmann. 

1075. tyding seems to be the plural form. See 1. 1134, and note to 1. 

1076. Read "a-greued." M. It is worth noting that s is not unfre- 
quently written for d. In " Pierce the Ploughmans Crede," 1. 6, patres 
is written for paired. 

P. 43, 1. 1093. So, too, e is often written for o ; we should expect to 
find onys in this line, for in alliterative lines the vowels used as rime- 
letters are generally different ones. is written for e in 1. 818. 

P. 44, 1. 1127. In a strong light, the word " )>ider " can be traced as 
having occupied the apparently blank space. It was probably erased 
as having been repeated by mistake. Hence, there is no word to be 
supplied here. 

P. 45, 1. 1163. " Jje ferst batayle" means "the first battalion or com- 
pany." Cf. 1. 1152. 

P. 46, 1. 1190. fresly =fersly, fiercely. This shifting of the letter r 

NOTES (PAGES 46 5s). 227 

may have been intentional. See " The Romans of Partenay ; " ed. Skeat, 
1866 ; preface, p. xvi. Cf. note to 1. 80. 

1196. "Read 'grettest;' and also in 1. 1365. The is similarly 
elided from ' menskfullest,' in 1. 1435." M. 

1211. The word so is required for the alliteration, and it improves 
the sense. What so = howsoever, and occurs elsewhere. 

P. 47, 1. 1222. " For te read to." M. But perhaps te may stand. See 
notes to 1. 788 and 1093. 

1226. In the " Romans of Partenay,"/br is miswritten for fro over 
and over again. See note to 1. 1190. 

P. 48, 1. 1280. The initial vn- belongs to loth words, i.e. tmwounded 
or mtaken. 

P. 49, 1. 1299. dede depe, caused to be summoned. Cf. dedefecche in 
1. 1303. 

1307. We must read hem, not he. The scribe probably forgot to 
make the stroke over the e. 

P. 50, 11. 1323-4. I have ventured to transpose these lines, as they are 
otherwise devoid of sense. The MS. has 

" wij) alle worchipe & wele so was he sone 

to burye him as out to be swiche a burne nobul ; " 

but it is clear that " so was he sone " ( = so was he soon buried) must 
end the sentence. 

1350. The sense seems to require the insertion of be or ben " nadde 
be fe socour of o seg," &c. Cf. 1. 1358. 

P. 51, 1. 1358. forsake, deny. Cf. Gerrn. versagen. 
P. 52, 1. 1401. The second he may be miswritten for hire or here, i. e. 
her. Read " to come, here granted." Cf. note to 1. 584. 
1415. but thei thre one, except they three only. 

P. 53, 1. 1425. "And who, by descent, was then keeper of Constanti- 
nople." But the relative is omitted, probably by an intentional idiom. 

It may be observed here, that it appears by the sequel that the Em- 
peror of Greece was the father of the Queen of Palermo, and William's 
grandfather. Also, the emperor's son was called Partendo or Partenedon, 
and was, of course, William's uncle. 

1427. The ending -and in grethand is doubtless a mere mistake, due 
to the word glimerand just before. 

P. 54, 1. 1478. Diting is simply miswritten for tiding. Such an in- 
version of letters is occasionally found ; thus, in the Romance of Par- 
thenay, aduertise is written for aduersite (adversity) more than once. 

1490. mened of, bemoaned by ; so in 11. 1491, 1492, we find biloued 
wty meaning beloved by. 

P. 55, 1. 1504. We have had this line before. See 1. 246. 
1516. her sche sese mty, ere she might cease. 
P. 57, 1. 1576. This line has occurred before. See 1. 1033. 
P. 58, 1. 1627. Compare, 

" In middes on a mountayne at midmorwe tyde 

Was piht vp a pauilon a proud for jje nones, 


228 NOTES (PAGES 59 71). 

And ten jjousend of tentes I-tilled besydes," &c. 

Piers Plowman, Text A. ii. 42. 
"Tentes and pauilons streght and pight freshly." 

Romans of Partenay, 869. 

P. 59, 1. 1638. hese, ease. Cf. her, ere, 1. 1516 ; and hende, end, 1 

1640. Mornyng out mesure, mourning without measure. 

1644. The line would sound better, if born and was were to change 
places, as in 

" Mai bonne Ipat Tie born was to bodi or to soule." 

Piers Plowman, A. i. 60. 

1654. Both alliteration and sense require some such word as ivist, 
which I have inserted. 

1662. tent, intent, purpose, design. See Tent in Halli well's Dic- 

1664. profiles loue. This might seern to mean "for love of the pro- 
phet." But this would be quite out of place, and, in fact, the line ex- 
presses the same idea as 1. 3251 does. 

P. 60, 1. 1676. The negative prefix in vnperceyued affects all the words 
following it in the same line. Cf. note to 1. 1280. 

1686. For this story of dressing up in bears' skins, see S. Baring 
Gould's Book of Werewolves, p. 36. Egillson's explanation of the 
O.Norse word berserkr is, one who wears a bear's sarlc, or a habit made 
of bear-skin over his armour. 

P. 61, 1. 1723. This mention of bear-baiting at a stake is worth re- 
marking. Cf. Havelok, 1. 1840. 

P. 62, 1. 1742. "You appear so furious a bear for a man to look 

P. 63, 1. 1777. whiche. We should have expected to find hou used here. 

1793. This is William's second experience of a " dern den " under a 
" holw hok." See 11. 17, 295. 

P. 64, 1. 1825. to Jcepe wity our Hues, to preserve our lives with. Com- 

" 0)>er catell, ojjer clo)> to coveren wij> our bones," 
(i. e. or wealth, or cloth to cover our bones with); Pierce the Ploughman* 
Crede, 1. 116. 

P. 67, 1. 1944. lenge^p may also be read lengey. But the true read- 
ing is probably Ung\e, i. e. lengthen, as in 1. 1040. Cf. 1. 2345. 

P. 68, 1. 1957. It is not uncommon in MSS. to find the word pope 
erased or struck out. See The Romans of Partenay, p. xviii. 

P. 69, 1. 1983. For at sent Sir F. Madden would read a-senle, as- 
sented. But I think the MS. reading may stand ; at sent = at assent, 
i. e. that she was an assenting party. For sent = assent, see Halliwell. 
See also 1. 3017. 

P. 71, 1. 2073. tret? andtene. " This expression is very ancient, and 
may be found in Oaedmon." M. See Ccedmon; ed. Thorpe, p. 137, 
1. 15. 

NOTES (PAGES 73 97). 229 

P. 73, 1. 2127. docrie, cause to be proclaimed. So in 1. 2145, let he 
sende = he caused to be sent. See 1. 2174. 

P. 76, 1. 2236. for-walked, tired out with waking or watching, fatigued 
for want of sleep. 

" It should properly be for-waked [as in 1. 790], but this variation be- 
tween waked and walked is to be met with in other MSS." M. Com- 

" And sone the knycht he be the brydill nom, 
Saying, " Awalk ! It is no tyme to slep." 

Lancelot of the Laik, 1. 1048. 

P. 77, 1. 2254. Perhaps bi should be be ; then Ipat him bi jiue schold 
= that should be given him. 

P. 82, 1. 2432. helles. "Bead delles." M. But Mies may stand, 
as being the plural of hel, a hill ; see 11. 2233, 2318. 

P. 83, 1. 2463. I think the rhythm, alliteration, and sense would all 
be improved by inserting softeliche : 

And as sone as he hade softeliche ' sette it adowne. 

2471. Perhaps we should read blemched, i. e. blemished. 

P. 84, 1. 2501. \at he bar, that which he bare. 

P. 85, 1. 2554. semes. Printed serues in Sir F. Madden's edition, with 
the note : " This word is doubtful, and looks in the MS. more like seines" 
But the word is semes, in which the first stroke of the m is not quite 
joined on to the second. There is no stroke above it to show that it 
is an i / nor do I read the word as selues. Semes means horse-loads. 

P. 87, 1. 2626. Here is a direct allusion to the part of the story which 
is lost in our English MS. It will be found in the French text, on p. 2. 

P. 89, 1. 2680. leng^e. Or it may be read lengye, which would be per- 
haps better in this place. Lengye (the infinitive mood, like wonye in 1. 
3312) is to dwell, remain ; lenglpe is to lengthen. 

P. 90, 1. 2707. sece. Printed seie in Sir F. Madden's edition ; but a 
close examination of the MS. shews sece to be the word. The sense is 
"Now cease we to talk about the besiegers ; " of which " Now say we " 
is the exact contrary. 

P. 91, 1. 2731. greyt. This may be also read gre^t; the usual form is 
grey^ed. Cf. the form a-grelped in 1. 52. 

P. 94, 1. 2845. This " park " is the orchard or menagerie already men- 
tioned at p. 3, 1. 65. 

2864. drey. This may also be read dre]>, as printed by Sir F. Madden. 
I have printed drey, as coming closer to the form dreijh, in 1. 2796. 

P. 95. 1. 2870. The sense and alliteration both require the word 
doubter to be inserted; see 1. 2875. 

2890. bilaft, remained or stayed behind, whilst the hart fought the 

P. 96, 1. 2900. Sir F. Madden prints fat he gart," &c.; but the MS. 
has gate. Gart or garte makes better sense, and is perhaps right. If so, 
the wrong spelling gate was copied from 1. 2895. 

P. 97, 1. 2964. J>e kinges sone, i. e. to the king's son. 

230 NOTES (PAGES 98 m). 

P. 98, 1. 2998. So also we have hire Ipoujt in 1. 2873, and here 
four lines below it. 

P. 99, 1. 3021. busked hem, i. e. ])ei busked hem. This omission of 
the nominative is frequent, and no doubt intentional. 

P. 102, 1. 3105. " Probably for er than an em." M. Er than would 
mean ere then, or sooner then, with reference to the er following. I 
almost think the first of the three er's is best omitted. That ar is mis- 
written for an, there can be no doubt. 

3116. Insert the metrical dot after ben. The alliteration follows a 
rule not unusual in old English, that each half-line is alliterative within 
itself. Thus : 

It wenty ]?at we ben ri^t swiche as it-selue. 

P. 105, 1. 3203. Something seems wrong here. If ne be inserted, 
and fair changed into fairre (= more fair, as in 1. 4437) it would be 
clearer. Perhaps, then, we should read 

alle men vpon mold ne mi^t sen a fairre coupel, &c. 

3220. " Something seems wanting to complete the sense, such as 
neuer wol i haue.' " M. That is, we should read 

ojjer armes al my lif atteli neuer wol i haue 

where atteli is the infinitive mood. If the line is to stand unaltered, atteli 
must be put for attele i; i.e. other arms all my life I design never (to) 
have. Then the alliteration would fall upon the vowels, as thus : 
o)>er armes al my lif atteli neuer haue. 

3221. It is difficult to tell whether or not the spelling carfti was in- 
tentional. Carfty appears also in The Romans of Partenay, 1. 5708 ; and 
kerse is the usual old spelling of cress. 

P. 106, 1. 3260. The word to seems to be required, and the line then 
means, " for it had advanced to night, by that time." To fare forth is 
to proceed, advance, go onward, go forth ; see 11. 2730, 4450. Cf. also 1. 

P. 107, 1. 3282. For Icnty Jcud, a better reading would be Jcud kni$t. 
The sense is the same both ways. 

3290. For is, Sir F. Madden prints his. Both spellings of the word 
occur throughout the poem. The MS. has is in this place. 

P. 108, 1. 3315. One of the now's is redundant. 

P. 110, 1. 3374. " A word seems requisite to eke out the line. Per- 
haps we might read ' Kniztes with sire William thanne kauzt god hert.' " 
M. Whilst adopting this suggestion, I have ventured slightly to shift 
the inserted word. It now occurs to me, however, that the real error is 
in Jcaujt. This, being plural, should be kau^ten or kauffi and then the 
flow of the verse would be preserved without any insertion of an extra 
word at all. 

P. Ill, 1. 3399. Perhaps it should be, "ac spacly as )>e spaynoles," 

3404. lorlde. " Read lorde, and in the following line lord. The same 
singular mistake (if it be one) occurs in p. 142, I. 24 [1. 3955 of the pre- 
sent edition] for lordschip. 1 " M. 

NOTES (PAGES 112 125). 231 

P. 112, 1. 3450. " The illuminator has neglected to supply the capital 
letter here." M. The little w was made, as usual, by the scribe for his 
guidance. Three times the illuminator has mistaken his instructions, 
and made a large M instead of a W ; see 11. 4660, 4880, 4923. 

P. 113, 1. 3477. The word omitted is no doubt knijt, for this word is 
considered as being alliterative to crist ; see 1. 3671. 

P. 114, 1. 3509. The werwolf leapt into the sea, and crossed the 
Straits of Messina to the opposite shore. This part of the story gives us 
some idea of what the missing part of the English translation was like. 
See p. 4. 

P. 115, 1. 3530. The MS. may be read either sthoure, or schoure (as 
in Sir F. Madden's edition). Sthoure is, I think, the word meant ; for 
see 1. 3536. The scribe uses th as equivalent to the sound of t very fre- 
quently ; see mijthi, mtyh in 11. 3549, 3557 just below, and wijtthli in 1. 

3533. We should perhaps read, "< conquered." 

P. 117, 1. 3597. lot me worty, let me be, let me alone. 

So in Piers Plowman, ed. Wright, p. 12. 

For-thi I counseille al the commune 
To late the cat worthe. 

P. 118, 1. 3639. There is a sort of gap in the sense which seems to 
point to the loss of some such line as 

Meyntened so his men Jjat manly, J>ei sone. 

3646. "The final words of this and the two preceding lines are partly 
erased, but legible. The later hand has endeavoured to restore them." 

P. 119, 1. 3665. for he, sc. the king of Spain's son. The change of 
the subject is rather a rapid one. 

P. 120, 1. 3695. " A verb is here wanting to complete the sense." 
M. It is difficult to guess the missing word ; perhaps the sense may be 
bettered by reading, 

but I mijt nou^t awei J>er-with i-wisse, sire, & treujje. 

3705. J)e saules. Read " there sanies." M. An almost better reading 
would be " here saules," but is not so like what the scribe has given us. 

P. 121, 1. 3737. man wod. Perhaps an error for wod man. 

P. 122, 1. 3778. torn, opportunity. Not a very common word. It 
occurs, however, in Piers Plowman, A. ii. 160. 

I have no torn to telle Jje tayl J>at hem folwejj. 

P. 123, 1. 3789. Iced. This, if pronounced issed, seems to be equiva- 
lent to the Scottish yschit, issued, a not uncommon word in Barbour's 

3799. The scribe's spelling of Jmr& was clearly influenced by his know- 
ledge that he was about to write the word your very soon. 

3803. & I mowe come bi, if I can get hold cf. 

P. 124, 1, 3825. The word \at should be omitted, but it is in the MS. 

3835. In hounde, there is a (superfluous) stroke over the n. 

P. 125, 1. 3883. Ferde is the reading in the parallel line, 3737. 

232 NOTES (PAGES 125 us). 

3884. The question has been raised whether in the phrase in Judges 
ix. 53 " all to-brake his skull " we ought to join the to to the word all 
or to the verb brake. It seems certain that, originally, the to was a part 
of the verb, and separate from all, and the present line is an excellent 
evidence of this. It seems equally certain that, in the sixteenth century, 
the prefix to was not very well understood, and the result was that ail-to 
was considered as a short way of writing altogether. See "The Bible 
Wordbook," by J. Eastwood and W. Aldis Wright. Those who would 
consider the to as belonging to al, and who consider alto as properly only 
one word, must go on to explain what is meant by alfor, albi, and ala ; 
for we find in this very poem the prefixes /or-, U-, and a- also preceded 
by the word al See 11. 790, 793, 661, 872. 

P. 127, 1. 3925. The first " & " seems redundant. 

P. 130, 1. 4042. & fyouyt, i. e. and he thought, an example of the omis- 
sion of the pronoun, a license in which the author indulges rather freely. 

4055. dared, became motionless as if stupefied. The word occurs in 

P. 131, 1. 4061. any-skines, written any skines in the MS. I have 
preserved this curious spelling, because I have observed it elsewhere, 
viz., in one of the Trinity MSS. of Piers Plowman. See the foot-note to 
P. PI. A. ii. 26, in my edition, and also the foot-note to Passus x. 2. In 
the latter place, foure skenis, foure skynnes are various readings forfoure 
kunne. In fact, any skines is only another way of writing anys kines. 
" Such forms as alleskynnes (all kinds of), nosJcynnes (no kind of), are in- 
stances of the genitives alles (of all), and nones (of none)." Morris : 
Specimens of Early English, p. xxiv. I would submit, however, that 
alleskynnes, noskynnes, are here wrongly translated ; the former means, 
of every kind, the latter, of no kind, just as any skines means of any kind, 
and foure skynnes means of four kinds. The phrase in Piers Plowman, 
" of foure kunne Jjinges," means, of things of four kinds. 

4065. Probably an error for " jjattow ne wost." The sense is, " It 
can't be that you don't know." 

P. 132, 1. 4104. That chaunged is the right reading is rendered pro- 
bable not only by the recurrence of the word in 1. 4500, but by the use 
of the equivalent wordforschop in 1. 4394. 

P. 133, 1. 4150. Probably we should read, " ne may zou deliuere." M. 
This is a slightly bolder alteration, but a considerable improvement. 

P. 137, 1. 4278. " Se}e in MS. Bead ' sothli for sothe.' A pleonasm 
arising from some blunder of the scribe." M. 

P. 140, 1. 4379. " A slight liberty has been taken here, and also [in 
lines 2323, 3942]. In all three cases the word is written in the MS. 
' wirthe ' or ' worthe,' but the correction is so obvious, and the differ- 
ence so small between c and t [in the MS.], as to warrant the altera- 
tion." M. It may be added that sc is almost always written like st. 

P. 141, 1. 4418. his grefforgaf, gave away, i. e. laid aside his anger. 
Gref is sometimes anger caused by vexation, as in Alisaunder, 1. 264. 

P. 145, 1. 4551. knew his sone sone, knew his son soon. 

NOTES (PAGES ue 152). 233 

P. 146, 1. 4577. " Therefore, King of heaven, praised should you 
be, who have lent thee (Alphonse) thy life, to deliver us all." It is rather 
an awkward sentence ; but it is usual, in Early English, to find " hajj " 
put for " hast " in a sentence thus framed. 

P. 147, 1. 4632. boute bot, without a boat ? The usual meaning of 
boute bot is " without remedy," but this would be unsuitable here, for we 
have " boute hurt oj>er harm " in the next line. The werwolf had to 
swim across the Straits of Messina, and doubtless found it a hard task, for 
he took care to secure a boat for the return journey. See 1. 2729. In 
1. 567 we have " boute mast," and in 1. 568 " boute anker or ore." More 
probably, however, boute bot= boute bod, without delay, as in 1. 149. 

P. 148, 1. 4662. ioye. Sir F. Madden prints " fo]>e," with a note that 
we should read " ioye." A close inspection of the MS. shews that the 
first letter is really an i, with a blur to the right of it making it look 
like a long s. The letters y and J? are made alike, throughout the MS. 

4666. most, i. e. most glad. 

P. 150, 1. 4716. god vnder god, wealth under God ; the author uses 
under God or under heuene to signify throughout the world. The expres- 
sion is repeated in 1. 4732, and in 1. 4730 we find " worldes god " for 
worldly wealth. 

4717. Read " it ne schal redili." M. After this line occur the lines, 
" & fyerto hei^eli am i holde for holliche i knowe, 

Jjat alle J>i sawes be so]? fiat jjou seidest ere." 

These lines are out of place here, and occur in their proper places lower 
down. The repetition of them, however, teaches us somewhat ; for it 
affords a most certain proof of the unsettled state of orthography. We 
here find the same scribe, in re-writing the same lines, altering heiyeli 
and holliche into hei^eliche and holli, so that he considered the endings -li 
and -liche as perfectly interchangeable, and it was a mere chance which 
of the two he adopted. We also find seidest altered to saidest, shewing 
the equivalence of the ei and ai sounds. There is also a difference of 
reading ; for " ]ji sawes " reappears as " Ipe sawes." Lastly, the change 
of "holde" into "hold" shews the uncertainty attending the use by 
scribes of the final e. 

4730. woldest ^erne, wouldst yearn for, wouldst desire to have. 

P. 151. 1. 4736. a mite wor^. Just below, 1. 4754, the phrase used is 
a bene wor\. Compare 

Schal no deuel at his dejj-day deren him worfy a myte. 

Piers Plowman, A. viii. 54. 
A straw for alle swevenes signifiaunce ! 
God help me so, I counte hem nought a bene. 

Chaucer, Troil. & Cress, bk. v. st. 52. 

So we find, in the Knightes Tale the mountance of a tare (1. 712) 
nought worth a myte (1. 700) ; in the Milleres Tale nat a kers (1. 
568) ; and in the Pardoneres Tale the mountance of a corn of ivhete 
(1. 401). 

P. 152, 1. 4785. wil our lord wold, whilst our Lord would (permit us 

234 NOTES (PAGES 153 159). 

to live). This is repeated in 1. 4802. In the present line, however, wil 
our lord wiliest would be a better reading. 

P. 153, 11. 4797, 4798. " All the nobles immediately prayed for them 
busily, (on the understanding) that they must by all means amend their 
trespass," viz., by a life of penitence. Such an ellipsis is not uncommon ; 
in 1. 4800, however, the introduction of the word so before that makes 
the sense clearer. 

P. 154, 1. 4827. This line is repeated, slightly varied, at 1. 4888. 

P. 155, 1. 4877. tiding. Both this and tidinges are plural forms. Cf. 
1. 1075. 

P. 159, 1. 5004. bemleem ; so in MS. Read " beseem," i. e. Bethlehem. 

5013. hurtel. " This term is used in Chaucer twice, Cant. T. 2618, 4717 
[ed. Tyrwhitt], arid in the Wycliffite versions of the Bible is far from 
uncommon. We find it also inserted in the Prompt. Parv. ' Hurtelyne, 
as too thynges togedur, impingo, collide ; ' and, at a more recent period, 
Shakspeare introduces it into his Julius Cassar, Act ii., sc. 2. 

' The noise of battle hurtled in the air, 
Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan/ 

The line in which this word occurs in our Romance is, perhaps, the 
finest of the whole poem, and not surpassed by the more polished diction 
of the Dramatist." M. 

I would add that hurlest is a reading adopted for hurtlest in later 
editions of Cant. Tales, in 1. 4717. But we find in Chaucer the word in 
another place, " And hertely they hurtelen al attones." 

Legend of Good Women; Cleopatra, 1. 59. 

It occurs twice in the " Romans of Partenay ; " see the glossary. It 
is used with great effect by Gray 

Iron sleet of arrowy shower 
Hurtles in the darkened air ; 
though he obviously copies here from Shakespeare. 

5014. desgeli. I let this word stand, though I believe it should be 
desgesli, or, better still, desgisli, disgisli, or disgisili, for which latter form 
see 1. 485. It is best explained by a passage from Chaucer's Persones 
Tale " precious clothing is coupable for ... his straungeness and dis- 
gisines," &c. Hence disgisili means strangely, extraordinarily, unusually, 
inordinately, and is equivalent etymologically to disguisedly ; but it 
should be noted that the meaning of the Old French desguiser is rather to 
alter than to conceal the outward appearance of a thing, whence desguiser 
is often used in the sense of to trim, deck out, or adorn. In the present 
case, the sense is, that " there was so strange and unusual a din, that all 
the earth quaked." In 1. 485, Meliors laments that she would, if she 
married beneath her, " be extraordinarily disgraced." We must not con- 
nect this with the A. S. digellice, secretly, for this would contradict the 
sense in both places. The din (1. 5014) was not secret, but very mani- 
fest ; and in 1. 485 Meliors is expressing that it is open and public and 
unusual disgrace that she is afraid of, and that if she could keep the mat- 
ter secret, all would be well. 

NOTES (PAGES 160 175). 235 

P. 160. 1. 5035. I fail to discover any alliteration in this line. 

P. 167. 1. 5262. vnderston is probably the provincial pronunciation of 
vnderstonde ; thus, and only thus, can we explain the curious reading 
vndersto in 1. 5533 (which is very clearly written), where the scribe has 
forgotten to make a stroke over the o to denote the n. Cf. note to 1. 261. 

P. 168. 1. 5300. For i kneio we should probably read i know. The 
letters e and o are often miswritten, one for the other. 

5322. Jjo. Read "]je." M. But I do not feel convinced that the 
alteration is needed. As it stands, we may translate it " Readily to- 
wards Rome then, by the direct way ; " taking ri^tes gates as an adverbial 
expression. There is some difficulty about rtyes ; see the glossary. 

P. 170. 1. 5378. " Anon then in haste he bad (men) cause his 
steward to come to him," &c. Come sometimes means become ; this might 
suggest the sense, that William made the cowherd his steward, but the 
latter explanation is disposed of by 1. 5391. 

P. 172. 1. 5437. This curious expression, "the emperor's mother 
William," meaning "the emperor William's mother," deserves notice. 
It is the usual old English phrase. Thus, in Chaucer's Squyeres Tale, we 
" Or elles it was the GreJces Tiors Sinon " (C. T. ed. Tyrwhitt ; 1. 10523). 

That is, " or else it was Sinon the Greek's horse." In my opinion, it 
was very injudicious of later editors to substitute GreJcissch for GreJces ; 
for, with the latter reading, the line can only mean " or else it was the 
Greek horse, Sinon," which makes out Sinon to be the name of the horse I 

P. 174. 1. 5516. " That had had many hard haps theretofore, and (had) 
been once in great trouble and misfortune." The repetition of hadde is 
quite right. 

P. 175. 1. 5536. 3^7, give ; like gif in 1. 5539 below. It is not the 
conjunction yf (if) in this instance. 



[N.B. In the following notes, by the Greek text is meant the text of MS. No. 
113 (du supplement) of the Bibliotheque du Roi, a long extract from which is given 
in " Notices des Manuscrits de la Bibliotheque da Roi," torn. xiii. p. 219, edited by 
M. Berger de Xivrey. By the French text is meant the text of MS. Bibl. du Roi, No. 

7517, quoted in the same volume. By the Latin text (unless otherwise specified) is 
meant the version contained in " Historia Alexandri magni regis Macedonie de 
preliis," printed, according to the colophon, in A.D. 1490.] 

P. 177, 1. 9. one, i.e. Alexander ; though in 1. 11 the poet begins to 
tell first of all about his grandfather Amyntas. 

21. Twoo sonnes. Rather three, viz. Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip. 
Perdiccas, like Alexander, was put to death by the wiles of Eurydice, 
according to MS. C.C.C. 219. 

22. The variations of spelling are due to the fact that the copyist has 
evidently made alterations of his own in order to make the significations 
plainer. Thus alder (which occurs again in 1. 27) is explained by elder. 
It is very fortunate that he has been at the pains to preserve the old 
spelling. It must be noted that he sometimes places the old spelling, 
sometimes the modernized spelling, in the text. Thus, in 1. 1132, we find 
Dupe altered to deepe, but in 1. 1156 he writes deepe, with the old spelling 
dupe above it. I have therefore, in all cases, adopted that spelling 
which seems rightly to belong to the original MS. 

P. 178. 1. 28. LI. 4651 and 5226 of the Werwolf resemble this one. 

30. " Nee multo post alexander, insidiis eurydicis matn's appetitws 
occumbit. Cui amintas, in scelere deprehensse, propter communes 
liberos, ignarus eisdem quandoque existiosam fore, pepercerat." MS. 
C.C.C. 219, fol. 2. See also Orosius, ed. Havercamp, 1738, p. 168. 

33. In this line, the cross-stroke to the initial D is made in the MS., 
showing plainly that the letter D was used in the original. In other 
places, the copyist has written the small letter ft without the cross-stroke, 
as in 1. 41, and elsewhere, and I have not always noticed this ; for the 
omission of the cross-stroke is very common even in a thirteenth century 
MS. ; see Mr Morris's Genesis and Exodus (E. E. T. S., 1865). It may 
be added that the copyist has two ways of making a d ; one with a long 
up-stroke, i.e. ft without the cross-stroke, and the other with the up-stroke 
curled round to the left and brought down again. Only the former of 


NOTES (PAGES ns 182). 


these is used where ^ is meant. This is a convenient place for observing 
that there is a second copy (inferior and with several omissions) of the 
first 43 lines, at a later page of the MS., viz. on fol. 16 b. The following 
variations may be noted : In 1. 2, for thinken, the second copy has 
thynken, with an e over the y. No doubt the original had thenken (the 
right spelling, see Werwolf, 1. 711), and it was rendered by thinken or 
thynken. In 1. 3, for whe^er, another reading is outher. In 1. 4, for loose 
the second copy has lose, which is better ; I am convinced that the 
original could not have had so many double vowels as abound in this copy ; 
thus yee and oojjer in 1. 1 should rather have been ye and ofyer. In 1.38, 
for her the second copy has the more usual spelling hur. 

44. In the Werwolf, we find the same method of concluding a para- 
graph, and nearly in the same words ; see 11. 5396, 5466. 

47. " Igitur alexander, inter prima initia regni, bellum ab illiriis, 
pacta mercede et philippo fraZre dato obside, redemit. Interiecto quoque 
tempore, per eundew obsidem cum thebanis grafo'am pacis reconciliat. 
Quae res philippo maxima incrementa egregias indolis dedit. Si quidem 
thebis triennio obses habitus, pmna puericise rudimewta in urbe seueritatis 
antiquse et in domo epaminondas surami et philosophi et imperatoris de- 
posuit." MS. C.C.C. 219, fol. 2. And see Orosius, as above. 

P. 180, 11. 87, 88. hym betides, For hee. The MS. has Jiee betides, 
for hym, with ee over ym in the latter word. The reading given in the 
text is the only one that can be grammatically correct. 

90. " Primum bellum cum Atheniensibus gessit." Orosius. 

102. This date is from Orosius. It is right within a few years. 

109. Assyriens, i. e. Illyrians. " Post hos, bello iu illiriis (sic) trans- 
late, multa milia hostium caadit ; urbera nobilissimara larisseam capit." 
MS. C.C.C. 219, fol. 2 b. So in Orosius; and indeed, the Assyrians are 
out of the question. The reader must expect to find the greatest con- 
fusion in the proper names ; in one of the French copies, for instance, 
Artaxerxes is called Arressessers. In 1. 130, we have Larissa called the 
city of the Assyrians. 

P. 181, 11. 119, 131. In both places, the e in Larissea or Larisse has 
a slight tag below it. In Latin MSS., this denotes ce, arid we thus have 
another slight indication that our author translated from the Latin. Cf. 
note to 1. 255. 

124. Over deraine is written, as a gloss, the later spelling deraigne. 
One or two quite unimportant variations of this kind I have omitted to 

133. " Inde Thessaliam non magis amore victoriae, quam ambitione 
habendorum equitum Thessalorum, quorum robur ut exercitui suo ad- 
misceret, invasit." Orosius, as above. 

135. The MS. has see, with swee or swa above it, hardly legible. In 
1. 299, there is a similar difficult word. Considering both passages, the 
word blundered over is probably sese, sesen. Cf. Seseden in 1. 234. 

P. 182, 11. 155 170. Orosius simply says, "Igitur victis Atheniensibus, 
subjectisque Thessalis ;" and in MS. C.C.C. 219 we merely find, " Quibus 

238 NOTES (PAGES 183 iss). 

rebus feliciter prouenientibws." That the poet has spun this out into 16 
lines seems to me highly probable, and it will therefore be but a vain 
search to look for an original that may agree with his translation more 
closely. Just below we have 22 lines, 178 199, which seem to me 
evidently his own, every word of them. 

172. Arisba or Erubel. In his edition of Orosius, Havercamp adopts 
the spelling Aruba, the common reading being Eurucha; we also find 
the spellings Amelia, Erybba, Arymba, &c. Compare " Olimpiadew, 
neoptolemi regis molossorum filiam, uxorera ducit, conciliante nuptias 
fraZre patrueli auctore uirginis sarraba rege molossorwm, qui sororem. 
olimpiadis troadam in matn'monio habebat ; quas causa illi exitium (sic) 
maloruwqwe omm'tim fuit." MS. C.C.C. 219, foL 3. 

P. 183, 1. 199. Cf. Werwolf, 1. 671. 

P. 184, 1. 234. Seseden begins with a double long s. Wherever I 
have printed ss, it is to denote a character resembling a German sz. 

240. " (Aruba) privatus in exilio consenuit." Orosius. 

P. 185, 1. 248. hampred is doubtless the word wanted. It occurs in 
the Werwolf, 1. 1115, &c. 

255. Comothonham. Several MSS. of Orosius have " Cu. mothonam 
urbem oppugnaret," &c. ; where Cu means Cum. Hence the strange 
word Comothonham, repeated in 1. 310; and hence, also, a clear proof that 
the poet translated from a Latin original, as he himself asserts in 1. 458. 

256. The MS. has " holde menne J>ere," but the alliteration shows 
that we must read bolde ; holde belongs to the next line, which see. 

264. greefe, i.e. vexation, anger ; cf. Werwolf, 4418. 

268. areblast. Bather, read arblast, which the copyist has turned 
into aireblast, i.e. air-blast! 

P. 186, 1. 284. merken. Probably not an error for maken, as might be 
thought ; for the word occurs again in 1. 932. See the Glossary. 

291. flocke. Possibly an error for folke ; yet flocke makes good 
sense. Sonndes or is ho doubt put for sondes, messengers. 

292. The MS. reading " Gamws " must be a mistake for Gainws or 
Ganws ; see Gainus in the Glossary. 

295. cournales; see Werwolf, 1. 2858. 

299. The MS. lias seene or seeue, with i over the ee. The right word 
is perhaps sesen, written sesene, and read as seiene by the copyist. 

302. Here and elsewhere many a is written " many a ," with the a 
above the line, as if it did not belong to the phrase ; but see Werwolf, 
11. 3410, 3411. A large portion of the description of this siege of Methone 
is doubtless of the poet's own invention. 

P. 187, 1. 329. The outline of the story of these wars is given in Orosius. 

P. 188, 1. 347. wonde is no doubt the right word, wende being an 
ignorant gloss upon it, subversive of the sense. 

349. MS. has strane, or straue. Perhaps it means, 

" Steeds, stirred from the place, strain under men." 
Otherwise, for strane read stronge, and the sense is, 

" Steeds stirred from the place under strong men." 

NOTES (PAGES 189 193). 


For men under = under men, see I. 1188. 

362. spenen is the right reading, and is put for spenden, like wen for 
wend, &c. 

P. 189, 1. 391. The alteration of Phosus into 3>osus is a convincing 
proof that the copyist took an occasional liberty with the spelling. He 
could not have had <bosus before him in an Old English MS. of the 14th 

P. 190, 1. 416. The copyist has written stelger, and marked it as 
being a word he did not understand. The words may have been run 
together in the older MS. Stel ger is simply " steel gear." 

421. Here is another proof that the poet probably followed the Latin 
of Orosius. We find there the phrase " Philomelo duce " whence he 
adopted the form Philomelo in 1. 364, and did not alter it here. Yet 
Orosius afterwards has " sequenti prselio inter immensas utriusque 
populi strages Philomelus occisus est : in cujus locum Phocenses Ouo- 
marchum ducem creaverunt." 

P. 191, 1. 439. jeme. The MS. has either " $enn " or " ^eme." The 
latter is right ; see 1. 365. 

445. This line means, " that ever they paused in the strife, (though 
it had caused them) to die upon the field." 

451. for his grete yie, in return for his great eye ; a curious way of 
expressing that his vow, mentioned in 1. 281, had been fulfilled. 

452. Here the more historical part of the story ceases, and the 
romance properly begins. From this point, also, the poet translates 
from a different source, as explained in the Preface. LI. 452 1092 
should be compared with the first 722 lines of Mr Stevenson's edition of 
" The Alliterative Romance of Alexander" (Roxburghe Club, 1849) ; from 
MS. Ashmole 44. See also Gower, Conf. Amant. bk. vi. 

457. This shews that the poet used more books than one to translate 
from. His regret that he could not trace the lineage of Nectanabus 
shews that his probable object in the preceding part of the poem was to 
trace the lineage of Alexander, and to say something about his father 
and grandfather. 

459. Nectanabus; called also Anectanabus, Anec, or Natabus. The 
story of Nectanabus is utterly rejected by Lambert li Tors. See " Li 
Romans d'Alixandre," par Lambert li Tors et Alexandre de Bernay ; 
herausgegeben von Heinrich Michelant : Stuttgart, 1846, p. 5. 

460. This line occurs, slightly altered, in the Werwolf, 1. 119. 
463. Some such word as Jcene or kid must be supplied. 

465. T-wis may mean prudent, knowing (A.S. ge~wis), but as it is else- 
where always an adverb in both poems, I prefer to think that the sentence 
is incomplete ; and that this line ought to be followed by some such line 

" For a wel kud clerke and koynt in his liue." 

P. 192, 1. 473, But, except. 

475 483. The Latin is "now movit militiam, neqwe preparavit 
exercitum, sed iwtravit cubiculum palatii sui ; et deprewdews concham 

240 NOTES (PAGES 102, 193). 

eream plenam aqua pluuiali, tenewsque in manu virgam eream, hie per 
magicos incantationes intelligebat in ipsa concha classes nauium super 
eum potewtissime venientes." 

493. nine grete nations. The number nine may have been selected 
merely for the alliteration. The names of these nations vary greatly in 
the different copies. The " Augmi " or " Augni " (for our MS. may be 
read either way, on account of the m or n being here represented by a 
horizontal line) may perhaps be the Aavol of the Greek, or the " Argiri" 
of the Latin text. By the " Bosorii " the translator would probably mean 
the men of Bussorah or Bassorah ; yet this city was not founded till A.D. 
636. It represents the Boo-Tropoi of the Greek text, and possibly answers 
to the " Rosphariens " of the French text (MS. Bibl. du Roi, No. 7517). 
The " Agiofagi " (" Agiophii " in the Latin text) are the " Agrio- 
phagi " mentioned in the Latin MS. No. 8518 of the Bibl. du Roi : 

" Another folk woneth in the west half, 
That eteth never kow no kalf, 
Bote of panteris and lyouns, 
And that they nymeth as venesons. 
Othir flesch, no othir fysch, 
No othir bred, heo no haveth, y-wis. 
Feorne men, and othir therby, 
Clepeth heom Agofagy? 

Weber's Metrical Romances, v. i. p. 261. 

P. 193, 1. 515. The Christian sentiment in this line and in 1. 523, of 
ascribing strength to God only, is the poet's own. 

I here add, by way of illustration, the speech of Nectanabus as given 
in the various texts. 

2i) pev, KdXatg KOI enieiKwg rjv tTriffrtvOrjc; fypovpav ^vXarrwv, KO.I prj 
TUVTO. \tyt. AttXaig yap KOI ov orpariwritfwe ktyQiyfa. Ov yap iv 
ox\<t)Ji ^urafjiig, uXX' iv TrpoQv^iq. o TroXepog. Km yap tig \lb)i> TroXXac 
tXa^ouc t^ttpwtraro. Keu elg XVKOQ TroXXag dye'Xae Troipviwv f.<JKv\tvat.v. 
"lfrre ovv ffv TTopevOfjc cLfjia rolQ iv viTorayrj aoi ffTpaTtwTaiQ rijv iciav 
Trapara^tv ^uXarre' Xoyw yap tv\ r&v fiapfidpiiiv dvapidfJirjTOV TrXrjdog 
TreXaya eiriKaXv^u). MS. Bibl du Roi, No. 113 (suppl.) ; quoted in 
Notices des Manuscrits de la Bibliotheque du Roi ; torn. xiii. p. 223. 

" Custodiam quam tibi cowdidi bene obserua ; sed non tamew sicut 
princeps militie egisti, sed sicut homo tirnidus. Uirtus enim now hec 
valet in multitudme populi, sed in fortitudine animorum ; an nescis quod 
vnus leo mwltos ceruos in fugam vertit? " Historia Alexandri ; edition 
of 1490, page 1. 

" Va-t-en a la garde que je t'ai commandee, et veille curieusement, et 
pense de bien garder ta reccomandise. Car tu n'a pas parle comme prince 
de chevalerie, inais comme homme paoureux. Car il n'affiert pas k gou- 
verneur de peuple qu'il s'espouvente pour grant quantite de gent ; car 
victoire ne gist pas en multitude de gent, inais en vigueur et force de 
courage. N'as tu pas veu par plusieurs fois que ung [lyon ?] meit a la 

NOTES (PAGES 194 196). 


fuite grant quantite de serfz [cerfz ?]. ! Aussi se peut poy contretenir la 
grant multitude contre les vigureux." MS. BibL du Roi ; quoted in the 
above vol., p. 287. See also Alexander, ed. Stevenson ; p. 4, 11. 97 110. 
P. 194, 1. 532. Fleete certainly means to float here ; yet the Latin has 
" videbat qualiter egiptii sternebanttw impetu classiurn Barbarorum." Out 
of this the translator has made this curious passage about the " god of 
Barbre," the origin of which is to be traced to a misunderstanding of the 
Greek text, which says, " he sees the gods of the Egyptians steering the 
enemies' boats, and the armies of the Barbarians being guided by them." 

545. white sendal ; " linea vestimenta." 

549. let trusse, commanded his men to pack up. 

557. Seraphin; so spelt in the French text. The Latin has Serapis. 

P. 195, 1. 565. He shall hye hym againe. The response of the oracle must 
be given in the words of the Greek text. It runs thus : 6 ^vy 
y/^ft ird\LV iv alyviTTO), ov yj/poirfcwv, aXXa vta^wv, Kal TOVQ 
riptiv irtpactQ i/7rordet. Here the word iripaaQ is ambiguous, and may 
mean " having destroyed " or " the Persians." M. Berger de Xivrey 
draws special attention to this oracle, which he considers as the basis of 
the whole romance. It was fulfilled, not by the return of the old man 
Nectanabus, but by the visit to Egypt of his son, the young man 
Alexander. It is accordingly alluded to again in the passage where 
Alexander, seeing the great image (mentioned by our author in 1. 568), 
inquires whom it represents. He is told it represents Nectanabus, upon 
hearing which he falls down and kisses the feet of it. Of. Alexander, ed. 
Stevenson, 1. 1135 ; Weber's Metr. Rom. vol. i. p. 67. 

574. Here begins a new paragraph " Quomodo Anectanabits 
ascendit palaciuw ad Olimpiam reginam ; " and in Mr Stevenson's edition 
is the heading " Secundus passus Alexandri." 

584. " Aue regina Macedonie ! dedignatws ei dicere domina" 

P. 196, 1. 594. " Uerbum regale dixisti, quawdo egiptios nomiwasti." 

596. The MS. has worclich, a mere error for wortlich, which is 
another spelling of worthlich ; cf. 1. 1024. 

601 . ludene of^at language, the speech (or meaning) of that language. 
''Sum uuderstandis in a stounde the steven (voice) of the briddis," &c. 

Alexander, ed. Stev. 1. 252. 

Compare also the passage in Chaucer about Canace understanding the 
language of birds. 

sche understood wel euery thing 
That eny foul may in his lydne sayn, 
And couthe answer him in his lydne again. 

The Squyeres Tale, Pars Secunda; 11. 8890. 

613. We should rather read, Too defend \eefro doole. 

616. Imped, set; lit. engrafted. "Tabulaw* ereara et eburneam 

1 The editor has a note" On reconnait la les idees provenant de la superiorite 
si marquee de la chevalerie, au moyen age, sur les serfs et sur les vilains." True, 
no doubt ; but serfz probably means stags in this passage, nevertheless. 


242 NOTES (PAGES 196 201). 

mixtam auro et argento." Of. " His ars-table he tok oute sone ; " Weber, 
Metr. Rom., vol. i. p. 17. It was, I suppose, an astrolabe-planisphere. 

620. The contents of the circles are wrongly given. They should 
be (1.) The 12 intelligences " duodeci/w intelligewtias " " les xii. in- 
telligences, c'est assavoir les xii. entendemens ;" (2.) the signs of the 
zodiac, called in MS. Ashmole " a dusan of bestes ; " and (3.) the courses 
of the sun and moon. 

P. 197, 1. 628. forcer, a box ; " une boiste d'ivoire." It contained a 
species of horoscope, in which were the seven planets, to each of which 
was assigned a particular kind of stone. Thus in 1. 634 we should rather 
read, "Seuen stones," but the poet has written Foure for the sake of allitera- 
tion, regardless of facts. The seven stones are mentioned in the Latin 
MS. Bibl. du Koi, No. 8518. " Jovem quippe viseres aerino lapide nun- 
cupatum. Solem cristallo, Lunain adamante, Martern dici sub lapide 
hematite, Mercurium smaragdo. Venus autem saphirina erat ; Saturnus 
in ophite. At vero horoscopus lygdinus erat." The Greek text has the 

656 674. This passage is not in the Greek, Latin, or French texts, 
and was inserted by the translator from another source (see note to 1. 
837), to account for Philip's ill-will against Olympias. The interpolation 
is needless, as a dream is contrived by Nectanabus expressly for Philip's 
information soon afterwards ; see 11. 807 874. The present passage is 
also omitted in MS. Ashmole 44. 

P. 199, 1. 694. " Neqwe iuvenis neqwe senex, et barbam canis habens 
ornatara. Unde si placet, esto illi parata," &c. The " silver horns," 
however, are essential, as being the chief characteristic of the god Amrnon. 
" With tachid in his for-toppe two, tufe homes.'" 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 319. 

698. glisiing is another form of glisiande, glistening. 

700. Supply the word J>ee. Nye, to draw nigh, occurs in 11. 739, 817 ; 
and nye \ee in 1. 764. 

702. " Si hec videro, non vt prophetam nee diuinuwi, sed vt deum 
ipsutfi adorabo." 

710-744. This passage is much amplified. It is much shorter in the 
Ashmole MS., and the Latin merely has " euellit herbas, terewsqwe eas 
et succos illarum tulit, et fecit incantationes per diabolica figmewta ; vt 
in eadem nocte Olimpia deum Hamorc cowcumbentem secum videret, 
dicentewiqwe ei post cowcubitum, mulier, concepisti defensorewi tuum." 

P. 200, 1. 726. riue. The MS. has riue, with / over the u, rightly 
explaining riue by the modern word rife. 

738. Or-trowed, lit. over-trowed, and hence, suspected, imagined. 
Compare ouer-trowe in the Glossary. 

756. No noo]>er, none other, nothing else. So also J)i narmes for Jn 
armes (Werwolf, 1. 666). 

P. 201, 1. 760. Too waite at a window, to watch at a window. A 
favourite phrase of our author's. See Werwolf, 11, 779, 2982, 3030, 3300. 

764. The line would run as well again if ]?ee nye were altered to nye 

NOTES (PAGES 201 203). 


\>ee. Compare " Nam ille deus in figura draconis ad te veniet ; et exinde 
humana?/i formam accipiens ; et mea similitudine apparebit." 

770. " Si veritatew probare valebis, te quasi patrem pueri habebo." 
But this is sometimes curiously altered, as in the following : 

u Then salle I cherische the with chere as thou my child were, 
Loute the lovely and love alle my lyfe days." 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 368. 

774, 775. These two fine lines certainly surpass the bald statement 
" circa autew primam, vigiliam noctis." 

779. slaked on wightes, fell relaxingly upon men. Wightes, not 
mightes, is the right reading. Compare 

" Qwen it was metyn to the merke * that menn ware taryst, 1 
Andfolke was on thair firste slepe and it was furth evyne." 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 374. 

781. a dragones drem, a dragon's droning. Drem or dream is some- 
times a loud, droning sound. The Latin has " et sibilando contra 
cubiculuw Olimpie cepit trawsuolare." The French has " ala sufflant 
entour le lit." Cf. 11. 982, 985. 

782. makes his lidene, i. e. talks softly. Compare ludene above, 
1. 601, 

P. 202, 1. 802. Deemes, i. e. will deem. Philip had been from home 
for some time ; she wonders what he will say when he returns. 

808. " Euellens herbas, triturauit eas et tulit succum illaruw, appre- 
hendensqwe auem marinara, cepit super earn incarctare, illam de succo 
herbarum liniens." 

813. Compare 
"And [with?] the wose of the wede hire wengis anoyntes." 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 413. 

817. The phrase tried \e night occurs in the Werwolf, 1. 770. 

P. 203, 1. 824. The Latin has "deus Hamon;" and " Amon" is here 
mentioned in MS. Ashmole. 

826. The word deede was miswritten deene owing to confusion with 
deerne. Compare 

" jjat deede derne ' do no mon scholde." 

Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat, A. x. 199. 

In the Latin follows "quod videret os uulue consuere et aunulo aureo 
consignare et in ipso aunulo erat lapis vbi erat sculptum caput leoms 
et currws solis et gladius peracutus." 

837. nyed, approached (a favourite word with our author), is almost 
certainly the word required here. The following passage is worth 
notice here. 

" Philipe aussi long temps apres ses nopces songea quil seelloit le 
ventre de sa femme dung grant seel auquel estoit graue lymaige dung 
lyon ; par lequel songe, comme plusieurs eussent expose a phellippe quil 

1 Read 

taryst," i.e. to rest. 

244 XOTES (PAGES 203 205). 

se donnast garde de sa ferame, Aristawder le deuin affermoit quelle auoit 
chargie denfant. Car on ne seelle point les choses vuydes ; et que elle 
se deliueroit dung enfant, plain de couraige et ayant nature de lyon. 
^[ Deuawt ce on auoit veu vng dragon couchant empres olympie qui lors 
dormit, la quelle chose Refroida tresfort Phelippe enuers elle." MS. 
Douce 318, chap. iii. The same MS. informs us further that Philip 
avoided Olympias, because he feared magic or poison ; that he sent to 
Delphos, and was told to sacrifice to the god " Amon," and that he would 
lose an eye as a punishment for having beheld Amon with her ; all 
which is related by Plutarch. But Eratosthenes says, his mother only 
told Alexander the secret of his birth on his setting out on his expedition. 
A similar story is told of the mother of Scipio Africanus. Plutarch explains 
the dragon story by saying that Olympias belonged to a tribe that reli- 
giously cherished serpents of great size. Justin says, Olympias dreamt of 
having conceived a serpent. "Vincent lystorial " (i. e. Vincent of Beau- 
vais, in his "Speculum Historiale") ascribes the engendrure of Alexander 
to Neptanabus, but this is flat against Holy Scripture, since in the book 
of Maccabees [bk. 1. chap. i. v. 1] Alexander is expressly called the 
" son of Philip." All this, and more, is to be found in the above- 
mentioned MS., chap. iii. 

853. J>0 sonne course of Jje sell, the course of the sun upon the seal. 
MS. Ashmole has "the course one the sonne." 

P. 204, 1. 855. sonne rist, rising of the sun, the far East ; " ad orientem, 
vnde sol egreditur." 

860. The MS. has boldes, but we must read holdes ; cf. note to 1. 256. 

873. meting, dream. See the Glossary. 

875. Here begins a new paragraph in the Latin, with the heading, 
" Qualiter Anectanabus in Sgura draconis antecedebat Philippurn in 
prdio deuincendo et hostes." 

879. lasches, lashes, i. e. heavy strokes. Cf. the phrase " to deal 
dints ; " Werwolf, 3440. 

883. Deraide, acted madly or terribly. It is the past tense, not the 
past participle, but we ought perhaps to supply hym after it. 

P. 205, 1. 895. Here loren is correctly glossed by lorne, i. e. lost. 

900-953. The whole of this passage is an interpolation from another 
source, and belongs rather to history than to the romance. The drift 
of it agrees with the account given by Orosius. 

901. The MS. has " Was going too J?e ouer Greece," &c. But the 
word " J>e " must be corrupt, being an article without a substantive, 
and, moreover, a verb is required. I propose ride as very probably being 
the correct reading, as it is the expression used in 1. 5471 of the Werwolf 
in a similar case. If the first two letters of tide were erased, de might 
easily be confused wilh *&e or )>e. 

903. The Athenians stopped him by occupying the pass of Ther- 
mopylae. " Athenienses . . . angustias Thermopj^larum . . . occupavere." 
Orosius, ed. Havercamp, 1738, p. 171. 

904. to keueren him gate, to recover (or obtain) for himself a passage. 

NOTES (PAGES 206208). 245 

908. Jje entres ; the entries, i.e. the pass. Enforced, strengthened, 
forcibly occupied. 

909. We must read either ]>o marches, or \at marche ; for the plural 
form J)0 see 1. 912. The MS. has ]pat marches. 

911. agrised is a gloss upon agrise, the form used by our author. 
913. Philip, failing to harm his enemies, cruelly attacks his own 
allies ; " paratum in hostes bellum vertit in socios." Orosius. 
P. 206, 1. 923. Besides of, we almost require to insert was. 
"Hee wrathfull of wille was wronglich jjare." 

928. Lines 2621, 2647 in the Werwolf resemble this line. 

933. The MS. has traie, with be written before it above the line ; 
perhaps traie is the right reading, and betraie the gloss upon it. 

934. " Conjuges liberosque omnium sub corona vendidit, templa 
quoque universa subvertit, spoliavitque," &c. Orosius. 

940. He ne loft no lenger, he remained no longer ; cf. 1. 950. 

942. fares, goes. This makes sense, but I suspect the right word is 
cay res. 

944. "Post ha3C in Cappadociam transiit, ibique bellum pari 
perfidia gessit, captos per dolum finitimos reges interfecit, totamque 
Cappadociam imperio Macedonia subdidit." Orosius. The editor 
(Havercamp) remarks that this is false, and that Cappadociam is a mere 
mistake for Chalcidicam or Chalcidem ; and he is doubtless right, as the 
siege of Olynthus in Chalcidice must be meant. 

P. 207, 1. 954. At about this line we drop the history and return to the 
romance, taking it up from 1. 899. 

965. " Nevertheless I know (it) not yet, nay, as I trow." Not ne 
wot. This is awkward enough. It represents the Latin " Peccasti, 
inquit, et now peccasti, quia violentiam a deo passa es." 

974. This line occurs in the Werwolf, 1. 1416 ; cf. also 1. 5250. It 
should be observed that a new paragraph begins here in the Latin, with 
the heading, "Quomodo Anectanabus in figuram draconis apparuit 
Philippo in conuiuio, et osculatus est Oliwipiam." 

980. Cf. Werwolf, 1. 4906. 

P. 208, 1. 982. See note to 1. 781, and cf. 1. 985. The Latin has 
" fortiter sibilabat." 

992. liuand lud, living man ; a favourite phrase of our author's ; see 
1. 790, and Werwolf, 11. 1690, 3678, 5429. 

994. greefly Ugo, grievously beset ; bigo is glossed by bigone. 

999. Here begins a new paragraph in the Latin, with the heading, 
" Quornodo auis generavit ouum in gremio philippi, de quo confracto 
exiuit serpens, qui statim mortuws est." 

1004. " He laid an egg in his lap, and then hurries away." Hee 
might stand for she, but him is always masculine. We should certainly 
have expected to find the feminine, as in the Latin and in MS. Ashmole44. 

1008. to-shett, i. e. " brast all esoundir," as MS, Ashmole has it. Cf. 
too-clef in the next line. 

246 NOTES (PAGES 209 211). 

P. 209, 1. 1013. had in his hed, got his head in. Deide is the right 
spelling, and dyed the gloss. 

1022. Raigne is the old spelling, reigne the gloss. 

1024. wortlych is found as an occasional spelling of worthlych ; 
worthly is a gloss. Cf. 1. 596. 

1025. " Ere he come unto the- country that he came from." 

1026. doluen andded ; more correctly, ded and doluen, i. e. dead anil 
buried. Cf. Werwolf, 5252, 5280. 

1030. roum may mean room, space ; and hence, a while. 
1031-2. u Ere he may wend with his host to his (own) land where he- 
was fostered and fed it befalls him to die." 

1033. Here begins a new paragraph in the Latin, without a heading, 
and in MS. Ashmole 44 is the heading " Tercius Passus Alexandri." 

1034. A portion of the story is here lost. I might have supplied the 
omission from MS. Ashmole 44 (see Stevenson's edition, 11. 525 672) r 
but the great length of this passage and the consideration that to supply 
the omission from another alliterative poem might lead to confusion be- 
tween the two, were reasons against this. Or it might have been supplied 
from the Latin, beginning at " Appropircquaws autera tempws pariendi '" 
and ending " Audiens hec Olimpia terrore perterrita vocauit Anec- 
tanabum, et dixit." It seemed to me, however, that a quotation from the 
French would be more acceptable, and the omission is supplied therefore 
from MS. Bibl. du Roi, No. 7517, as edited in the 13th vol. of " Notices 
des Manuscrits," &c. ; pp. 297-299. The following words may require 
explanation : 

chey, fell ; croulla, shook ; noif, snow (explained by neige by the 
editor of the French text) ; targa, tarried, delayed ; me feust, perhaps 
we should read ne feust, for the Latin has, "cogitaui quod infantulws iste 
nullatenws nutriatur," and the Ashmole MS. has, " That this frute shall 
haue na fostring ne be fed nouthire ; " vair (Lat. " glaucus "), gray ; 
MS. Ashmole has " ^elow ; " sestature, stature ; nonpour quant, never- 
theless ; ysnellete, quickness (cf. O.E. snell) ; doubta moult, feared 

P. 211, 1. 1038. " He was very well pleased with his noble deeds, but 
(then) he changed his demeanour," &c. 

1041. The MS. has maried, with r over the i. Hence, the old word was 
marred, altered to maried ; for marred is a common word with our author. 
Marred too care, vexed unto great anxiety, is a not very intelligible 
phrase, and therefore liable to alteration. It means much the same as 
wofull in hert in the next line. 

1043, 1044. Blank spaces are left in the MS. for the two half-lines. 

" Be no^t afri^t," quoth the freke " ne afrayd nouthir, 
It sail the noy no^t a neg nane of his tho^tes." 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 675. 

In which passage, a neg is equivalent to an eg. There is nothing lost 
(save a half-line) between 11. 1044 and 1045. 

NOTES (PAGES 212, 213). 247 

P. 212, 1. 1054. fonde /, mee tell, I ask (you to) tell me. 
1055. Cf. " Quat sterne is at 36 stody one quare stekis it in hevyne." 
Alex. 1. 683. 

1061. inkest, blackest. The MS. is rather indistinct; the"&es*"is 
plain, but the beginning of the word is represented by a straight horizontal 
stroke (elsewhere used for m or n), with a dot over the very commence- 
ment of it. Enke=ink occurs in " Meidan Maregrete" ed. Cockayne, 
stanza 61 ; and in Wycliffe's version of the Bible. The Latin merely 
has, " Sequere me hora noctis," &c. 

1076-7. Compare the version in MS. Ashmole 
" Alexander, athill sonne * (quoth Anec his syre), 
Loo yondir, behald over thi hede and se my hatter werdis (dire 


The evylle sterne of Ercules * how egirly it soro^es, 
And how the mode Marcure * makis sa mekill joy, 
Loo yondir, the gentill Jubiter how jolyle he schynes." (11. 701-705.) 
1080-1. Hee pored, i.e. Nectanabus. Hee braides, i.e. Alexander. 
Perhaps there are a few lines lost between these two. Compare 
u The domes of my destany drawis to me swythe, 
Thik and thrathly am I thret and thole mone I sone 
The sla^ter of myne awen son as me was sett ever.'* 
Unethis werped he that worde the writt me recordis, 
Thanne Alexander as sone * was at him behind, 
And on the bake with slike a bire he bare with his handis 
That doune he drafe to the depest of the dike bothom. 

Alexander, 11. 706712. 

The Latin has "Fata mea mihi propinquam mortem a filio meo 
comminantur. Taliter eo vidente, accessit ad eum. propinquius alex- 
ander," &c. 

P. 213, 1. 1092. sounJc or hee wer, ere he was sunken. 
1094. This corresponds with 1. 722 of MS. Ashmole 44. Though 
there is not the slightest hint of any omission in Mr Stevenson's edition, 
there must be several pages lost in the Ashmole MS. between this line 
and the next ; for the story leaps at once from the dying words of 
Nectanabus to the duel of Alexander and Nicolas, entirely omitting the 
rest of the story as told in the Greaves MS. Hence from 1. 1094 to the 
end is the only existing copy in alliterative verse of this portion of the story. 
It does not go quite far enough to supply the whole of the lacuna in the 
Ashmole MS., but it nearly does so, contributing 155 lines towards it. 

1094. hee in this line is probably put for hue, i. e. she, the word soule 
being feminine. 

1095. armed, fortified, bold. 

1098. The French has " et prist maintenant le corps et le porta au 
palais. Quant la royne le vit, si lui dist, ' Filz Alixandre, que aportes 
tu ? '" 

1103 1105. These words belong to Alexander. The French has 
" En ycelle maniere que tu souffris que il feusse mon pere, a tort, pour ce 
que tu ne le me deis, Fas tu fait occire a tort." 

248 NOTES (PAGES 213, 214). 

1107. heate, false spelling for hete, command. 

1110. The initial T of this letter is rather larger than usual, and a 
new paragraph begins here. At this point I should conjecture that the 
Quartus Passus of the Ashmole MS. may have commenced. In our 
MS. " A HORSS " is here written in the margin, to intimate that the story 
of Bucephalus begins here. In the Latin, a new paragraph begins here 
with the heading " Qualiter quidam. priwceps de Capadocia aduxit equum 
bucifallum ad philippum regem macedonum." 

P. 214, 1. 1114. a hedde as a bole, a head like a bull ; an allusion to 
the etymology of Bucephalus, from /3ovc, an ox, and fc0a\), a head. The 
name, however, really means a horse branded with a mark like a bull's 
head ; see Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon. I here add the description 
of Bucephalus as given in the Old High German poem of Alexander, 
written in the twelfth century by a priest named Lamprecht, as a 
specimen of that version. For the translation I crave indulgence, as it 
may not be quite correct. The letter z (italic) is used instead of a letter 
in Weismann's edition which resembles a z with a slight tag to it. 

das ros daz was wunderlich The horse was wonderfully 

irre unde vil stritich, wilful and very full-of-strife, 

snel unde stare von gescafnisse, quick and strong of shape, 

des suit ir sin gwisse. (of it should ye be certain). 

iz hete unzalliche craft He had unspeakable strength, 

unde urnm&sliche macht ; and measureless might ; 

iz irbeiz di lute unde irsliich, he bit people and slew (them), 

iz was freislich gmich. he was terrible enough. 

ime was sm rnunt, To him, was his mouth 

da? wil ih u tun kunt, (that will I make known to you) 

alseime esele getan. just-like an ass's made. 

di nasen waren ime wite uf getan. His nostrils were wide opened, 

sine oren waren ime lane, his ears were to him long, 

daz houbit magir unde slanc. his head meagre and lank. 

sine ougen waren ime allirvare his eyes were to him of-all-colours 

glich eineme fliegendin are. like (those of a) flying eagle. 

Sin hals was ime lockechte, His neck was to him covered-with- 


ih wene iz were lewin geslehte. I ween he was of a lion's kind, 

lif den goflfen hatiz rindis har, On his shanks had he heifer's hair, 

an den siten liebarten mal : on his sides leopards' spots : 

s6 sarrazin ioh cristin man like Saracen, so-also Christian man 

nie nihein bezzer ros gwan. never a better horse won. 

Alexander, vom Pfaffen Lamprecht, von Dr H. Weismann, 1850, p. 
16. See also the description of Bucephalus in Weber's Met. Rom., vol. 
i. p. 33. 

1130. hym may refer to the spokesman of the messengers ; but hem 
would be a better reading. 

1131. The French has "si dist a ses ministres, Receves ce cheval, 
et le jnetes en une grant quage de fer, et illeuc 1'encloys," &c. He 
comanded lygge, would mean " he commanded (men) to build." 

NOTES (PAGES 2 15- -2 is). 249 

1144. Who prickes is surely the right reading; compare " celle 
nuit songa li roys que une voys li disoit, que oil qui chevaucheroit se 
cheval regneroit en son rengne apres sa mort." 

P. 215, 1. 1158. in theyr looke, in their sight. 

1159. freaten, false spelling forfreten, eaten. 

1161. The MS. may be read as "iustes" or " iuyses," the word being 
indistinct. The former, however, is certainly meant. 

1162. The line ends with the letter b followed by a space ; beaste is 
the spelling in 1. 1130. 

1167. abowed, like alouted (for which see Werwolf, 3716, 3721), 
should perhaps be followed by the word to. 

P. 216, 1. 1186. lete hym worthe, let him be, let him do as he liked. 
See note to Wei-wolf, 1. 3597. 

1193. The MS. has stynt, with ed above it to the right. Thus stynt 
is the old reading, stynted the gloss. 

1201. We learn from the Latin that Philip grants Alexander's re- 
quest by giving him a royal chariot and a company of knights, and the 
story of the duel between Alexander and Nicolaus or Nicholas follows 
shortly after. But our author again digresses from the romance story 
at this point, and takes up the history of Orosius. 

P. 217, 1. 1226. The story of the Finding of the Cross by Helen, the 
mother of Constantine, is well known, and is here alluded to. 

1231. This line begins with "For Philip," but the For is redundant, 
as it appears in the line above. For " to wynne " we should probably 
read " wynne," as the to is inserted above the line by the copyist, who 
may not have known that infinitives are often used without it. 

1233, 1234. " For that, in treason or guile, none should rob the 
man," &c. 

P. 218, 1. 1241. The conclusion answers to the passage in Orosius 
" Philippus vcro,post longam et irritam obsidionem, ut pecuniam quam ob- 
sidendo exhauserat, prsedando repararet, piraticam adgressus est." Orosius, 
lib. iii., cap. xiii., ed. Havercamp, 1738, p. 174. We may readily imagine 
that the poet, after a description of Philip's fleet and piratical expedi- 
tions, would, on arriving at the passage " ad Scythiam quoque cum 
Alexandra filio praedandi intentione pertrarisiit " revert to Alexander's 
exploits at the mention of his name. No doubt also, instead of giving 
the historical account, he must here have taken up the romance again 
by relating Alexander's duel with Nicolas ; for which see Mr Stevenson's 
edition and Weber's Metrical Romances. 

But it may fairly be observed, that the portion of the Romance ex- 
hibited in this fragment is, in a certain sense, complete. The whole 
Romance may be divided into three parts : (1.) the infancy of Alexander; 
(2.) his acts ; (3.) his death. The first of these is contained in the first 
1201 lines of the fragment, and lines 1202 1249 do not properly belong 
to the Romance at all. To add a sketch of the remaining two parts is 
inexpedient, on account of the great length of the second part. The first 
part is contained in the first 37 pages of Weber, whilst the whole Romance 
occupies 327 pages. 




Dan. Danish. Du. Dutch. F. French. G. German. Lat. Latin. O.N. Old 
Norse or Icelandic. A.S. or S. Anglo-Saxon. Su.G. Suio-Gothic (Ihre's Glossary). 
Prompt. Parv. Promptorium. Parvulorum (ed. Way, Camden Soc.). P. PI. Piers 
Plowman Ch. Chaucer. Roq. Roquefort's Glossaire de la Langue Romane. 
Wycl. Gloss. Wycliffite English Glossary. adj. adjective, &c. 

The following are used in a special sense v. a verb in the infinitive mood ; pr. 
s. present tense, 3rd person singular ; pr. pi. present tense, 3rd person plural ; pt. s. 
past tense, 3rd person singular ; pt. pi. past tense, 3rd person plural. Other 
persons are denoted by 1 p. and 2 p. Also imp. is used for the imperative mood, 
and pp. for the past or passive participle. 

NOTE. Numbers with an obelus (f) prefixed, refer to the " Alisaunder." 

The numbers refer to the lines of the two poems. For an account of the method 
of reference in the former edition, see note at the end of this index. 

A-, throughout the poem, is gener- 
ally disjoined from the word of 
which it forms a prefix or part, 
and this is universally the practice 
in MSS. of ancient English poetry. 
In most, if not all, words of Saxon 
origin it represents and is equiva- 
lent to the S. on, an, of, or af, as a- 
boute, a-dowi, a-drad, a-ioyned, a- 
liue, a-niyt, a-slepe, a-wey, a-tcondred, 
&c. The same rule holds good in 
other branches of the Gothic 
language. See Ihre and Wachter. 

A, int. ah ! 602, 663, 845, 928, 

A, 2 p. s. imp. have, 978, 1177. 

from the 

iff 35 ' 

F. hunting phrase, etre aux abbots, 
to stand at nay. See abbots in Cot- 
grave, and abash in Wedgwood. 

A-bate, v. to abate, 1141. 
A-beye, ?;. S. to atone for, 2790. 

Cf. abye in Chaucer. 
A-bide, v. S. to wait for, await, 

tarry for, 1131, 1732, 2269, 3072. 
Abowed to, bowed down to, 

1 1167. 
A-buschid, pp. F. in ambush, 


Ac, 106, Ac. ) 
Ak, 678, | conj. S. but. 
Ek, 715, ) 

A-chape, 1248, \ v 

A-schape, 1671, 1855,3013, J v ' 

to escape ; pp. a-chaped, 2805 ; a- 

schaped, 2341, 2816; a-schapet, 


Acorde, v. F. to agree, 2657. Ch. 
A-cord, n. F. agreement, 2964. Ch. 
A-coupyng, 3438, } -p . , fc 
Coupyng, 3602, } n ' *' V1 



pp. S. afraid, 
terrified. A.S. 

encounter. 0. F. acoper, heurter, 

frapper au cote. Roq. 
Acoyed, pt. s. enticed, 56. Ch. 

See Coies. 
A-cuntred, pt. pi. F. encountered, 


A-day, 190, \ in a day, in the 
A-daye, 610, j day-time. 

A-doteJ), pr. s. grows silly, 2054. 

See Doted. 
A-doun, adv. down, 1073, 1244. 

"See Taylor's Note on Tooke's 

Diversions of Parley, v. I. p. ix, 

ed. 8vo." M. 
Adouted, pp. F. feared, dreaded, 

t 33, 1 247, t 400. 
A-drad,1980,2005, j 
Adradde, 1783, 
A-dredde, 4034, 


A-fraied,^. afraid, 2158. 
A-fri^t, pp. frightened, 2784. A. S. 

Agast, pp. aghast, terrified, 1778. 

A-gayn, adv. S. again, 395. See 


A-gayn, 233 V g { 
A-geynes, 1341, ] r 

towards. See A-^eynes. 
A-gelt. See A-gult. 

A-greJ-ed 62 1 >.dressed,pre- 
A-greijjed, 1598, f u 

pared, made ready. See Greifce. 
A-greued, pp. grieved, 641, 2116. 

[Miswritten a-greues, in 1. 1076.] 

A-grise, $>. afraid, terrified, 1743, 
f 911, f 986. Ch, Cf. A.S. a- 
grisan, to fear. 

Agult, v. to offend, sin against, 
4401 ; pp. a-gelt, 4391. A.S. a- 

A-hi^t, pt. s. was called, 586. 
See Hi^t. 

Ai, n. S. an egg, f 1004, f 1007. 

Aie, n. S. awe, fear, f 1243. 

A-ioyned, pp. F. adjoining, near, 

Ak. See Ac. 

A-knowe, pp. S. Always joined 
with the verb ben, to be, as "was 
aknowe," 421 ; " ich am aknowe," 
4391; "we &? aknowe," 4788. To 
be aknowe = to be aware, to ac- 
knowledge, confess. " Been a- 
knowe wyl fully. Confiteor. Be 
a-knowe a-geyne wylle. Fateor" 
Prompt. Parv. Cf. A.S. on-cndwan. 

Al, Alle, adj. S. all. " To write 
correctly al should be used for the 
sing. nom. and alle for the pi. (as 
the S. eal and ealle] but the rule is 
often violated, particularly in MSS. 
of the 14th and subsequent cen- 
turies. This observation might be 
extended to a large class of adjec- 
tives and substantives which have 
now lost their final syllables." M. 
Alt alle, At al, in all things, 283, 
597. Al bothe, both of them, where 
al is an expletive, 851. Al a ni^f, 
all one night, all night, 2215. And 
see Algate, Alway. 

Alday, all day, 1682. 

Alden, pp. holden, 1875. See 

Alder, elder, f 22. 

Alder-, gen. pi. of all. Used only 
with an adjective in the superl. 
degree. Alder-aldmt, eldest of all, 
f 27. Alderftrst, Alder-formest, 
first of all, 3345, 4884. 

Aides, pr. s. holds, 441. See 

A-legget,^/>. F. alleviated, allayed, 

1034. See Allay in Wedgwood. 
A-leide, pt. s. S. abolished, put 

down, 5240. 
Algate, Al-gate, in all ways, by 

all means, always, 649, 948, 1064. 


A-liue, alive, 4235, 5279. [A.S. 
on, life (Mat. 27. 63), which are two 
separate words.] 

. s. alighted, 399, 3923. 



Alrnauns, Germans, 1165. 
A-losed, pp. F. praised, renowned, 

f!39, 1174, f331, t577. See 

Loos. Ch. 

Alouten,v. to bow down to, f852; 
pt. s. a-louted, bowed down, made 
obeisance, 3721. A.S. hlutan. 

Als, 996,3543, 

as quickly as may be, very quickly, 
3158. [A.S. eall-swd, whence 0. E. 
0/-S0, alse, and #/,?, now contract- 
ed into as, the words as and a/o 
being etyniologically identical.] 

Alto-shiuered, broke in pieces, 

3603. See note to 1. 3884. 
Al-way, adv. all the while, 345. 

Alwes, n. pi. S. 371. Hal alwes 
= all hallows, all saints. 

Amased, pp. distracted, con- 
founded, 686. See Mase. 

Amendis, amends, 488, 493, 

A-meruailed, pp. F. astonished, 


Amiddes, amidst, f 834. Ch. 
Amonges, amongst, f 59. Ch. 
An, put for And, 445, 884, 1538. 

An, put for On, in phrase wel an 
fiue myle=nearly five miles, 5110. 

And, eonj. if, 3803, 4168. [In 
1. 3803 it is written " &."] 

Anger, n. anxiety, sorrow, 552. 
A.S. ange. 

An-honged,#p. S. hung up, 4773. 

A-ni3t,2920, } by night, by nights, 
A-ni3tes,785, j at night. Ch. 

Anker, n. anchor, 568. 

A-non, Anon, adv. immediately, 
813, 913. Anon rijt, Anon rnttes, 
immediately, 273, 235. 

Antresse (JAunteres), pr.s. adven- 
tures, ventures, 1028. See Aunter. 


pp. pleased, 

A-paraile, 5028, 
A-parrayl, 3224, 

Aparaylde hem, apparelled them 
selves, 1146. 

A-paied, 1883, 5358, 
Apai^ed, 1871, 4007, ' 
Apayed, 1, 1314, 

See Paide. 
Apeire, v. F. to impair, injure, 

1 1244 ; pp. a-peyred, marred, 933. 

"Appeyryn, or make wore." Prom. 

Parv. Ch. 

Apertly, A-pertli, adv. evidently, 

plainly, 1, 4706. Ch. 
Apes, 2299. 

Arad,#p. divined, explained, f 647 . 
See Arede. 

Araie, 3367, ) n. F. array, 

Aray, 1597, 1601, j order. 
Araie, v. F. to array, dispose troops 

in order, 3561 ; pp. a-raied, 1926, 

1942 ; a-raid, 1934 ; a-rabed, 3375, 

3563 ; arayed, 1153. 
Are, adv. S. ere, before, 226; 

superl. arst, q. v. See Er. 
Are-blast, n. F. arblast, a kind of 

crossbow, f 268. From Lat. arcus 

and balista. 

Areche, v. S. to reach, f 441. 
Arede, v. to divine, expound, 

1 573; to read, f 838 ; pp. arad, q.v. 

A.S. a-rcedian. 

A-redili, adv. S. readily, easily, 

5006, 5026, 5230. 
A-reise, v. S. to raise, 4342. 
Aren, are; 2665 ; 3 p. pi. 

615. See Arn and Ben. 
Arere, v. S. to raise, f 360 ; pt. 
pi a-rered, 2645. See Wycl. Gloss. 
Arewe, n. S. an arrow, 885. 
Arise. See A-ros. 

Armed, pp. fortified, emboldened, 

courageous, |1095. 
Armure, armour, 3769. 
Arn, are; 2 p. pi. 106, 3123; 



3 p. pi. 1694, 5131. See Aren and 

Arnd, errand, 5287. See Erand. 

A-ros, pt. s. arose, 810, 2744, 
3270 ; arise, 2737 ; pp. arise, 1297. 
The form arise = arose occurs in 
both texts o/La^amon, 1. 25988. 

Artou, 5157, ) 

i OK f\ } art thou. 
Artow, 1250, j 

Arst, snperl. adv. first, before, 

2737, 3046, 4154, 4863, 5403 ; at 

arst = at first, i. e. for the first 

time, 1028. 
As = has, 2029. 
A-saie, v. F. to essay, try, 3754 ; 

pp. a-saide, 637, 4984. 
A-saute, Asaute, n. F. an assault, 

f95, fl45, f262; pi. a-sautes, 

2708 ; a-sawtes, 4221. 
A-schamed, pp. ashamed, 1035. 
A-schape. See A-chape. 
Aschis, n. pi. S. ashes, 4368. 
Aschried,^. s. 3895, ) ., 
A-schri 3 ed,^... 3827,^^ 
Ascried,^.^. 3814, ) 01 

called out to. 0. Fr. escrier. Cf. 

ascry in Ch. 

A-seged, pp. F. besieged, 4224. 
A-segned, pp. F. assigned, 581. 

Cf. A-signed in 1. 3627. 
Asele, v. F. to seal, f 829. 

A-sembled, pp. F. assembled, 
1120, 1288; pt. s. a-sembled to, 
attacked, 3425 ; pt. pi. a-sembled, 
met in a hostile manner, encoun- 
tered, 3409; a-sembleden, 3815. 
Cf. Sembul. 

A-sent, n. F. assent, 1300. 

A-sent, v. F. to assent, 482, 

2692 ; pp. a-sented, 538. 
Asise, n. F. site, situation, 4451. 
A-slepe, S. asleep, 792, 798, 839. 

Spelt a-slape, 1995. 
A-spie, v. F. to spy after, watch 

after, 774 ; pp. a-spied, 2577. 

A-spyes, n. pi. F. spies, 
Assone as, as soon as, 4345. 
Astate, n. F. state, condition, 

5376. 0. F. estat. Ch. 
A-stente, v. S. to stop, 1527. See 

Astit, adv. very soon, 3943. See 


A-stoneyd, pp. F. astonished, 880. 
Astow, hast thou, 4724. 
A-strangeled, pp. strangled, 150. 

0. F. estraindre. 
Aswi]?e, as soon as might be, very 

soon, 3555, 3811. See SwiJ?e. 
A-teyned,^>. s.F. extended, 5498. 
A-tir, n. F. attire, dress, 1721, 

3183 ; equipment for battle, 1147 ; 

atyr, 1428. 

A-tired, pp. F. equipped, 1228. 

See A-tyred. 
A-tiryng, n. dress, apparel, 1941. 

Atling, n. preparation, a getting 

ready, f 268. 

Attele, ) v. to go towards, ap- 
Attely, ) proach, 205 ; to con- 
jecture, aim at, judge, 404 ; 1 p. 
pr. atteli (= attele i), I intend, I 
design, 3220 ; 3 p. pr. attles, goes 
towards, f 109 ; pt. s. atteled, 
guessed, conjectured, 813 ; att- 
lede, 861, 941, 1015 ; attelede, 
went towards, 1760 ; pt. pi. ettele- 
den, went towards, 272. North E. 
and Sc. ettle, 0. N. atla, to aim at, 
intend, design. 

Atte, Att, at the ; in the following. 
Att best, Atte dest,&t the best, 1142, 
1575, 4121 (cf. atte best in 1. 4283 
with at te best in the line follow- 
ing) ; atte cherche,&t the church, 
1961 ; atte de\>e, 1511 ; atte fulle, 
4916; atte last, at the last, 1389 ; 
atte roche, at the rock, 2367 ; in all 
which cases the article seems to be 
comprehended in the second syl- 
lable. But in atte hese, at ease, 3208, 
and atte wille, 1414, atte seems to 



be no more than the preposition at. 
And it is certain that atte=at and 
no more, in the following : atte 
here herte, at her heart, 539 ; atte 
J?<? day, 1599 ; atte \>e best, 4186 ; 
att aile, in all things, wholly, 283. 
The spelling atte being adopted to 
signify at te or at \>e, it was erro- 
neously used instead of at in other 

Attese, at ease, 1295. 

Atwinne, adv. S. in two, asunder, 
5450. Ch. 

A-tyred hire, pt. s. dressed her- 
self, 1706 ; pp. dressed, 1997, 5043. 

Auenantli, 3784, } -, 

Auenauntli, 4885, 5040, j a 
suitably, well, courteously. 

Auentayle, n. F. The movable 
front to a helmet, and through 
which the wearer breathed, 3608. 
" Ventaille, the breathing part of a 
helmet, the sight of the beaver." 

Auenturre, adventure, 4921. 

Aught, pt. s. S. possessed, owned, 
f 14, f 173, f 237, A.S. dgan, pt. t. 
ic dhte. See Out. 

Aught too long, ought to belong, 

Aunceteres, n. pi. ancestors, 5133. 

Aunter, n. F. adventure, occur- 
rence, f 1017 ; pi. aunteres (ad- 
ventures), f 109. 

Aunter, v. F. to adventure ; aunter 
hem out=to adventure themselves 
out, 3268 ; pr. s. antresse, 1028 ; 
pt. s. auntred, ventured, went about 
seeking an entrance, f 1027 ; aun- 
tred hym, f 290 ; pt. pi. auntred 
hem, f 230 ; auntred hym till, 
ventured against him, f902. 

Auntrose, adj. F. adventurous 
hence, dangerous, 921. " Awnte- 
rows, or dowtefulle. Fortunalis,for- 
tuitus." Prompt. Parv. 

A-vowe, n. F. a vow, 532. Ch. 

A-wai, 735, 

A-waie, 578, o 
A-wey,1280, ^ & away. 
A-weye, 221, J 

A-waked, _2tf. s. awoke, 677 ; pp. 
a-waked, 679; imp. pi. a-wakes, 

Awe, n. S. in " for loue ne for 
awe," 5430. Eor this expression, 
see also f 1243. "The phrase 
appears at length in Speculum is- 
tius Mundi, MS. Reg. 17, B. xvii. 
Thou shalt not spare for no drede, 
Nefor loue to. God nefor Ms aice, 
To go out of the right lawe." M. 

A-wede, v. to lose the senses, 
become mad, 45, 1750 ; 1 p. pr. s. 
a-wede, 3185. A.S. a-wedan. 

A-weite, v. F. to observe sedulous- 
ly, espy, 2415 ; pt. s. a-wayted, 
1711, 1890; a-weited, 791. Cf. 

A-weiwardes, away, 2188. 

A-went, pp. gone away, 1672. 

A-wondred, 872, 2389, ) ^p.aston- 
A-wondered,310,392, j ished. 

A.S. a-wundrian. 

A-wrek, 2111, ] v. S. to 

A-wreke, 1128, 3422, j avenge; 

pt. s. awrak, wreaked, f 934. 

Ax, v. S. to ask, require, f 1 41. Ch. 

Ay, adv. S. ever, always, 615, 

2239, 2849. 
Ayme, v. F. to estimate, compute, 

1596, 3819, 3875 ; pp. aymed, 

5010. 0. F. esmer. 

A-jayne, adv. S. again, 5235 ; a-2e, 
4256, 5172 ; a-^en, 1837 ;-a- 
^ein, 270 ; a-^eine, 1508 ; a^eyn, 
1921; a^en lepes=runs back, re- 
turns quickly, 1973. 

A-^ejnes,prep. S. against, towards, 
1264, 1341 ; a-^enis, 3533 ;a- 
2ens, 2371 ; ajene, 12 ; a-2e, 

A^en-turn, n. retreat, way of 



escape, 4182. See ^ain-torn ; and 
cf. A^enturned in Wycl. Gloss. 

Bacheler, n. F. a bachelor, i. e. a 

novice in arms, 840, 1136 ; pi. 

bachilers, 1477. See Bacheler in 

Baden. See Bidde. 
Baie. See Abaie. 

Baili, a. F. a steward, 5387. See 
Bailleul in Roq. 

Baite, 1723, } v. to set on a dog, 

Bayte, 11, ) to bait (a bear). 

0. N. beita. See Abet in Wedg- 

Bakkes, n. pi. 2096, outer clothes 
(?) A word of doubtful meaning. 
Sir P. Madden conjectured it to 
mean " cheeks, from the Teutonic 
backe,Cz\i. boch, which the Romans 
formed into bucca. Vide Wachter 
and Haltaus, in v. and Meusel's 
Wurzel- Worter, p. 216." Stratmann 
suggests that it is another form of 
bac/ges, used for clothes. The con- 
text favours such a rendering ; 
" rent all his clothes " is more likely 
than " rent all his cheeks ; " but 
whether we are to connect the word 
with bag or with back is hard to 
tell, yet it may mean no more than 
a covering for the back, as in Chau- 
cer, Chan. Yem. Prol. 1. 328, where 
another reading for bak is bratt. Cf . 

dowell it hatte 
To breke beggeris bred & bakken 

hem with clotys. 

Piers. PL ed. Skeat, A. xi. 184. 
Indeed, the phrase "oure bakkes 
that moth-eten be," as used in P. 
PI. Pass. X. of Text B (p. 195 of 
Wright's edition), convinces me 
that this last explanation is right. 
Curiously enough, as if to remove 
all doubt, the word bakkes, as there 
used, is, in MS. Laud 581, actually 
glossed by the Latin panni. 

Bale, n. S. sorrow, misfortune, 
evil, 107, 134, 460, 741, f 56 j 

harm, i. e. a pity, f 1170 ; bal, 
1819; pi. bales, 476, 1055. 

Baleful, adj. S. harmful, unfor- 
tunate, 1815 ; balefull = harm- 
ful, f 272. 

Balfulli, adv. miserably, 3959, 
4261 ; balfully = harmfully, hurt- 
fully, 84, 1202. 

Bane, n. S. a ban, proclamation, 

edict, 2252. 
Banne, v. S. to ban, to curse, 476, 

1644 j pt. s. banned, 2100. 
Baret, n. embarrassment, trouble, 

486, 5518. Cf. 0. P. barat, 0. N. 


Barge, n. a ship, 2767, 2807. See 

Glossary to Romans of Partenay. 
Barm, n. S. the lap, f 1004. Ch. 

Barn, Barne, n. S. a child, 9, 16, 
18, f!020; a man, 812, 1491; 
gen. sing, barnes, 100, 2230 ; pi 
barnes, 187. See Burn. 

Barnage, n. F. baronage, nobles, 

Bataile, n. F. a battalion, squad- 
ron, 3783 ; pi. batailes, 3561, 3562 ; 
batayles, 1152. 

Baucynes, n. pi. badgers, 2299. 
"The term occurs in Juliana 
Berners, spelt Bausyn, and in the 
Prompt, rarv. is 'Bawstone, or 
bawsone, or a gray ' [see Mr 
Way's note]. It is not uncommon 
in writers of the 16th or 17th 
century, and is still retained in 
Cheshire. See Todd's Johnson, 
Nares, and Wilbraham. The root 
is evidently the Celtic bal or baizhl 
(see Bullet, in v.), whence the F. 
balsan, Ital. balzano, applied to an 
animal with a white streak or spot 
in the face or foot. Hence also is 
derived the Sc. bawsand, brindled. 
See Jamieson." M. Cf. pie-bald, 
and Bawson in Wedgwood. 

Bayte on, v. to set on a dog at 

anything, 11. See Baite. 
Be, Bi, prep. S. \>y, passim. "When 



compounded with verbs, the ortho- | 

graphy is perpetually interchanged. 
Be = been, 4103. See Ben. 
Beaute, n. F. beauty, 4534 ; 

beuaute, 4074. 
Bed, Bede. See Bidde. 
Bedes, pr. s. offers, f 947. Cf. 

f 260. A.S. beodan. Ch. 
Bedes, n. pi. S. prayers, beads, 

3024. See Bead in Wedgwood. 
Be-dolue, pp. buried, 5252. See 

Begonne, pp. gone about, i. e. 

surrounded, f 698. Cf. Bi-go. 

See Begone in Wedgwood. 
Be-hilde, beheld, 2783. 
Behi^t. See Bihote. 

Be-honged, pp. S. hung about, 


Be-houes, 2349, i behoves, is suit- 
Be-houis, 1815, ) able for. 
Be-kenned. See Bikenne. 
Be-knowe, pp. S. aware, 2172. 
Belaunce, n. F. balance, 948. 

Beleue, v. S. to remain, f 69. A.S. 

Bellyng, part. pres. bellowing, 
1891. "Dame Juliana Berners 
confines the term to the noise made 
by a deer, in which sense it occurs 
in Gawin Douglas, Virg. Prol. 94, 
26. But in the Prompt. Parv. 
we have ' Bellyn, or lowyn as nette 
(roryn). Mugio? and c Belly nge, of 
rorynge of bestys (bellinge of nete). 
Mugitus: " -M. See Bell in Wedg- 

Be-maked, pp. made, 5060. 

Bemes, n. pi. S. trumpets, 1154. 

Ben, Bene, v. S. to be, 464, 1930; 

2 p. s. pr. (with a future significa- 
tion), bestow, shalt thou be, 344 ; 

3 p. s. pr. be)?, 547 ; 2 p. pi. pr. 
ben, 3148, bene, 1672 ; 3 p. pi. pr. 
bene, 4217, ben, 946 ; bu>, 4447 ; 

imp. pi. beth, 3797 ; pp. be, 1943, 
3957. See Bi, Arn, Aren. 

Be-nom, pp. taken away, 2450. 
A.S. be-niman. 

Beraften, pt. pi. bereft of, f 81. 

Bere, n. a violent noise ; here ap- 
plied to the barking of a hound, 43. 
See Wycliffite Glossary, s. v. bire ; 
La^amon (glossary), s. v. z'bere ; 
Stratmann, s. v. bere. Jamieson 
refers it to Su-G. boer, the wind. 
Sir F. Madden and Stratmann 
refer it to A.S. ge-bare, which, 
however, generally means a gesture. 
It may be an imitative word, like 
birr, buzz. 

Bere-felles, n. pi. S. bear-skins, 
2430, 2560. See Fel. 

Berem-chaunce, n. chance of pro- 
geny, conception, t 971. For the 
spelling, cf. Berem-tem in Genesis 
8f Exodus, ed. Morris, 1, 3903. 

Bern, n. S. a man, f 212, f 219. 

See Barn, Burn. 
Be-seme, 2 p. pi. pr. seem, appear 

(to be), 1742 ; 3. pi. pr. be-semen, 


Be-sewed. See Bi-sowe. 

Bestow. See Ben. 

Bet,^. s. S. he beat, 1073, f 300. 

Bet, adv. S. better, 172, 344, 
1012 ; bett, f 504; cf. the phrase 
more beter, 4279. 

Bete, v. S. to make better, to 
better, repair, 3167 ; pi. s. bet, 
3960. A.S. betan,. 

BeJ>, it shall be, 547. See Ben. 
Be-J)out, Be-Jjou^t. See Bi-J?enke. 
Beurde. See Burde. 
Beurne. See Burn. 

Be-wrapped, pt. s. wrapped up, 


Be-wrie, v. S. to bewray, 2435. 
Bi, Be, prep. S. by, passim. 

Bi, be thou, 322 ; bi ^iue, be given, 
2254. \_As bi, be (= by) are of fen 



interchanged, in both places we should 
rather read be.] 

IBi-cast, pp. beset, 2287. For all bi- 
cast an equivalent phrase is um- 
becast. See 1. 4693. 

Bi-cheche, 1 p. s. pr. I beseech, 

Bi-com, pt. s. became, 881 ; pp. 

bi-come, in phrase were bi-come = 

had gone to, 222 ; it bi-comes = it 

goes to, 911. 

Bidde, 1 p. pr. s. T ask or pray 
for, 4754 ; pr. s. biddes, 5539, 
t 947 ; I p. pt. s. bed, I asked for, 
borrowed, f 457 (where the MS. 
;gloss " had " is wrong) ; pt. s. bede, 
5490 ; pt. pi. baden, 4797 ; imp. 
pi. biddi]?, 5534; part. pres. bidd- 
ande, 3024 ; pp. bede, 2410. A.S. 

Bi-falle, v. S. to befal, 547 ; pp. 

bi-falle, 2475, 4169. 
Bi-forn, adv. S. before, 428. 
Bi-gat him, procured for himself, 

Biggen, v. S. to buy, f 1215. 

Bi-go, pp. S. beset, f 490, f 994. 
See Begorine, and Bigoo in Ch. 

Bi-gunne, pt. pi. began, 2555. 

Bi-hest, 600, 

By-hest, 57, 

Bi-het. See Bi-hote. 

Bi-hilde, pt. s. S. looked, beheld, 
2783 ; bi-huld, 2426 ; pp. bi-hold, 

Bi-hote (spelt by-hote), v. S. to 
promise, 3688 ; 2 p. s. imp. bi-hote, 
2135; pt. s. bi-het, 4376, 4647; 
bihwt, 576 ; pt. pi. bi-l^t, 4649 ; 
pp. be-hi^t, 606. 

Bi-huld. See Bi-hilde. 

Bi-houes, it behoves, 729 (cf. 1. 

723) ; pt. s. bi-houed, 2720. 
Bi-kenne, v. S. to commit to the 

charge or protection of another ; 

I/?, s. pr. bi-kenne, 5434 ; pt. s. bi- 

kerined, 350 ; be-kenned, 371 ; pt. \ 

pi. bi-kenned, 5454. Cf. Bt-teche, 
and Kenne. 

Biker, n. fight, battle ; bedes hem 
biker = offers them battle, f 947. 
" Bikyr of fy tyuge. Puyna." Prom. 
Parv. See Way's note. 

Bikering, n. conflict, attack, f390. 

Bi-komsed, pt. pi. commenced, 

2523. See Comse. 
Bileue, v. transitive, S. to leave 

behind, 2577 ; pt. s. (intrant.) bi- 

laft, stayed behind, remained, 2385; 

pt. pi. bi-laft, 2890. 
Bilfoder, 81, ) 
Bilfodur; 1838, p- P rovisions - 

"Perhaps from the S. b>/lr/, the 

belly, and fodder, food." M. Cf. 

belly-timber) food, in Halliwell. 

Bi-liue. See Bliue. 

Bi-reft, 1 p. s. pt. bereaved, de- 
prived of, 4628 ; pp. biraft, f 394. 

Bi-schet, pp. S. shut up, immured, 
2014, Ch. 

Bi-seget, pt. s. besieged, 2650 ; 
bi-seged, 2843. 

Bi-seme, 2 p. pi. pr. seem, appear 
(to be), 1733. See Be-seme. 

Bi-set, j*. >Z. beset, 2281 ; bi-sett, 
2927; bi-sette, 1214; bi-setten, 
set forth, employed, f 437. 

Bi-side, adv. S. 3, 1889. 

Bi-sowe, v. S. to sew up, 1689; 
pp. be-sewed, 3117. 

Bi-stint, pt . s. made calm, f 1183. 
" Styntytf or make a thynge to 
secyri' of his werke or mevyuge. 
Obsto. Prom. Parv. 

Bi-stode, pt. s. S. stood near, ap- 
proached, 175. 

Bi-teche, v. S. to commit to the 
charge of any one, entrust, recom- 
mend, 5184 ; pt. s. bi-tok, 66, 4167; 
pt. pi. bi-taujt, 5211 ; pp. bi-taint, 
5289. A.S. be-t&can. 

Bi-]?enke, v. S. to think attentive- 
ly, consider ; 2 p. s. imp. bi-^enke, 
3057 ;pt. s. bi-Jjout, 2748 ; be-^out, 




290, 2370 ; be-f>ou3t him, 2773 ; bi- 
Jjou2t hire, 630, 650; pt. pi. bi- 
Jout hem, 4776 ; be-^out, 2410. 

Bi-tide, v. S. to befal, 730 ; pt. s. 

bitid, 4087; bitide, 7; bi-tidde, 

1211 ; by-tidde, 32. 
Eitraide, pp. betrayed, t 223. 
Bitterly, adv. S. painfully, 2083. 
Bi-weped, pp. covered with tears, 


Bi-3ete, n. S. progeny, 2303. 
Blake-beries,n.j S. blackberries, 

Ble, n. S. complexion, 3083; 

blee,t 202,1578. 
Blenched, pp. blemished, hurt, 

2471. " Blemschyde, blemysshed. 

Obfuscatus. Blenscnyn, blemysshen, 

Obfiaeo" Prompt. Parv. See 

Blemish in Wedgwood. 
Blessed, pt. s. 1192. Sir F. Mad- 
den explains it by " wounded, in- 
flicted wounds," from the E. blesser. 

Or it may mean that he waved or 

brandished his sword, as in Spenser. 

F. Q. I. v. 6, and Fairfax's Tasso, 

ix. 67. 

Blesseden, pt. pi. blessed, 196. 
Blefeli. See Blijjeliche. 
Bleynte, pt. pi. looked, 3111. 

[Lit. blinked; cf. Du. and G. 

blinken. Sw. blinka. Dan. blwke.~] 
Blinne, v. S. to pause, cause, 

leave off, 55, f 398 ? P f - s - % nd > 

t 110 ; 2 p. g. imp. blinne, 322 ; 1 

p. pi. imp. blynne, f 1202. 
Blisful, adj. S. happy, 1055; 

blessed, 1669. 
Blipeliche, adv. S. merrily, with 

good will, 819 ; blejeli, 1144, 1994 ; 

in the latter place it means in sport. 
Bliue,1705,t259, ) , s ik _ 
Biliue, 248, ) a 

ly ; as bliue, as quickly as might 

be, 379; as biliue, 351. 
Blonk, n. a horse, 3326, 3362 ; 

///. blonkes, 5041, f 435. " In old 

Teutonic, planchaz means a white 
horse, and the root is to be found 
in the Su. G. and Franc, blank, still 
preserved in the F. blanc. See Ihre 
and Jamieson." M. 

Blowand, pres. part, blowing, 

Bobaunce, n. F. pride, boasting, 
presumption, always in phr. "bo- 
baunce and bost," 1071, 1129, 
3358. See Boban in Roq. 

Bod, n. S. abiding, delay, 149. 

Bode, n. S. a message, tidings, an 
order, 2145, 2154, 3767. 

Bodiesse, n. pi. bodies, 3767. 
{Should be spelt bodies; but cf. 
Antresse, Hayresse.] 

Bogeysliche, adv. S. in a boasting, 
boisterous, or bold manner, 1707. 
"In the Prompt. Parv. is ' Bog- 
gyschely, Tumide/ and in Ray's S. 
and E. Country Words, ' Bogge, 
bold, forward, sawcy.' " M. See 
also Baffffe in Prompt. Parv. and 
Bulge in Wedgwood. 

Boi^es, gen. sing, boy's, 1705. 

Bolaces, n. pi. bullaces, a sort of 
plum or sloe, 1809. Used by 
Chaucer, Horn. Rose, 1377. See 
Bolleche in Roq. 

Boles, n. pi. S. bulls, 2299. 

Bolstrau^t, pp. prostrate, stretched 
on the belly, 1852. From A.S. 
balg, the belly, and streccan, to 

Bonde, pi. adj. S. (put for bonde 
men}, bondsmen, villains, as opposed 
to the orders of barons and burgesses, 
2128. Cf, "Barouns and burgeis 
and bonde men also." Piers Plow- 
man; A. prol. 96. 

Bonden, pp. S. bound, 2238 ; pt. 
pi. bounden, 1219. 

Bone, n. S. boon, prayer, 1095, 
4410; entreaty, f612. 

Bonke, n. S. bank, shore, 2718. 

Bonure, adj. F. courteous, affable, 
332. See Debonureli. 



Bordes, n. pi. S. 5070. 

Bore, pp. S. born, 240 ; spelt 

borne, 510. 
Borwe, n. S. borough, town, 1889, 

2221; borowe, f 30 ; borw } 

2835; pi. borwes, 2123; borous, 

f 928. $?<? Burw. 
Borw^, n. (the same word as the 

above}, a place of shelter, 9. A.S. 

beorh. Cf. the term, "a rabbit's 


Borwed,jp#. s. S. borrowed, 1705. 

Bost, n. boast, pride, 1141. And 
see Bobaunce. 

Bot, conj. S. but, unless, except, 
497, 2008 ; also spelt but, 627. But 
^if, unless, 472. Cf. Bout. 

Bot, n. S. a boat (?) 4632. Or else 
boute bot = boute bod, without 
delay, as in 1. 149. 

Bote, n. S. remedy, 627, 741, 
959, &c. ; do bote = provide a 
remedy, 1378. 

Botles, adj. S. without remedy, 
134, 1819 ; botlesse, 540 ; botte- 
les, 896 ; botelesse, 1539. 

Botned, pp. S. bettered, cured, 

1055. Cf. Bete. 
Bouf, n. F. beef, 1849, 1868. 

Boun, adj. ready, 1088, 1138, 

1144 ; bonne, 1 160, f 228. 
Bounden. See Bonden. 

Bour, n. S. bower, chamber, 657, 
1971; boure, 1760, | 772. See 

Bourde, n. F. a jest, 1705. Ch. 

Bourdes, n. sing. F. a tournament, 
jousting. See Behordeis in Roq. 
The word is probably (like many 
other war terms) of Teutonic 

Boute, prep. S. without, 149, 211, 
567, 812. 

Bouwes, pr. s. bows, inclines, 948. 
Bowes, n. pi. S. boughs, 23. 

Boxumly, adv. S. courteously, 
332. See Buxumli. 

Brag, adj. or adv. bold, boastful, 
or boastfully, 2352 ; sup. braggest, 
bravest, 3048. Cf. " Hy schulde 
nou2t beren hem so bragg" P. PI. 
Crede, 1. 706. See Braguer in Cot. 

Braides, pr. s. moves quickly, 
hurries, f 1081 ; braydes, 149 ; 
braides him, departs quickly, 
1 1004 ; ft. s. braid doun, threw 
aown or beat down ; braide, awoke, 
started up, f 724, 686, cf. 1. 2096 ; 
rushed, 3848 ; drew quickly, 1867. 
0. N. bregZa. Cf. Abrayde in Ch. 

Braundise, v. F. to fling about 
(as a horse), f 1122 P^ 5 - 
braundised, 3294 ; pres. part, bran- 
dissende, waving (their weapons), 

Brayn-wod, adj. S. brain-mad ? 
i.e. mad, furious, 2096. See P. 
PI. A. x. 61. 

Bredde, pt. pi. S. went hurriedly, 
hurried, 1782. " The sense of breed 
is evidently not admissible here. 
Cf. Braides." M. 

Brede, n. S. breadth, 3055 ; a 
peny brede, a penny's breadth, 
1 1244. 

Brem, Breme, adj. S. (of very 
common occurrence, and with many 
meanings} notable, bold, strong, 
fierce, &c. ; (applied to men) 3641, 
(bears) 1689, (beasts) 1699, (a 
child) 18, (a battle) 1157, (a host) 
3767, (a duke) 1141, (deeds) 1387, 
(blood) 3861, (an oar) 4700, (a 
time) f!020, (a god) f 533, (a 
tablet) 1 615, &c. ; sup. bremest, 
1686, 2936. Ch. 

Bremli, adv. S. fiercely, 3294 ; 
exceedingly, 2158 ; - - bremely, 
loudly, 23 ; bremly, fiercely, 
4343'; bremlich, boldly, f 1001. 
Sup. bremliest, most decisively, 

Brenne, v. S. to burn, 1133, 
2123, 4261 ; pt. s. brent, 1071, 




1109 ; pp. brent, 363-1, 4367 ; 

brend, 2646, f 729. 
Breres, n. )l- briars, 1809. 
Bretages, n. pi. F. parapets of a 

wall, ramparts. 0. F. bretesche 

(see Roq.), Low Lat. brestachia. 

Brejjer, n. pi. S. brothers, 2641. 
[The nom. pi. in A.S. is broSra, 
brofcru, brofcor, or brofcur.] 

Brid, n. S. a bird, f814; pi. 

briddes, 29, 179, 819. 
Bridhale, n. S. bridal, 4947. 
Brit, bright, 3572. 
Brode, adj. S. broad, 754, 1674; 

brod, 1732. 
Brode, adv. S. in phr. to brode= 

too wide apart, too far, 11. 
Brodes, pr. s. publishes abroad, 

proclaims, f 122. 

Brond, 1244, \ n. S. a brand, 
Bront, 1192, ) sword. 

Broder, n. S. brother, 1 56. [Pro- 
bably miswritten for broker ; cf. 

Brout, brought, 3959 ; brou^t of 
liue = brought out of life, killed, 

Brusten, v. to injure severely, 
destroy, 154. Cf. Dan. brost, hurt, 

Brusure, n. F. a bruise, wound, 

Bruten, n. S. to destroy, 3760 ; 
bruttene, 1133 ; pt. s. brutned, 
1073, 1202, t888;^./?/.bruttened, 
2647 ; pp. bruttenet, 206. Swed. 
bri/ta; Dan. bryde; A.S. brylan, 

Bugles, n. pi. F. 1154. 

Burd, n. S. a lady, maiden, 
damsel, f715; burde, 683, 765, 
812, 830, f 670 ; beurde, t 202, 
t 205 ; pi. burdes, 3669, 5017 ; 
beurdes, f 228. Burde no barn, 
neither man nor maid, 1971. 

Burgeis, n. F. a burgess, 1889; 

pi. burgeys, 2128, 5017. 
Burn, n. S. a man, 332, 510, 511, 

657, &c. burne, 444, 477 : beurn, 

f9, fllO; pi. burnes, 617, 1129; 

beurnes, f 2. 

Bur)>enes, n. pi. S. burdens, 2555. 
Burw, n. S. a town, 5335 ; pi. 

burwes, 1073, 1109 ; the same as 

Borwe, q. v. 

Burwi-maidenes, n. pi. S. bower- 
maidens, attendants, 3071. See 

Buschen, v. to move about brisk- 
ly, 173. See Buske. 

Busily, adv. S. industriously, 
eagerly, carefully, 650, 2181, 2210 ; 
busili, 2577. 

Busk, n. F. a bush, 3062, 3069 ; 
busch, 3101, 3111. 

Buske, v. to brush about, hurry 
about, hurry, 2210 ; busk to or 
buske to, to hurry towards, 1968, 
2264; busk of or buske of, to 
hurry from, 1653, 1997 ; pr. pi. 
busken, f 426, f 433 ; 1 p. s. pt. 
busked, f 612 ; pt. s. busked, 1085 ; 
(prepared), 3196 ; busked to, 1707, 
2055 ; buskede him or busked him 
(went), 21, 1863 ; busked (pre- 
pared), 1152; buskeden (hurried), 
2819 ; busked hem (went quickly), 
1530, 2477, 2770. See Buschen. 
Icel. at buast. See Busk in Wedg- 

But, conj. S. except, unless, 47 6, 
627, 937, 972, f 368, &c. But aif, 
unless, 758, 939 1276. See Bot. 

Buj?, pr. pi. are, 4447. See Ben. 
Buxum, adj. S. tractable, obedient, 

2943 ; meek (applied to beasts), 

2720, 2854, 3085, 4062. A,S. 


Buxumli, 3717, 4972, | adv. S. 
Buxumly, 2, 510, f meek; 

boxumly, 332 ; comp. buxumlier, 


By, prep. S. near ; by j>at barn 
"= near that child, 220. 



Bygge, v. S. to build, construct, 
f 1133. SwecL&y^ya; Dan.dggpv. 

By-hote. to Bi-hote. 
By-J)an, by the time that, 220. 
Of. A.S. &? p^ ]>e. 

Cacche, v. to catch, take, obtain, 
get, 806, 2266, 2940 ;-kaeche, 
2217 ; jar. s. caccheth, 3750 ; pt. s. 
cau^t, 4302 ; pt. pi. camt, 1053, 
1495, 2867; kau^t, 1053, 3374; 
pp. cau^t, 4214 ; kau^t, 2531. 

Caire, v. S. to return, travel, go, 
5184; cairest, 5190; pr. 
s. cayres, 2977 ; pt. s. kayred, 373 ; 
pt. fl. caired, 2714, 5324 ; cayred, 
2201 ; kayred, 3734 ; imp. pi. 
kairus, f 623 ; pres. part, cairende, 
1922. A.S. ce'rran. 

Calles, pr. pi. call, 239 ; pt. s. 
cald, 887 ; calde, 1460. 

(Can) can, know, acknowledge ; 
in the past tense, could, knew, inf. 
kenne, f 623 ; 1 p. s. pr. kan, 
321, 635 ; con, 297 ; 1 p. pi. pr. 
kunne, 4184 ; pr. pi. konne, 3334 ; 
pt. s. cou]?e, 2, 174, 655 ; kowpe, 
5055; kouj>e, 952; coude, 4378; 
cou^de, 120 ; cou^e, 118 ; kende, 
f 193 ; couj>e, 577; kowden, 
4810; council, 1033; co|)en, 1576; 
kende, f 367 ; pp. coup, known, 
famous, 5053. 

Care, n. S. care, grief, sorrow, 
regret, 496 ; kare, 288, 424, 726, 

Careful!, adj. S. full of care or 
anxiety, anxious, sorrowful, t 75, 
f 244 ; causing care, woful, \ 295 ; 
earful, 2201, 2860, 311 ; kar- 
ful, 373, 3774. 

Carestow, carest thou, art thou 
sad, 3182. See Kares. 

Carfti, adj. crafty, skilful, 3221. 
{It should rather be crafti, but this 
form is sometimes found. See Ro- 
mans ofPartenay, 1. 5708.] 

Carfulli, adv. S. sorrowfully, 4347; 
carfuli, 152; karfulli, 3734. 

Carpen, v. to speak, tell, talk, 
t748; carpe, 4581; carp, 832 r 
T 11 ; karpe, 2523 ; 1 p. s. pr. carp, 
f 200, f 244 ; karp, f 172 ; pr. s. 
carpes, f 693 ; karpes, f 585 ; 1 
p. s. pt. karped, 5233 ; carped, 
217;^. *. carped, f 72, 990; 1 p. 
pi. imp. carpe, 2855 ; karpe, 4054. 
Phrase io karp (karpe, carpp) J?e 
soje, to tell the truth, 503, 2801, 
655, f 683. " Carpyn or talkyn. 
Fabidor" Prompt. Parv. 

Carping, n. talking, speech, 4660; 
karping, 3100. 

Gas, n. F. chance, hap, fortune, 
event, 326, 915, 2919 ; case, f 24 ; 
bi cas, 595 ; for cas, ]037. Cli. 

Cast, pt. s. cast away, i. e. lost, 
881; caste, contrived, 1981. See 

Castel-werk, castellated work, 

Castis, n. pi. events, 654. 

Catel, n. F. wealth, possessions ; 
gen. sing, cateles, f 376. Ch. See 
Catels in Roq. 

Caytif, n. F. a wretch, person of 
low extraction, 710. Ch. 

Cayreden, pt. pi. carried, 2520. 

Ceput. See Kepe. 

Certes, adv. certainly, verily, in- 
deed, 732, 1380, 1500, &c. Ch. 

Chambur, n. F. chamber, 685. 
[MS. chanbur.] 

Chamly, adv. S. shamefully, 2124. 
Cf. Schamly. 

Charge, n. F. load, 388. 

Chase, chose, f 36. See Chese. 

Chases, 2 p. pi. imp. chase ye, 

Chast, v. to chasten, chastise, 729; 
2 p. s. imp. chaste, 5157. P. PL 

Chaul, n. S. jowl, jaw, f 1119. 
A.S. ceole. Cf. chol in P. PL 
Crede, and chall in Hartshorne'? 
Salopia Antiqna. 

Chaunche, n. F. chance, 137. 



Channeled, pt. s. enchanted (?) 
[But we should perhaps read 

Chauntemens, n. pi. F. enchant- 
ments, 654. 

Che, pron. she, 462, 641, 2317. 
Of. Sche, and Hue. 

Chef, adj. F. chief, 3841 ; cheefe, 
f 1210. 

Cheffaren, v. to chaffer, bargain, 
buy and sell, f 1210. 

Chepinge, n. S. market, 1822 ; 
fro chepinge ward, from towards 
market, on the return from market, 

Chere, n. F. countenance, look, 
appearance, demeanour, 647, 4882, 
5263. Ch. 

Cherl, n. S. churl, countryman, 
54, 60, 62, &c. ; cherle, 1675 j pi. 
cherls, 513. Ch. 

Cherli, adv. F. cheerily, kindly, 

Chese, v. to choose, f 770 ; pt. s. 
ches, 4165 ; chees, f 321 ; chused, 
f 140 ; imp. s. ches, 4161 ; pp. chuse 
of = chosen by, beloved by, f4>9. 

Cheued forth, >.s. hastened forth, 
f78. Cf. O.F. eschever, and see 
esquiver in Cotgrave. 

Cheuesed, pt. s. obtained, pro- 
cured, f 966. See Chemr and Che- 
vissance in Roq. and CJievis in Ch. 
Mars and Venus, st. 37. 

Cheueteyn, n. F. chieftain, 3379. 

Child, n. S. child, 1822. " It is 
here used for a person of gentle 
birth, in opposition to cherl." M. 
In 1. 541 it is used of a person of 
mean birth, but grown up to man- 

Chipmen, n. pi. S. shipmen, 
sailors, 2811, 2818. 

Choisli, adv. F. aptly, 1753; 
choicelich, choicely, f 49. 

Chold,^. s. should, 2014. 

Choliers. See Kolieres. 
Chortly, adv. S. shortly, 2035. 
Choys, adj. F. choice, fair, 400. 
Chul, (ye) shall, 3339. 
Chused. See Chese. 
Chylder, n. pi. S. children, f 36. 

[The A.S. pi. is cildra, cildru.] 
Clater<ed. See To-clatered. 

Clene, adj. S. fair, noble, 1083, 
1124, 1434 ; sup. clennest, 1609. 

Clenli, adv. S. cleanly, fairly, 

clearly, 3847; clenliche, 3477; 

clanli, 3288. 
Clepe, v. S. to call, 1299, 1977, 

3181 ; 2/>. clepus, 249; 

clepun, 2221 ; pt. s. clepud, 56, 260, 

274, 977, 1182 ; cliped, f 836 ; 

kleped, f 476 ; pp. clepud, 1956 ; 

cleped, f944; y-clepud, 121. Ch. 

Cleppende. See Clipped. 
Clere, adj. F. fair, fine (colour), 

579 ; cler (strength), 2037. 
Clerli, adv. F. finely, 4422. 
Cleued, pt. s. cleaved, stuck, 734. 

CleymeJ?, pr. s. calls out, calls, 
4481. Lat. clamare. 

Clipped, pt. s. S. embraced, 63, 
1570 ; clipte, 672, 1265 ; dipt, 
3205 ; clept, 675 ; clupte, 1587 ; 
pt. pi dipt, 1833, 3100; pres. 
part, clippend, 2808 ; cleppende, 
2804 ; clipping, 1396 ; pp. clipped, 

Clipping, n. S. embracing, 1053, 

Clou3tand, pres. part. S. mending, 
clouting, 14. A.S. clut, a clout. 
"The verb is preserved in Belgic 
klutsen, kluteren, to cobble or 
repair." M. Cf. Du. klotsen, to 
strike on ; and see Clouted in Ch. 

Cofli, adv. S. quickly, boldly, 
f 1009 ; cofly, t 693, f 748 ; 

A.S. cqflice. 
Coies,^>r. s. soothes, coaxes, f 1 1 75. 



Cf. Acoyed. F. coi, from Lat. 

Col, n. coal, 2520 -pT. coles, 4367. 

Colled, pt. s. embraced, 3032 ; 
kolled, 69 ; pres. part, collinge, 
2984. O.F. acoler. See Spenser, 
F. Q. iii. 2, 34. 

Com, pt. s. came, 39, 47, 61 ; 
kom, 507 ; pt. pi. come, 151, 3363 ; 
pp. come, 80, 816 , kome, 504 ; 
komen, 513. Com bi = acquire, 

Comande, Komande, commanded, 
347, 1110. See note to 1. 347- 

Come, n. S. arrival, 4192, 4953, 
5222 ; kome, 807 ; coome, t 73 ; 

cumme, 1 147. 

Comen, adj. Lat. common, 6. See 

Comfort, pt. pi. comforted, 1495; 

pt. s. cumfort, 1512 ; pp. conforted, 


Comly, adj. comely, 294 ; com- 
liche, 963, 2704 ; comelich, f 205 ; 

comeliche, 987; komli, 873, 
2858 ; curnlich, 1 18 ; cumly, 

Comliche,a?v. in a comely manner, 
660; comeliche, 2220 ; komly, 
51 ; komeliche, 423. 

Compacement, n. F. contrivance, 

stratagem, 1981. 
Compers, n. pi. F. companions, 

370. Ch. 

Comse, v. F. to commence, begin, 
2244 ; pr. s. komses, 616 ; pt. s. 
comsed, 37, 194, 288, 579, &c. ; 
comsede, 832 ; komsed, 1430 ; 
cumsed, 424, 764. P. PI. 

Comsing, n. F. commencement ; 
fram comsing to >ende, from be- 
ginning to end, 4869, 5092. 

Con. See Can. 

Confort, n. F. comfort, 1408. 

Conforted, pp. comforted, 380. 
See Comfort. 

Coninge, n. F. cunning, skill, 120; 

kuuning, f 643. 
Conseyl, n. counsel, advice, 114 ; 

cunsail, 595 ; cunsaile, 969 ; 

cunseil, 2126 ; cunseyl, 2105 ; 

c unsay le, 1118. 

Contenaunce, n. F. countenance, 
demeanour, 1401, 3076, 4900 ; 
countenaunce, t 961; cun- 
tenaunce, 1397 ; kuntenaunce, 
942, 3323. 

Conyng, adj. S. cunning, skilful, 
653 ; cunning, f 463 ; konyng, 
2917 ; comp. cunnyngere, 406 ; 
sup. konyngest, 4810. 

Conyng, n. pi. conies, rabbits, 182. 
\The*ing. is conyng (JPycl. Glox*.\ 
and we should expect to find conynges 
here, as in P. PI. ed. Wright, p. 12. 
See Conynge in Halliwell, who calls 
it Anglo-Norman. It is Teutonic ; 
cf. Du. konijn, G. ka)/inchen.~\ 

Coraious, adj.'F. courageous, 3318; 
koraious, 3352. 

Corteys, adj. F. courteous, 194, 
2704 ; curteyse, 406, 601 ; 
curteise, 1397 ; kurtes, 4405 ; 
curteys, 231 ; curtais, t 207. 

Cortynes, n. pi. curtains, 2056. 

Come, pp. carved, cut, 3233. 

Cosynes, n. F. female cousin, 625. 
See the note. 

Coude. See Can. 

Coueiiabul, adj. F. meet, agree- 
able, suitable, 4089 ; sup. couen- 
ablest, 3219. Ch. 

Coupyng, n. F. violent encounter, 
3602. See Acoupyng. 

Couren, pr. pi. F. cower, crouch, 
3336 ; pt. s. koured, 47. See Koure. 

Cournales, n. pi. F. battlements, 
t 295. See Kerneles. 

Coufe, adj. S. kind, affable, 3659. 

Coujje, Cou3de, Cou3f>e, &c. See 

Couwardli, adv. cowardly, 3336. 



Couyne, n. F. contrivance, plan, 
3147; koueyne, 952. 0. Tr. 
convine. See Roq. and Covyne in 

Coynt, adj. F. crafty, artful, skil- 
ful, 653, 1981 ; coynte, 2824; 
koynt, 4090 ; coynte crag (as we 
say a sly corner}, 2850. 

Coynted him, pt. s. made himself 
acquainted, 464-1. 

Coyntise,n.F. stratagem, art, 448, 
1688, 1972 ; coyntice, 1665; 
coyntyse, 1670, 1825. 

Cracche, n. F. manger, 3233. 

" Cracche, cratche, stall, crib, Job 

vi. 5 ; Lk. ii. 7, 12, &c." WycL 


Craft, n. 635 ; kraft, 559. 
Crafti, adj. S. skilful, clever, 1681; 

comp. craftier, 1680. See Carfti. 
Craftli, adv. S. prudently, 3828. 
Crep, pt. s. crept, f 1009 ; pt. pi. 

crepten, 2235. See Krepe. 
Cri, n. F. proclamation, 2249 ; 

kri, 2174 ; kry, 5405. 
Criande, pres. part, crying, 4347. 
Crie mercy, to beg for mercy, 1276. 

Croice, n. F. cross, 350, 3127 j 
croyce, 1343, 3493. 

Cristen, adj. Christian, 522. 

Cumly, Cumme, Cumsed. See 
Comly, Come, Comsed. 

Cunstabul, gen. sing., constable's, 

Cunter, n. F. an encounter, 1344. 

Cuntre, n. F. country, 6 ; 
kontrey, 241; kuntre, 1673; 
kontre*, 722; pi. cuntreis, 1922; 
kuntres, 5474. 

Curtais, Curteise. See Corteys. 

Curtesliche, adv. F. courteously, 
233 ; curteysly, 274 ; curtesli, 
347 ; curteisle, 353 ; kurteys- 
lyche, 873 ; kurtesliche, 1430 ; 
kurteisly, 1986 ; curteyseliche, 

2662; kortesliche, 1430; &c. 
See Corteys. 
Cuuerede. See Keuer. 

Dalt. See Dele. 

Damisele, n. F. damsel, 401, 562,. 
589 ; pi. damiseles, 1978. 

Dar, 1 p. pres. s. I dare, 564,, 
938 ; der, 2169 ; Ip.s. pt. dorst, 
2040; pt. s. dorst, 305. 

Dar, pr. s. in the phrase " dar no- 
mon hem wite," no one need blame 
them, 2434. " It is equivalent here 
to tharf, from S. \earj "an, Teut. 
darfen,'tQ need." M. See Thort. 

Dared, pt. s. looked dazed, stared 
as if stupeh'ed, gazed fixedly, 4055. 
See Way's note on " Daryn " in, 
Prompt. Parv. Ch. 

Darked, pt. s. lay hid, lurked, 17,. 
44, 2543 ; pi. darkeden, 1834 ; 
darked, 2851. 

Dawe, n. S. day, in phr. brou^t 
of dawe = bereft of life, 3818 (cf. 
f 56) ; pi. dawes, 77, 3704, 4719 ;. 
daywes, 570; daies, 5490. [When 
the pi. takes the form dawes. 
(daywes) it is preceded by lif.] 

Dawe, v. S. to dawn, 3261 ; pt. s^ 
it dawed, 1791, 2218, 2480. 

Debate, n. F. strife, 2779 ; 
debat, 4380. 

Debonureli, adv. F. courteously,, 
meekly, 730. Cf. Bonure. 

Ded, dead ; in phr. " ded as dore- 
nail," 628, 3396. [In P. PI. ed. 
Wright, p. 26, we have " as deed 
as a dore-tree," where the earlier 
text has " ded as a dore-nayl." 
See P. PI. A. i. 161.] 

Dedain, n. F. disdain, f 313. 
O.F. desdaing. 

Dedaine, adj. F. disdainful, f584. 

Dede, n. S, deed, 1197 ; an ac- 
tion, i.e. a battle, 1137, 1187;. 
pi. dede, 3807 ; dedes, 1368 ;. 
dedus, 1096, 3406, 4115. 



Dede, n. S. death, 2072 ; usually 

deth, as in 151. 
Dede, did. See Do. 
Dedut, n. F. pleasure, 4998. 
Deerne. See Dern. 
Defaute, n. F. default, 1185. 
Defoyled, pt. pi. F. trampled on, 

depressed, 4614. 
Degised. See Disgised. 

Deie, v. to die, 546, f 375 ; dei, 
696 ; deyen, 3353 ; 1 p. s. pr. 
dei^e, 4349 ; deie, 919 ; 1 p. pi 
pr. deuen, 3898 ; pt. s. deide, 1322, 
f 1013 ; deyde, 113 ; pt. pi. deyde, 

Del, n. S. part ; furj>e del = fourth 
part, 1284. Cf. Ten|>edel. 

Del, n. F. dool, sorrow, 349, 
1510 ; dol, 781, 2054 ; doel, 
] 909 ; dool, 88 ; doole, f 242, 
f613, f926; dul, 2757 ; duel, 
564. 919, 1318, 1321, 1370, 1647, 

Delfulli,a<iy. sorrowfully grievous- 
ly, 1980 ; dolfulli, 2434 ;-doole- 
fully, f 32 ; dulfulli, 2335, 4371 ; 
duelfulli, 578. 3422. See also 

Dele, v. S. to deal, deliver 
(blows), 1222 ; pt. s. dalt, 2791 ; 
pt. pi. delten, 3440 ; pres. part. 
deland, 1235 ; pp. de4t, 1271. 

Deliuer, adj. F. quick, nimble, 

Deliuerly, adv. quickly, 349, 776, 
1119, 1702 ; deliuerli, 1510,1909; 
deliuerliche, 1245. Ch. 

Deme, v. S. to judge, declare, 
]51, 1074; phr. "to deme be sobe," 
151, 583, 1161, 2633. 

Demeyned him, pt. s. behaved, 
1201, 3636 ; pt. pi. demeued hem, 

Denede, pt. s. dinned, resounded, 

Dent. See Dint. 

Departe, v. F. (intr.) to part 

asunder, sever, 2334, 5422 ; \p. pi. 

pt. departed, 2026 ; pt. s. (trans.') 

departed, 3894. 
Depeinted, pp. painted, pour- 

trayed, 3573 ; depeynted, 3217. 


Der. See Dar. 

Deraied him,^tf. s. F. acted madly 
(like a man disordered in mind), 
2061 ; derailed him, 3741 ; 
drayed (read derayed ?) him, 1210 ; 
deraide [hym ?], f 883. 0. F. 
desroyer, deroyer, dessarroyer. 

Deraine, v. F. to make good, to 
sustain a refusal (a law term}, 
1 124 ; dereine, \ 35 6. " Desrener, 
to dereine ; to justifie, or make 

g)od, the deniall of an act, or fact." 
Dere, v. S. to harm, injure, 953 ; 

derie, f 1240. Ch. 
Dere, adj. S. dear, precious, 401 ; 
phr. " whan 30U dere likes," 1050 ; 
" him dere |?ou3t," 1268 ; " ^ou 
dere finkes," 4352, 4727. 

Derk, n. darkness, 1285, f 714. 

Derly, adv. S. dearly, sumptu- 
ously, 1421; derli, 4312, 4374. 

Derling, n. S. a darling, 1538 ; 

pi. derlinges, 2568. 
Dern, adj. S. secret, 1792 ; 

derne, f 478 ; deerne, f 826 ; pi. 

derne, f 860. Ch. 
Dernly, adv. S. secretly, 17, 131, 

13li, 1799 ; dernli, 1050, 2208. 

DerworJ), adj. S. precious, dear, 
585, 2585 , derwor]>e, 1745, 2633, 
4140, 5311 ; dereworth, f 613 ; 
dereworthe, f 431, f 692, fl240; 
sup. de[r]wor|7est, 3209. P. PI. 

Des, n. F. The dais, or seat of 
honour, 4312, 4338 ; dese, 4011. 

Descriue, v. F. to describe, 5005, 
5025 ; 1 p. s. pt. descriued, 3042. 

Deschuuer, v. F. to discover, 
reveal, 3192. 



Descuuering, n. discovery, 1043 

discuueryng, 1024. 
Deseuy, v. F. to deceive, 3306. 

Desgeli. See Disgisili, and tlie note 

on 1. 5014. 
Desrnaye 2ou, imp. be dismayed, 


Desparaged, pp. disparaged, 485. 

Bespit, n. F. mischief, injury, 
555, 4227 ; despyt, 3335. 

Despitously, adv. mischievously, 
maliciously, 1137 ; despitusl'v, 

Dessece, n. F. decease, 4101. 
Destene, n. F, destiny, 315. 
Destruye, v. F. to destroy, 2930 ; 

destrue, 4147 ; destrye, 4262; 

pp. destruyt, 2847; destrued, 2646 ; 

destruyed, 2124. 

Deuel, n. S. devil, 1976 ; phr. 

"adeuelwai,"1978. Ch. 
Deuer, n. F. duty, 474, 2546 ; 

deuere, 520. Ch. 
Deuis, n. F. device, 3222. 
Deuise, v. F. to describe, talk 

about, tell of, 2985 ; diuise, 1316, 

2635 ; deuice, 1603 ; nt. pi. deuised, 


Deuouteliche, adv. devoutly, ear- 
nestly, 2976 ; deuoteliche, 1245. 

Deuoyde, v. F. to quit, leave, 

Digised. See Disgised. 

Dkrne, adj. F. worthy, 583, 4583 ; 

ding, f 313. Ch. 
Dignely, adv. worthily, 520 ; 

dingneli, 4567. 
Diked, pp. dug out, 2233. 

Dint, n. a stroke, blow, 1234, 
2784, f343;-dent, 2757, 3750; 
pi. dintes, 1222, f 124, fl30; 
dentes, 1215, 3440 ; dvntes, 

Disgisecl. pp. disguised, 1677; 
degised, 3888 ;-digised, 2530. 

Disgisi, adj. F. in disguise, 
masked, mummerwise, 1620 ; dis- 
gesye, secret, 2715. 

Disgisili, adv. strangely, extra- 
ordinarily, 485 ; desgeli, 5014, on 
which line see the Note. 

Diting, an error for Tiding, 1478. 
Diuise. See Deuise. 

Di^t, v. S. to dispose, get ready, 
prepare, 3253 ; pt. s. (with him), 
1119; pt.^pl. (with hem), 1799; 
pp. dijt, i. e. dressed, prepared, 
ready, destined (with reference to 
death), 151, 315, 776, 1620, 1643, 
1677, 3222 ; 1 p. imp. pi. " di^r, 
we vs henne," let us readily go 
hence, 2553. Ch. 

Done, v. S. to do, to cause, 320, 
860 ; also to fight (metaphorically), 
3252 ; 1 p. pr. s. do, 3249 ; 3 p. 

pr. s. do]>, 925 ; dos, 4202 ; 2 p. 

pr. pi. doj>, 1452 ; 3 p. pr. pi. don, 
3244; 1 s. dede, 555; 3 p. 

pt. s. dede, 862, 1025 ; dude, 3427; 

pt. pi. dede, 2092 ; dude, 1145 ; 
imp. s. do, 2127 ; imp. pi. do]>, 

3807; pp. don, 2928; do, 936, 
1024. Phr. dude to dethe = did 
to death, killed, 3427; dude hem 
for]) = went forth, 1145 ; dede 
hem on gate = went on their way, 
2092 ; cf. 1119 ; dede him our, 
went out, 2061 ; done (pp.) = 
dead, 937. "When followed by 
another verb, the latter is always 
in the infinitive mood (as in the 
case after all the other auxiliaries) 
and [often] receives a passive sig- 
nification." M. E. g. dede calif ^ 
caused to be called, 1522 ; dctfe 
clepe, 1299; do m>, cause to be 
proclaimed, 2127, 4049 ; do kepe, 
cause to be kept, 413, dede fect-lic, 
1303 ; do quelle, cause to be killed, 
1246 ; dede tmnsh/fe, caused to be 
translated, 167- The exception to 
this is when the verb following is 
neuter. E.g. dede astente, made 
to stop, 1526 ; dede to mete, caused 
to dream, 862 ; dede renne, caused 
to run, 3390 ; do vanisch, 639. 



Another exception is when do is 
followed by him (used reflexively), 
as in do him lo\>e mi loue, cause 
himself to loathe my love, 546. An- 
other phrase is do to wife (651, 1331, 
1459) = to cause to know, which 
is still in use, and in which to wife 
takes the place of the A.S. gerund. 

.Doel, Dol, Dool. See Del. 

Dof, imp. s. doff tliou, do thou 

off, 2342. 
Doluen, pp. (from delve), buried, 

4210 ; doluen quic, buried alive, 

1564; ded and doluen, dead and 

buried, 2630, 5280, 1 1026. Ck. 
Dom, n. S. judgment, doom, 1220. 


Dornayl, Dorenail. See Ded. 
Dorst. See Dar. 
.Doted, pp. F. foolish, idiotic, 

4055. &<? A-doteJ>. Ch. 
Dounes, n. pi S. downs, 2903. 
Doun ri^tes. See Ki^tes. 
Douten, pr. pi. fear, are afraid of, 

1 168. 0. F. douter. Cf. Adouted. 
.Doubter, gen. sing, daughter's, 

Doutusli, adv. doubtfully, 4338. 

Cf. Douteous in Ch. 
"Douati, adj. S. doughty, brave, 

1101, 1215, 1352 ;-dou3thi, 1302, 

2709 ; dou^ty, 1318 ; comp. 

douitiere, 1161 ; sup. dottiest, 


Doi^tili, adv. bravely, 1222. 
Draiht. See Dreche. 
Drawe. See Drou$. 
Drayed. See Deraied. 
^Dreche, v. S. to disturb, molest, 

t 765 ; pt. s. draihte, t 752 ; pp. 

draiht, t 820. A.S. dreccan, pt. t. 

drehte, pp. dreht, gedreht. Ch. See 

Way's note in Prompt. Parv. 

Drede, n. S. dread, fear, 1909; 

miswritten dredre, 1892. 
Dreew. See Drou^. 

Drem, n. S. a droning noise, f781 , 
|982. See note to 1. f 781. 

Dreme, n. S. a dream, 752. 

Dressed him, pt. s. addressed him- 
self, 1237. 

Dreeing, n S. suffering, 919. Cf. 

Drie, v. S. to endure, suffer, 1772, 
t373;-drye, 459, 1 1069 ; dry, 
t!067; \ dry e, 459 ; 2 p. 
pr. pi. dmen, 3704 ; pt. s. dried, 
t242; drey, 2864; drei^h, 2796. 
A.S. dreogan. Sc. dree. Cf. Moeso- 
Goth. dringan. 

Drift, n. S. driving-power, f 998 ; 
chasing, onset, f 897. 

Driuen, p)\ pi. " driuen for]) ]?at 
day," drive forth (i. e. pass) the 
day, 3065; pt. s. drof (drove), 
t 891 ; pp. driue (driven), 979. 

Dronked, pp. drenched, i. e. 

drowned, 3516. 
Dronken, pt. pi. drank, 1906. 

Drouned, pt. s. droned, made a 
droning noise, f 985. Cf. Mceso- 
Goth. drunjus. 

Drou}, pt. s. drew, drew near, ap- 
proached, 2208 ; dreew, t 714 ; 
drow, 1068, 1235, 1321, 1526, 1914; 
drow him, 4338; pt. pi. drou?, 781, 
3065; drowe, 1089 ; drowen, 1220; 
drow hem, 1792 ; drowen them, 
f 795 ; was drawe him=had drawn 
himself, 44. 

Duel, Dul. See Del. 

Dulfull, adj. doleful, causing dole, 
1 143 ; duelful, 3440. 

Dupe, adj. S. deep, fl!32, fH56. 

Duresse, n. F. hardship, constraint, 
cruelty, 1074, 1114, 1125, 1546, 
&c. Ch. 

Dwelle, v. to delay, tarry, 701 ; 
pr. s. dwelles, 1989 ; pt. s. dwelled, 
1966. Dan. dvcele. Sw. dvdljas. 

Dwer]?, n. S. a dwarf, 362 (see 
Note). A.S. dweorg, Dan. and Sw. 



I) wined, pt. s. pined, dwindled, 
578. A.S. dicinan. Ch. 

Eche, each, 517. "It is usual to 
find a (for an, one) used after this 
word, as eche a barn, 188 ; eche a 
,-i/nk, 1472; eche a strete, 1617; 
eche a kuntre, 1673 ; eche a gom, 
3465 ; [eche a seg, 3932 ;] eche a 
baili, 5387 ; eche a lord, 5399 ; and 
when combined with it, is written 
both in Old English and Scotch, 
ilka." M. 

Eft, adv. afterwards, again, 882, 
1049, f 552; eft as fele, as many 
again, 3372. 

Egge-tol, n. edged tool, sharp in- 
strument, 3755. [It seems to be a 
compound noun ; cf. A.S. ecg-bana, 
ecg-hete, &c.] 

Egged, pt. s. S. incited, urged, 

1130. A.S. eggian. O.N. eggia. 

Dan. egge. " Eggyn, or entycyn' 

to doon' wel or yvele." Prompt. 

Egre, adj. F. eager, courageous, 

Eiles, pr. s. ails, afflicts, 634, 

1533; eyles, 944; pt. s. eilede, 

951 ; eyled, 831, 888. 
Eir, n. F. heir, 709, 1474, 4102 ; 

eyr, 4641; eyer, 77; eyre. 

Eijjer . . . other, each . . . the 
other, i.e. one another, 1010, 1032, 
1613, 2505, 3032, 4889, 5200. 
Ei^er (each), 1054 ; spelt ej>er, 
833; cf. e^er, 1240; gen. sing. 
eiders (each other's), 1014. 

Ei^en, n. pi. S. eyes, 463, 465, 
1063, 1585 ; ebyen, 228 ; eyuen, 

Ek, but, 715. See Ak. 

Eke, adv. also, 473. 

Eld, adj. S. old, 3498. 

Elde, n. S. old age, 5227. 

Elles, else, otherwise, 1132, 1571, 
2671; eles, f 55, f 209. A.S. 

Em, n. S. uncle, 3421, 3435;. 

gen. sing, ernes, 3426. Ch. 
Emperice, n. F. empress, 5343, 

5400. Ch. 

Enchaunmens, n. pi. enchant- 
ments, 137. 

Encheson, n. F. occasion, cause, 
fl070, 3697, 4173 ; enchesoun, 
1172, f 140. 

Ender day, by-gone day, day past, 
3042. See?. PI. Crede, 1. 239,. 
and hendre in Jamieson. 

Enforced, pp. strengthened, forci- 
bly occupied, f 908. 

Engines, n. pi. warlike engines,. 
|294; engynes, 3000. 

Enpoysoun, v. F. to poison, 4650. 

Ensaumples, F. examples, |8. 

Entecches, n. pi. F. spots, stains- 

(metaphorically used), 558. 
Entent, n. F. intention, 1544. 
Entres, n. pi. F. entries, passes,.. 


Eny, any, 2223 ; eni, 1077. 
Enys, adv. once, 1093. A.S. dries, 

gen. of an, one. [But it is a mere- 

expletive in this placed] 

Er, conj. S. before, ere, 1612, 
2026; her, 1515; or, f310,. 
t791. SwEre. 

Erande, n. S. an errand, 4156 ; 
herend, 1469 ; herande, 1592; 
arnd, 5287. Cf. Moeso-Goth.. 
airman, to go on a message. 

Erber, n. arbour, 1752. 

Erden, v. S. to dwell, 5260 ;pt. s.. 

erded, 1417. 
Ere, adv. S. before, formerly, 160,, 

3031, 4180, 5233. Cf. Are. 
Eritage, n. F. heritage, 4097, |464. . 
Erliche, adv. S. early, 1296,2519.. 
Ern, n. S. an eagle, 3105. Ch. 
Em = 3erne, f 1 09 1 . See 3erne. 
Ert, art thou, f 592. Ch. 



Eschel, n. F. troop, company, bat- 
talion, 3379, 3564, 3785. O.F. 

Esed, pp. made at ease, accom- 
modated, 1632, 5338. 

Estres, n. pi. F. retreats, recesses 
(of a garden), 1768. Applied in 
Ch. to the inward parts of a house, 
&c. See O.F. estre in Roq. 
"Like to the estres of the grisly 

That higlit the cret tempul of Mars 

in Trace." "Ch. Kn. Ta. 1113. 
Cf. Rom. of the Rose, 1448, 3626. 

Eten,^.jtf. ate, 1906, 2515. 

Eth, adj. S. easy, 3571. Ch. A.S. 


E]>er, either, each, 833. See EiJ>er. 
Etteleden, pt. pi. hurried, 272. 

See Attele. 
Euele, n. S. evil, mischief, 558, 

Eiien, adv. straight, exactly, hard 

by, 755, 1093; euene, 747, 762, 


Euenly, adv. straightway, 1747. 

Euen-while, n. even-time, even- 
tide, 1747. 

Euerich, every, 622, 1474; 
euereche on, every one, 5412. 

Facioun. See Fasoun. 

Fade, j?p. faded, 891. 

Fader, n. S. father, 241, &c. ] gen. 
sing, fader, 4996. 

Faileden, pt. pi. failed, 2660. 

Fain. See Fayn. 

Fairre, comp. adj. fairer, 4437. 

Falle, v. S. to befall, happen, 324, 
806, 1700 ; pr. s. falles me (happens 
to me), 439 ; falles (suits, appertains, 
belongs), 14, 339, 1685, 2789; pt. 
s. fei (befell), 903 ; fel for (suited), 
1766 ; him fel (behoved him), 4440. 

Fantasie, n. F. fancy, apprehen- 
sion (of evil), f 384. Ch. 

Fanteme, n. F. a phantom, a fancy, 
703, 2315, 4109. 

Fare, v. S. to go, 5079, 5142 -,pr. 
s. fares, 1315 ; pt. s. ferd or ferde, 
30, 1479, 2649, (behaved) 884, 
2073, (fared, did) 1497, 1499, 
(befell) 1922 j pt. pi. ferden, 2745, 
2809 ; ferde, 1913 ; ferd, 1915 ; 
farde, f 305 ; pp. faren, 1514, 
5468 ; fare, 2485, f 224 ; faren 
for> = proceeded, advanced, 3260; 
cf. 2730, 4450. 

Fare, n. S. journey ; hence, busi- 
ness, "goings-on," affair (esp. a 
troublesome business), 1091, 2079, 
2802, 2943, 4580, &c. 

Farre, comp. adv. farther, f 244. 
Faiiy. See Ferli. 

Fasoun, n. F. fashion, shape, make, 
402, 934, 4440; fason, 2836; 
facioun, 500. 

Faujt,^. s. fought, 3426;^. pi. 

fo^ten, 3414. 
Fax, n. S. hair, 2097. 

Fayn, adj. S. glad, 2817 ; fain, 
1783; sup. faynest, 3933; (adv.) 
fayn (gladly), 858. 

Fayre, adv. fairly, kindly, 347. 

Feele, Feole. See Fele. 

Feffe, v. F. to enfeoff, provide for, 

5ive presents to, 1061 ; pp. feffed, 
93. Ch. 

Feintise, n. F. faintness, 436 ; 
feyntyce (cowardice), 1188 ; feyn- 
tise (flinching), 763 ; phrase, 
"fei}>li boute feintyse," verily, 
without flinching (or hesitation), 
1543, 3169. Ch. 

Feib, n. S. faith, 858 ; fewb, 

Feibli, adv. in faith, truly, 777, 
828, 912, 1317;-feif>ely, 201; 
fetyliche, 2732 ;fei3J>li, 4793 ; 
fei3^ely, 230 ;-fe|>li, 132 ; fetfy, 
209 ieuliche [_? feitfliche], 261 : 
faitly, tSO^j-fejtly, 703. 

Fei^tful, adj. faithful, 337 ; comp, 
feijrfullere, 5434. 



Fel. See Falle. 

Fel, n. S. skin, 1720, 2361; pi. 

bere-felles (bear-skins), 2414, 2430, 

Felachipe, n. S. fellowship, 777, 

1317, 4510; felachip, 1479. 
Felawe, n. S. i'ello\v, companion, 

275, 339; pi. felawes, 186,. 193, 

360, &c, 
Feld, pr. s. felt, 1 ; feld foute = 

perceived the scent, 33 ; pp. feled, 

Feldfares, n. pi fieldfares, 183. 

Fele, adj. S. many, 5, 186, 388, 

801, &c ; fel, t 46 ; feele, 1 880 : 

feole, t 12. 
Fell, adj. S. fierce, cruel, f 364, 

t 946. Comp. feller (of a fever}, 

897; (of a sickness), 609; (of a 

battle), 3614 ; (of a man), t 42. Ch. 

Felled, pt. s. feUed, killed, f 85 ; 
pt. pi t 387, 3415 ; feld, f 352 ; 
pp. felde, 3638. 

Felli, adv. fiercely, 3274 ; felly, 

FelJ>e, n. S. filth ; hence (by 

metaphor) a low fellow, a wretch, 

2542, 2545. 

Fend, n. S. a fiend, 3130. 

Fende, v. to defend, 3650 ; fende 
mee = defend myself, fight, 1 1201. 

Fenkes, pr. s. vanquishes, con- 
quers, t 323 ; pp. fenked, t HI, 
t 305, f 890; ifenked, t 117. 
Probably a modification of F. vain- 
ere, as the spelling venkud occurs 
in The Seuen Sages, 2024. Cf. 
" For haddest thou fenked the fon 
(foes)," &c. Alexander, ed. Steven- 
son, p. 208, 1. 339. 

Fer, adv. far, 2546, 2781 ; com.p. 

ferre, 2613, 5167, 5397; sup. 

ferrest, 2433, 5079. 
Ferche. See Fers. 
Ferd,#p. afraid, 3366. 
Ferd, n. S. a troop, company, 

386, 5326. AS.fyrd. 

Ferden. See Fare. 

Fere, n. S. a companion, 364,. 
1639, 2866; (a spouse), t 960. 
Cf. I-fere. 

Fere. adj. entire, sound, 1583. Cf.. 
IeeL t /2wr J Su.-Go. foer. Dan. and 

Fere, f 413. I can only suggest 
that to fere may mean for fear 
(which seems a forced construction), 
or that we should read to-fore, be- 
forehand. Cf. To-fore. Line f 415 
also seems to be corrupt, and for 
]pei we might read \>en. 

Ferefull, adj. S. terrible, f 291 r 

Ferforf, adv. far away, 209. 

Ferke, v. to drive, drive onwards 
by beating, to press hard upon, 
3630 ; pt. s. ferked, 1 85, 1 1221 ; 
pt. pi. firked, t 67. " Firk, to 
whip, to beat." Halliwell. 

Ferli,a<#. S. terrible, fearful, 2449, 
3186, 3934. A.S./6-&?. 

Ferli, sb. a wonder, 3280, 4531 ; 
ferlich, t!015; farly, 1 1050. 
See preceding word. 

Ferliche, adv. terribly, wonder- 
fully, 3238. 

Fers, adj. F. fierce, severe, 436, 
3351, 3641 ; ferse, t 70, t 276 ; 
ferche, 3796. 

Fersche, adj. fresh, 3633. A.S, 
fersc. See Fresch. 

Fersly, adj. fiercely, 1766; 
fersli, 3348 ; ferslich, t 115 ; 
ferselich, f 253 ; ferscheli, 3426.. 
Also spelt fresly, 1190. 

Ferst, adv. first, 648; adj. 1163.. 

Fesauns, n. pi pheasants, 183. 

Festened, pt. s. fastened, 1720 ;. 

festned, 1239 ; pp, festened, 447, 

3437,3593; fest, 1650. 

Fet, n. pi S. feet, 1766. 
Fetis, adj. F. well made, lovely, 
pretty, genteel, 126, 1447, 4095 ; 



fetys, 225, 4435 ; fetyse, 393 ; 

fetise, f 188. Q.^.fetis. Low 


Fetisliche, adv. fairly, neatly, pro- 

perly, 98. 

Fettes, pr. s. fetches, f 628. 
Fetures, features, 857, 2886. 

Feuer, n. F. fever, 897. In 1. 

1239, for of feuer {as in MS.) read 

on fe uter. See Feuter. 
Feute, n. scent, trace, 90, 2189 ; 

foute,33. "Fewte. Vestigium." 
Prompt. Parv. " Fewt, trace of a 
fox or beast of chase by the odour." 


Feuter, n. F. the rest for the spear, 
3437, 3593. From Lat. fulcrum. 
Cf. f ant re in Roq., and see Morte 
Arihure, \. 1366. Sir F. Madden 
points out that this is obviously the 
meaning in Wallace, \\\. 168 (where 
Jamieson renders fewtir by rage, 
from the Icd.fudra, efflagro !) 

Feye, adj. fated to die, unlucky, 
J397. A.S./^. CLMorteArth. 

Feyntice (1239), Feyntise, Feyn- 

tyce. See Feintise. 
Feyre, n. F. a fair, 1822. 

Feyrye, n. F. race of fairies, 230. 
" See Keightley's Fairy Mythology, 
vol. i." M. 

Fe3tly, Fefli. See Feifli. 
Fifte, fifth, 1322. 

Fin, adj. fine, great (applied to 
force}, 1117, 1 128 ; fyn, 1217. 
Finched, pp. finished, 3934. 
Findestow = findest thou, 132. 
Finliche, adv. finely, 768, f!201. 
Firked. See Ferke. 

Flagetes, n. pi. F. flagons, 1893 ; 

flaketes, 1888. 

Flebled, pt. pi. became feeble, 
2660, \_But we should rather read 
i'ebled. Ct.febul in 1. 5227.] 

Flecchinge, n. F. flinching, turn- 
ing aside. See/efc/> in Cotgrave. 

Fleete, v. S. to float, f532. Ch. 

Flen, v. S. to flay, 1682; pp. 
flayne, 2607. 

Flen, v. S. to flee, to fly, 3872 ; 

fleue, 1856, 3879, 3892 ; pt. s. 
flei, 1896 ; imp. pi. flej>, 3366. 

Flet, n. S. floor of a cottage; 
hence, on mi net = in my cottage, 
5368. A.S./^. $ez My rk's In- 
structions for Parish Priests, ed. 
Peacock ; 1. 273, note. 

Flite, v. S. to chide, debate, 2545. 

Flitte, v. S. to drive away, banish, 

Flon, S. arrows, f 269. 

Floriched, pp. flourished, clothed 

with verdure, 2438. 
Floungen, pt. pi. flew as if flung, 

were thrown, f 269. 
Fode, n. a man, f 209. Cf. Sw. 

foda, to bring forth. 
Fodest, 2 p. pr. s. thou feedest, 

i. e. suppliest, 1646 ; pt. s. foded, 

57; fodes, 2050. Cf. Mceso- 


Fold, n. S. earth, ground, 5382. 
Fold, pp. folded, 858. 
Folili, adv. foolishly, 4596 ; 

folliche, 1557. 
Folwe, v. S. to follow, 189 ; pr.s. 

folwes, 436 ; fulwes, 33 ; pt. pi. 

folwed, 3351, 3631; folwefc 

Fomen, n. pi. S. foemen, foes, 

3274, 3372, t 98. 
Fon, n. pi. S. foes, 3269, 3338 ; 

fone, f 271, t 332, f 866. 
Fonden, v. S. to try, seek, at- 
tempt, f 108 ; - fonde, 1019, 
3387, t 246, 1 385 ; fond, 777, 
3599 ; 1 p pr. s. fonde (I seek, 
ask), f!054; 3 p. pr. s. foundes 
(goes), f!21, fonden (are 
busy), 1682 ; pt. s. fonded, t 740 ; fondede (busied themselves), 



3629; imp. pi. fondes, 1114; pp. 

t'onded, 623, 801 ; pres.part. found- 
ing (going), 1749. KS.fandian. 
Fond, .p*. ft found, 293, 422, 2730, 

4847 ; pi. fond him = found for 

him, 73. 

Foos. See Fos. 
For, prep, on account of, 1691 ; 

as suited for, 294, 506 ; in spite 

of (?), 1226. {But we should, in 

the last place, read fro.] 
For, conj. in order that, 746, 2751 ; 

because, 1319, 1668. 
For , an intensive prefix. A.S. 

for . Moeso-Goth. fra . G. 

ver . See below. 
For-barre, v. to bar up, enclose 

forcibly, 3333; pt. pi. for-barred 

(parried), 1217. 
For-brenne, v. S. to burn up, 1188; 

pp. for-brent, 2621, 2831, 3001. 
Forcer, n. F. a casket, coffer, 4432, 

f628. See Way's note on Poor cere 

in Prompt. Parv. 
For-dede, pt. s. killed, destroyed 

(= should kill), 2972 ; pp. fordon, 

Fordedes, n. pi. previous deeds, 

325 ; fordede, 5182. See note 

to 1. 325, and cf. 1. 2076. 
Fore, adv. beforehand, 2076, 

4142. Cf. To-fore. 
Fore, prep, for, 2941. 
Forfare, v. S. to kill, 2762. 
For-fouten, pp. exhausted with 

fighting, 3686. See Jamieson. 
For-frete, $p. eaten up, 2376. See 


For-gaf, pt. s. gave up, 4418. 
For-gete, pp. forgotten, 5156. 
For-go, v. to forego, lose, 5187. 
For-hungred, pp. exhausted with 

hunger, 2515. 
For-left,^. left, 2497. 
For-lete,^.j;Z. left, forsook, 2311; 

pp. for-lete, f 679. 

For-lore, pp. wholly lost, 2955, 

Formest, adj. first, foremost, 1191, 

5079, t 40 ; formast, 2324 ; adv. 

(at first, first of all), 939, 1362, 


For-oute, prep, without, 2681. 

Fors, n. force, 1117. See Fin. 
Phrase, "no fors bei ne leten," they 
little cared for, 3651. Cf. I do no 
fors, I don't care, \\\Chaucer (Aldine 
edition), vol. vi. p. 305. 

Forschop, s. I transformed, 
misshaped, 4394*; pp. for-schaped, 
2639. Ch. 

For-sake, v. to deny, 1358. A.S. 

Fort, put for Forto, 788. See note. 

Forperes, pr. s. proceeds, 5397. 

Forf-fare, pp. departed, 5266. 

Forjn, For-J>i, conj. S. on that 
account, therefore, 723, 1051, 1624, 

Forjjinkes me, pr. s. wipers, it 
mislikes me, grieves me, 5422 ; pt. 
pi. reft, forthoughten hem, repent- 
ed, t 446. Ch. 

For]) ward, adv. S. forward, 3630. 

For-waked, pp. exhausted with 
waking, worn out for want of 
sleep, 785, 793, 1797 ; al for- 
waked, 790 ; al for- walked, 2236. 
" Chaucer uses it, Cant. Ta. 5016, 
and Wyntoun, viii. 16. 141." M. 

ForwandreJ), pr. s. wanders long, 
739. "In Chaucer is the pp. for- 
wandred, Rom. Rose, 3336." M. 
See also P. PI. A. prol. 7. 

Forward, n. S. a compact, 1451 ; 
pi. forwardes, 1557, 1568, 1650. 

For-wept, pp. worn out with 
weeping, 2868. " In Chaucer's 
Dreme, 1833, and King's Quair, ii. 
54." M. Cf. Bi-wept. 

For-wery, adj. exceeding weary, 
2443. "In Chaucer, Rom. Rose, 
I 3336." M. Cf. Dan. laiigcarig. 



For-wounded, pp. much wounded, 
3686. "In Chaucer, Rom. Hose, 
1830." M. 

For-:jeten, pt. pi. forgot, 1909 ; 
pp. for^ete, 4934. See For-gete. 

Fos, n. pi. foes, 1190; foos, 
2699. See Fon. 

Fostredes, 2 p. pt. s. didst foster, 

Fote, n. S. a foot (used as a 
measure), 4033. 

Fouche, in phrase, " sauf wol I 
fouche," I will vouch-safe or gua- 
rantee, 4352. 

Foule, adv. fully, 1646. 

Foules, n. pi. S. birds, 822 ; gen. 
foulen, 805. 

Foundes, Founding. See Fonden. 

Fourteni^t, n. S. a fortnight, 2681 ; 
fourtenenirt, 1337 ; fortenijt, 
2423 ; gen. fourteni^tes, 2683. 

Foute. See Feute. 

Fou3ten. See Fau^t. 

Fowlye, n. folly, f 1103. 

Frakes. See Freke. 

Fram. See Fro. 

Frau3t, pp. freighted, 2732. 

Frayne, v. S. to ask, inquire, 250 ; 
1 p. pt. s. freyned, 2034 ; pt. s. 
freyned, 1303, 3587;^.^.freyned, 
394. "Somner says that in his 
time this word still prevailed in 
Lancashire." M. 

Fre, adj. S. liberal, generous, 
noble, 337, 386, 1061, 3277 ; used 
as sb. 505 ; opposed to ]>ewe, 5514. 
See Sir F. Madden's Reply to Mr 
Singer's Remarks on Havelok, p. 15. 

Fredom, n. S. liberal disposition, 

Freke, n. S. a man, 402, 1117, 
1 193, &c. ; frek, 264, 897, 934, 
&c. ; gen. frekes, 3886 ; pi. frekes, 
442, 2286 ; frakes, 3504. Applied 
to a young boy in 1. 4078. The 
A.S./ra? is chiefly used "in a bad 

sense, but the root exists in the 
Su.-G. /rack, Isl. frek, strenuus, 
ferox." M. Cf. Sw. frack, Dan. 

Freliche, adj. S. noble, genteel, 
428, 822, 3876; freli, 5329; 
frely, 124, 366, 500 ; freyliche, 
360 ; freelich, f 209, f 1003, 

Freli, adv. S. nobly, honourably, 
5329. Generally in phr. "freliche 
schapen," finely shaped, 126, 225, 
393; "freli schapen," 1447; sup. 
" frelokest i-schapen," 2634. " In 
the Isl. frdligr is alacer, celer, 
strenuus. Orkneyinga Saga" M. 

Fresly. See Fersly. 

Fresch, adj. fresh, 3640. See 

Fret, pt. s. gnawed, 87 ; pp. 

freaten (rather readheteti), f 1159. 

A.S./reto. G.fressen. Cf. For- 

Frij), n. a thicket, wood, forest, 

822; pL frizes, 2216, f!5. "W. 

ffridd. Cf. 0. Hi.fraitis in Roq. 

Fro, prep, from, 13, &c. ; 
fromme, 425 ; fram, 5373. 

Frobroder, n. younger brother 
(apparently contr. from from- 
brother), f 23. [J cannot find the 
word elsewhere. ~\ 

Frond, n. F. front, 3584. 

Frotus,^?r.s. rubs, strokes, f 1174. 

Ful, adv. very, 983. 

FulnUen, v. to fulfil, 1451 ; pp. 
fulfulled, 4319. 

Fulsumli, adv. S. plenteously, 

Fulwes. See Folwe. 

Fundeling, n. foundling, 481, 

502, 2077. 
Fur, n. S. fire, 1188, 4773; 

fure, 907, 3759. 

Fur]?e del, fourth part, 1284. 
Fy, inter j. fie! 481. 




Gabbe, jpr. jrf. S. talk idly, 1994. 

Gadere, v. S. to gather, 30 ; 
gader, 1022. 

Gaf. See Gif. 

Gailiche, adv. gaily, 2591 ; gayli, 
1625, 2597 ; gayly, 2731. 

Gainli. See Gaynli. 

Gainelich, adv. f506. It is doubt- 
less an error for garaelich : the 
parallel passage in MS. Ashm. 44 
is, " A lowde latter he k>3e." See 

Gainus, n. pi. javelins, f 292. Cf. 
" Ganye, Gainye, Genye, Ganyhe, an 
arrow, javelin." Jamieson. Cf. Ir. 
gain, an arrow ; W. gaing, a chisel 
or wedge. {In MS. miswritten 

Gamely, adv. playfully, joyfully, 
laughingly, 427 ; gamelich, f 506 ; 
gamli, 3383 ; gameliche, 2591. 

Gamsum, adj. S. joyful, 4193. 

Gan, Ganne. See Gin. 

Gan, pr. pi. they go, 811. 

Gapand, pres. part, gaping, 2372 ; 
gapande, 2875 ; gapind, 3503. 

Garisun, n. F. provision, reward, 
5073 ; garissoun, 2491. Cf. 

Garnemens, garments, 3207, 
4460. P. PI. Crede, ]&%, foot-note. 

Gart, pt. s. caused, made, 1248, 
2082, 2168, &c. ; garte, 1365 ; 
" gart HS do make," caused this to 
be done, 5529. See also 2900. 

Gat. See Gete. 

Gate, n. S. road, way ; on gate, 
on his way, on their way, 1119, 
2092, 4014 ; on his gate, 372 ; on 
here gate, 1912 ; on oure gate, 
2800 ; on hur gate, f 379 ; pi. gatis, 
gates ; heie gates, high-roads, 
1691 ; gey nest gatis, nearest ways, 
4189 ; o\>er-gate, otherwise, 3761. 

Gayne, v. impers. to avail, help, 
profit, 598 ; pr. s. gayne|>, 3109 ; 

geinef>, 3899 ; pt. s. geyned, 3891 ; 
pr. s. subj. geyne, 3107. Dan. 
game. Sw. gagna. 

Gayned,^?. s. in " na gref gayned 
to his ioye," no grief accrued to 
his joy, 2473. Ct. 0. F. gaagner. 
A.S. gynan. 

Gaynest, adj. sup. nearest, readiest, 
3465 ; geynest, 4189. Cf. Gayne ; 
and Gane in Jamieson. 

Gaynli, adv. readily, well, 
thoroughly, 636, 2665, 2706, 3135 ; 
gaynliche, 369 ; geinli, 3448 ; 
geinliche, 744 ; geynliche, 1030 ; 
geynli, 3553, &c. Cf. Gaynest. 

Gelt, n. S. guilt, 2339, 4403. 
Gemetrie, n. geometry, f 548, 

t 644. P. PI. A. xi. 153. 
Genge, n. S. gang, assemblage, 

1600, 1625. 
Gerd him, pt. s. girt himself, 

Gerde)?,^. 5. strikes, 1240. See 

Girde in Ch. "But perhaps we 

should read qrete]>" M. 

Gere, n. S. gear, clothing, 1716, 

2588 ; stelger, steel armour, t 416. 


Gergeis, Greeks, 2200. 
Gerles, girls, 816. 
Gest, n. F. geste, romance, 5033 ; 

pi. deeds, adventures, 2780. Cf. 

Spenser, F. Q. ii. 2, 16. 

Gestes, n. pi. S. guests, 4904. 

Gete, n. S. to get, obtain, 644 ; 
1 p. pt. s. gat (begat), 4191 ; pt. s. 
gat, 2895 ; pi. gete, 4077; 
. gaten, 1592 ; pp. geten, 

L030 ; gete, 799. 

Gie. See Gye. 

Gif, v. S. to give, 5539 ; giif, 
1169; 1 p. pr. s. giue, 531, gif, 
536, 1000 ; pt. s. gaf, 395, 992, 
1559 ; goue, 4781 ; pp. giue, 
5075. God gif (God grant), 2157 ; 
God goue, 1648 ; God gof, 2348. 
See also under 3eue. 



Ginne, 1 p. pr. s. begin, 1929; ginneK H85, 2080; pt. s. 
gan, 691, 736 ; pt. pi. gonne, 4009 ; 
1 p. imp. pi. ginne, 5104. Also, as 
an auxiliary verb; pr. s. ginnes 
ride (doth ride), 1189 ; pt. s. gan, 
71, 647, 831, &c. ; pt. s. subj. gun, 
290 ; pt. pi. gonne, 1961, 2200, 
t 292 ; gun, 1154, 3274 ; gunne, 
1164, 1272, 1530, 1600 ; gon, 3825. 

Ginnes. See Gynne. 

Gist, adv. (?) justly (placed), 
exactly (set), f 294. The gloss iust 
seems correct. 

Glade, v. S. to gladden, 824, 827 ; 
intr. to rejoice, 351 ; pp. gladed, 
600,870,1593. Ch. 

Gle, n. S. melody, 824. 

Glede, n. S. a burning coal, f 729. 

Gleming, pres. part, looking a- 
skance, f 506. See Glime in Jamie- 

Glimerand, pres. pt. shining, 

Glisiande, pres. pt. glistening, 

shining, f 180, f 534, f H96 ; 

glisiing, f 698. 

Glod,^. s. glided, f 279. 

Glosed, pt. s. spoke coaxingly, 
persuaded, 60. 

Go \ve, let us go, used for let us, 
1184. Cf. "gowe dyne, gowe." 
P. PI. A.prol. 105. 

God, n. S. goods, riches, possess- 
ions, 1731, 3523, 5071. 

God, Gode, adj. S. good, 1765, 
&c. " Used substantively, 504, 
1334, 3777. In the first and last 
instances parentage or birth is 
understood, and lady in the 
second." M. 

Godli, adv. S. goodly, well, fairly, 
1305, 1450, 1461 ; godliche, 1270, 
2444, 5031 ; -godly, 169, 2916 ; 
goddeli, 306. 

Godelyche, adj. S. goodly, fair, 

Godmen, n. pi. good men, strong 

men, 1069. 
Gof. See Gif. 
Gome, n. S. a man, 670, 824, 851, 

t 221, t 252, &c. ; gom, 747, 

1007, 1092, &c. ; gum, 4441 ; gen. 

sing, gomes, 346, 1687 ; pi. gomes, 

1169, 1939. 

Gon, v. S. to go, 4902; gone, 
2600 ; pr. s. gob, 271, 747, &c. ; 
pr. pi. gon, 1687 ; gan, 811 ; imp. 
pi. goK 263. 

Gon, Gonne. See Ginne. 

Gost, n. S. spirit, breath of life, 

992, 1559, 2120 ; a phantom, 1730. 
Goue. See Gif. 
Gradden, pt. pL cried out ; grad- 

den hur grty, cried out for peace, 

made a treaty, 1 151. P. PI. A. 

ii. 59. 

Graith, adv. straight, at once, 

f863. Cf. GreiJ>. 
Graijjed. See GreiJ>e. 
Graithlich. See Greijjli. 

Grame, n. S. anger, wrath, 2200. 

Gras, n. S. grass, herb, 644, 799, 

1030 ; pi. grases, 27. 
Grathly. See Greifli. 
Greate, v. to greet, f 705. 
Grece, n. S. grass, 636. See Gras. 

Grece, n. F. a flight of steps, 
stairs, 811. See Way's note in 
Prompt, Parv. 

Gref, n. F. grief, 2473 ; vexation, 
anger, 4418 ; greefe, f 264 ; pi. 
greues, 778, 868, 956, &c. 

Greeny, adv. grievously ; greefly 
bigo y grievously beset, f 490, f 994. 
Gregoyse, n. pi. Greeks, 5104. 

GreiJ>, adj. ready, 5296 ; greyt, 
2731. \These seem to be adjectives 
rather than from GreiJ>e.] 

Greijje, v. to dress, prepare, make 
ready, array, 1719, 3558, 4274; 



pr. s. graipes, f 254 ; pt. s. grei)?ed, 
3288 ; graythed, f 77 ; pt. pi. 
greibed, 1931, 3207 ; pp. greibed, 
1945, 3766, 3768 ; grayth< 
grained, f 258, 2933 ; 

grefea. [For gre}>and, 1427, read 
gre}>ed.~] Cf. A-gre]>ed. 

Greijjli, adv. readily, quickly, 984, 
3492, 4257 ; gre}>li, 998; graith- 
lich, f 858 ; grathliche, f 562 ; 

Gremjje, n. S. anger, fierceness, 
2080, f 221, f 279. " In Isl. 
grind ; see Gautretfs Saga,}*. 251." 
M. Cf. Grame. 

Grendes, 2 p. pr. s. thou grindest, 

Gresli. See Grisli. 

Grete, adj. great; used (in pi.) 
substantively (as at present) for 
persons of rank, 1107, 1595, 1936 ; 
comp. gretter, 1859 ; sup. grettest, 
928 ; miswritten grettes, 1196. 

Grete, v. S. to greet, accost, 1430 ; 
pr. s. gretes, 233 ; pis. gret, 1393, 
1986 ; grett, 873, 4532 ; grette, 
369 ; pt. pi. gretten, 1334 ; grette, 
\ 920 ; imp. pi. gretes, 355 ; grete]>, 
359 ; pres. part, gretand, 8816. 

Greteli, adv. greatly, 1292 ; 
gretliche, 975, 2444 ; gretly, 
600; grettli, 2665 ; gretteli, 

Gretyng, n. S. salutation, 234. 

Greue, n. S. a grove, 3634. 

Greue, v. F. to vex, injure, 689, 
2875, 4028 ; pr. s. greues, 530, 
608, 889, 899 ; greuen (sub. 
wounds), 1378 ; imp. s. greue, 

Greues. See Gref. 

Grewes, Greeks, 2080. 

Grim, n. S. anger, fury, f 904. 

A.S. grim, fury. 
Grint, pt. s. S. ground, pierced 

through, 1242, 3443. 

Giipt,pt.s. S. gripped, seized, 744. 

Grisli, adj. S. formidable, fright- 
ful, 1730 ; grisiliche, 4343 ; 
grissiliche, 4935 ; grislich, f 434; 
gresli, 1687. 

Grip, n. S. peace, security, 3891, 
3899 ; gradden hur gri\>, sued for 
peace, fl51; graunted him grty, 
granted him peace, 3927. 

Grocching. See Grucching. 

Groin, n. S. groom, man, 1767. 
"Evidently the representative of 
gome and formed from it, as bride- 
groom is from brid-guma." M. 

Grot, n. groat, 4257. "It may 
also mean a thing of no value, from 
S. greot, pulvis." M. 

Growen, pr. pi. grow, 1812. 

Grucche, v. F. to murmur, be un- 
willing ; 2 p. pr. subj. grutche, 
4257; imp. s. grucche, 1450; pt. s. 
grucched, 3927 ; pres. part, grocch- 
ing, 271. Ch. J 

Grucching, n. S. murmuring, 1461, 

Grunt, pt. pi. groaned, f 388. 

Gryffouns, Greeks, 1961. " Cf. 

Griff ouns in Halliwell. 
Gult, 1 p. pt. s. injured, 1172. 

See A-gult. 
Gum. See Gome. 
Gun, Gunne. See Ginne. 

Gye, v. F. to guide, lead, govern, 

1105, 2664, +316, f 328 ; gie r 

|287. Ch. 

Gye, n. F. guide, 2727, 2849. 
Gyled, pp. beguiled, cheated, 689. 

Gynne, n. a contrivance, art, 

f 1135 ; pi ginnes, f 548, f 644. 


Hache, n. S. ache, pain, 905 ; 
hacche, 847 ; pi haches, 615, 
1575 ; hacches, 826, 902. " Still 
pronounced etitch in Cheshire. Tide 
Wilbraham's Glossary." M. 



Hacclies, n. pi. hatches (of a ship), 
2770, 2776. Ch. 

Hadden, Hadestow. See Haue. 

Hakernes, n. pi. S. acorns, 1811. 

Hal, adj. all, 323, 371. 

Halde, v. S. to hold, 1304 ; pr. s. 
haldes, 905, 932 ; pr. pi. holden, 
2711 ; pt. pi* helden, 946 ; pp. 
holde (bound, beholden), 317 ; 
hold, 4722 ; holde (considered as, 
esteemed), 2833, 3773, 4158 ; hold, 
1355 ; imp. s. hald, 343; imp. pi. 
haldes, 106. 

Half, n. side, 3971 ; on goddes 
halue, on God's side, in God's name, 

Halp. See Helpes. 

Hampris, pr. s. hampers, impedes, 
troubles, 668 ; pp. hampered, 441 ; 
hampred, 4694 ; imp. pi. hampres, 
1115. Cf. Su.-Goth. hamma, Dan. 
hemme, to hem in. 

Han. See Haue. 

Hange, pp. hung, 5479. [Better 
hanged. Cf. Honget.] 

Hap, n. chance, fortune, 414, 
440, 1794, 1798 ; happ, 806 ; 
happe, 32 ; pi. happes, 1815, 
1840, 1885, &c. ; vp happe (per- 
haps), 2722. Icel. happ. W. hap. 

Happe, v. F. to get, receive, light 
on, 3340. Cf. F. hopper, to seize. 

Happili, adv. haply, by chance, 
2774, 4130 ; happiliche (luckily), 

Hard, adj* used substantively to 
denote danger or hardship, 435 ; 
harde, 472, 2339 ; as harde as 
(as fast as), 1082, 1857; cf. 1286. 

Hardien, vb. to make hard, 

embolden, 1156. 

Hardnesse,w. hardship, 1816. Ch. 
Harmes, n. pi. sorrows, 453. 
Harmles, adj. unharmed, 1671. 
Harneis, n. harness, body-armour, 

horse -trappings, 1582 ; harneys, 

2349, 4187, 4281. Ch. 
Has, for As, 1857. 
Has, for Hast, 606. 
Haselnotes, n. pi. hazel-nuts, 1811. 

Hastely, adv. quickly, soon, 58, 
323, 1566; hasteli, 597, 1051; 

hastilyche, 2571; comp. hastlier 
(sooner), 4160. 

Hastou, Hastow, hast thou. See 

Haue, v. to have, 72 ; 1 p. pr. s. 

haue, 519 ; 2 p. pr. s. hastou (hast 

thou), 1545 ; hastow, 1005, 1556; 

has, 606; 3 s. ha}>, 477, &c.; 

has, 475; 2 p. pr. pi ban, 4093; 

haue, 1030 ; pr. pi. han, 361 ; 2 p. 

pt. s. hadestow (hadst thou), 1816; 

pt. s. had, 369 ; pt. pi. hadden, 

1014; hadde, 1289; imp. s. a, 

1177; imp. pi. hauej), 3339; 2 p. 

pr. s. subj. haue, 4255. 
Hautene, adj. F. haughty, proud, 

3982; hauteyn, 472, 529, 707, 

729 ; (loud), 2187. 
Hawes, n. pi. haws, berries, 1811. 

Hed, pt. pi. hid, 2848 ; hedde, 
1793 ; pp. hed, 688. 

Heie, adj. high, 749 ; hei$, 
103 ; hei^h, 569, 1156 ; heye, 
252 ; hue, 5372 ; adv. hye$, 
707 ; comp. herre, 529, 1178 ; superl. 
newest, 2907. Heie gates, high- 
ways, 1691 ; hei^-waye, 1846. On 
&ei$, 2020. Hie$ midnty, 2066. 
Hefye dese, high dais, 4011. 

Heili, adv. highly, greatly, often 
joined to the vb. herie, as, heri^e- 
den heili, 3461 ; heriend heiliche, 
1584 ; heriede hi^liche, 1798; 

to herien hei^li, 1875; hilich 
herie, f 703 ; heijli (earnestly), 
5495 ; heueliche, 2336 ; heizeli, 

Hei^ vs, vb. refl. See Hije. 
Hewing, n. hurrying, fast travel- 
ling, 2440. 
Hei^resse, n. pi. S. hairs, t c. hair- 



cloths (by way of penance), 4778. 
Cf. P. PI. A. v. 48. The spelling 
heiyesse for heiyes is like that of 
bodiesse for bodies, 3767, and lordesse 
for lordes* 4539. A.S. Tiara, a 

Hel,*. S. a hill, 2233, 2318; jrf. 
helles, 2432. 

Held, n. S. (put for Eld), age, 

Helden. See Halde. 

Hele, v. S. to hide, conceal, 960, 
4206 ; 2 p. s. pr. subj. hele J>ou, 
945. Ch. 

Hele,v. S. to heal, 595 ; pp. heled, 
1329, 1575. 

Hele, n. S. health, 597, 1375. Ch. 

Helpes,imp. pi. S. help ye, 2378; 
helpefc 4409 ; pt. s. halp, 2206 ; 
pp. holpen, 3611; holpe, 4012, 
4149 ; holp, 4494. 

Helplich, adj. helpful, f 187. 

Hem, pron. dat. to them, 169; 
ace. them, passim. Hemself (them- 
selves), 812, &c. 

Hende, v. to end, 540. 

Hende, n. end, 2333, 4178. 

Hende, adj. courteous, gentle, 106, 
184, 348, 362, f 665, &c. ; hend, 
165, 1103. O.N. hendt, adapted ; 
Dan. and Sw. hdndig. 

Hende, adv. at hand, near, 278, 

Hendeli, adv. courteously, gently, 
1917, 4311 ; hendely, 269, 523, 
t!87, f248 ; hendli, 2469, 3032; 
hendly, 2785. 

Heng, pt. s. hung, 734. 

Henne, adv. hence, 1746, 2553 ; 
hennes, 329. Ch. 

Hennes-for]), henceforth, 1050. 

Hent, v. S. to take, catch, get, 
2394; 1 s. hent, 414; 2 p. 
pr. s. hentest, 2787 ; pr. s. hentes, 
f 527 ; hentis, 907 ; 1 p. pt. s. hent, 
615 ; pt. s. hent, 150, 1010, 2754, 
&c.; pt. pi. henten, 4023; hent, 

2420. Hentes vp (catches up), 
1896 ; hent vp (caught up), 3948. 

Hepus, n. pi. hips, "berries, 1811. 
Her, conj. ere, 1516. See Er. 
Herande, Herend. See Erand. 

Herberwed, #p. harboured, lodged, 

1626. Ch. 
Herberes, n. pi. garden-plots, 

1768. See P. PL Crede, 166. 
Herde,w. S. host, army, 1120. 
Herden,^. pi. heard, 1298. 
Here, pers. pron. her, 1716, &c. ; 

hire, 150, &c; hir, 673, &c. ; 

hure, 2915. The spelling hire is 
the commonest ; hure occurs but 
once ; here is used of the sun, 3073. 

Here, Hire, poss. pron. her. See 

page 95. 

HeiQ, poss. pron. their, 14, 73, &c. 
Here-bi-fore, heretofore, 3043, 

Herende. See Erande. 

Heres, 2 p. imp. pi. hear ye, 
2291, 2624. Cf. Herden. 

Herien, v. S. to praise, 1875 ; 
herie, 5208, f 703 ; pt. pi. heriede, 
1798; heri^eden, 3461; pp. he- 
ri^ed, 4484, 5372; heried, 4577, 
f 536 ; pres. part, heriend, 1584. 
Ch. See Heili. 

Heried, pt. s. S. harried, harrowed, 
3725. An allusion, to "The Har- 
rowing of Hell." 

Herken, v. S. to hearken, 213; 2p. 
imp. pi. herkenes, 2248, 2617. 

Hert, n. S. a hart, 2569. 

Herted, pp. encouraged, 3417. 

Herre. See Heie. 

Hertily, adv. heartily, 97, 102 ; 

hertly, 3324. 

Herto, adv. hitherto, 4656. 
Hese, n. ease, 1638, 3208. 
Hest, n. S. command, 468, 495, 

2137, 2146, &c. ; heste, 1 160. 

A.S. Ms. 



Hete, i>. S. to bid, tell, 1021 ; 1^?. 

pr. s. hete, 572, 1002, 1626 ; pt. s. 

1082, 2045, 2089; hett, f543; bete, 4159. See also Hote, 

Hetterly, adv. violently, angrily, 

150, 886, 1243 ; hetterli, 2756. 

Cf. A.S. Juetol, hot, furious ; Sw. 

hetta, heat ; O.N. heitr, hot, angry. 

See Gawayne and the Grene Knitf. 
Heue vp, v. to heave up, 348. 
Hewe, n. S. hue, 3502, 3572. 
Hewen,^?. hewn, 3616. 
Hi, they, f 231. 
ITiden, v. S. to hide, 4697 ; hude, 

2743. And see Hed. 
Hider, adv. hither, 2277. 
Hider-to, hitherto, up to the pre- 
sent time, 3510. 
Hidous, adj. hideous, 3177, 3201, 


Hidus, n. pi. hides, 3201. 
Hight. eeHi3t. 
Him, referring to day, 2993. 
Hir, Hire. See Here. 
Hirne, n. S. a corner, 3201 ; 

hurne, 688. Ch. 
Hirt, pt. s. hurt, 3607. 
His, put for Is, 3836. 
Hise, poss. pron. pi. his, 4115. 
Hit, it, 198, 470, &c. 
Hiae, v. S. to hasten, haste, 1082, 

1286, 2146, 3454, 4162, 5258; 

hei3 us, 1746 ; rn^e hire, 1969 ; hL;e 

me, 5196 ; used as transit, vb. to 

make to haste, 1482 ; pt. s. hi^ed, 

1261, 2177 ; pt. pi. hi^ed, 1123 ; 

hwed hem, 1940; heuden, 2280; 

he^eden, 2285 ; t^eden, 2878 ; 

hidden, 4546; imp. pi. hi^es, 

4486 ; hues 2ou, 1187 ; hebe sou, 

Hrjt, 1 p. pr. s. am called, 70; pt. 

s. hist (was called), 2838, 2918; 

hight, f 23, f 34 ; hyght, f 52, f 119, 

|133; pt. pi hyten, 4775; pp. 

hote, hoten. See Hote. Cf. A-l^t. 

Hi^t, promised. See Hote. 

Ho, pron. who, 188, 4919 ; pi. 

ho, 2733. Ho-so (whoso), 1286, 

4519; hoo-so, 2135. 

Hok, n. S. oak, 1793. See Ok. 

Hoi, adj. S. whole, sound, 1056, 

1566, 1655, 3522. 
Holde, n. S. a fortress, place of 

strength, 2836, t 257 ; hold 

(prison), 4573 ; pi. holdes, 5472, 


Holde, Holden. See Halde. 
Holde, adj. S. faithful, true, 2833, 


Holle, adj. whole, complete, |521. 
Holli, adv. wholly, 1106; hol- 

lich, fll7; holliche, 945, 974; 

holly, 495, 531, 534, f 327. 
Holpe, Holpen. See Helpes. 
Holw, adj. hollow, 1793. 
Hom-kome, n. home-coming, 807. 
Homward, homeward, 2477, 2487. 
Hond-werk, n. handiwork, crea- 
tures, 929. 
Honget, pp. hung, 2020 ; hong- 

ed, 2086. 
Hony, n. S. honey (as a term of 

endearment), 1655. 
Hope, 1 p. pr. s. I "believe, think, 

1344, 1780 ; hopeden, 4308. 
Hordere, n. order, 4461. 
Hors, n. pi. horses, 1940, 4187, 

4281, 4820. Hors charge (horses' 

load), 388. 
Hote, 1 p. pr. s. I tell, 1123, 

1384, 4989 ; imp. s. hote, 4162 ; 1 

p. pt. s. hi^t (promised), 1030 ; pt. s. 

hi2t (promised), 58; het (called), 

523 ; pp. hoten (called), 405, f 13 ; 

hote, 3497, f 172, f 364. See also 

Hete, Hi$t. 
Hotend, pres. part, hooting, 

shouting, 2387. See Hoot in 

Hou2, adv. how, 4265 ; hov, 

97, 98, 225. 



Hones, 723. See the note. 

Hude, v. S. to hide, 2743. Of. 

Hiden, Hed. 
Hue, she, f 34, f 36, f 39. 

Hulde, v. to flay, take off the 
covering or hide, 1708 ; 1 p. pi. 
imp. hulde, 2587. "From the 
same root proceeds the modern 
verb to hull, to take off the hull or 
husk. It corresponds to the Goth. 
and-huljan, Lu. x. 22. Hence also 
A.S. kyldere, a butcher." M. 

Hules, pr. s. fondles, lulls, hushes, 

97. See Hull in Wedgwood. 
Hupes, n. pi. hips, f 190. 

Hur, her, f 185; (their), f 4, f65. 

See Here. 

Hure, v. S. to hear, 3270. 
Hurne. See Hirne. 

Hurtel, v. F. to strike together, 
meet together with a shock, 5013. 
See the note. Ch. 

Hye$. See Heie. 

I-, Y-, a prefix, used (in these 
poems) chiefly in past participles, 
where it represents the A.S. ge- ; 
or as an abbreviation for in, as in 
i-fere, y-fere, i-liue. 

[The past participles are here collected 
for convenience. ~] 

I-armed, armed, f 485. 

Ibene, been, f 1023. 

I-bent, bent, f 181. 

I-bet, bettered, remedied, 4613. 

Ibore, born, f849. 

Iborne, born, f 642. 

Ichaped. See I-schapen. 

I-charged, loaded, 2499. 

I-cloped, clothed, 2416. 

I-corue, carved, f 569. 

I-dijt, prepared, 3918. 

I-fed, fed, 768. 

Ifenked, vanquished, f 117. 

Igett, begotten (or, perhaps, 

born), t 633. 
Igraue, graven, f 830. 
Igrett, greeted, worshipped, |731. 
I-herd, heard, f 656. 
I-holde, held, f 598. 
I-horsed, mounted, 1950. 
I-kid, known, renowned, f 453. 
Ilaide, laid, f 203. 
I-lengped, lengthened, 1040. 
Imaked, made, f 630. 
I-painted, painted, 1 733. 
I-proued, proved, 4661. 
I-putt, put, f 845. 
I-quelled, killed, 1166. 

I-schapen, shaped, 2634 ; i- 
schape, f 191, f 628 ; ischaped, 
j-186; ishape, f732. 

I-seie, seen, 1874. 

I-sett, set, f 339, f 618, f 728. 

I-slayne, slain, 3908. 

I-told, told, 1493. 
[See also under Y-.] 

Iced, pt. pi. issued, 3789. See 
Isch in Jamieson. 

Ich, I, 548, 598, 624, &c. 

Icham, (for Ich am), I am, 594, 
1743, 3951. 

Ich, each, 332, 510. See Eche. 

I-fere, together, 2180, 2523, f 340. 
See Infere. 

Iknowe, v. to know, f 607. [The 
only instance of an infinitive pre- 
ceded by i-.] 

Hlk,pron. S. same ; almost always 
preceded by pat. Hence, pat ilk = 
that same, that very, 281, 688, 
2878 ; used absolutely (that very 
thing, that very time), 531, 629, 
1041, &c. Also, pis ilk, 2263; 
pat ilk selue (that very same), 4106. 
Spelt pat ilke, 1041; pat ilche, 



I-liue, in life, i. e. alive, 1690. 
Imped, set, lit. engrafted, f 616. 

Incle, v. to give an inkling of, to 

hint, f 616. 
In-fere, together, 2984, 3300, 

3342. Cf. I-fere, Y-fere, Fere. 
Inkest, sup. adj. darkest, blackest, 

f 1061. [The word is a little doubt- 

Inne, n. an inn, lodging, 1485, 

1524, 1574, &c. 
limed, pt. s. lodged, 2479; pp. 

1638. Wycl. Gloss, 
I-now, adv. enough, 483, 1121 ; 

i-nov, 100; i-nou5, 714; i-nome, 

1673 ; y-now, 836 ; y-nou^, 118. 
loly, adj. F. jolly, i. e. pleasant, 

pretty, 3479. 

loyned, pp. adjoined, adjoining, 

Ira, adj. iron, 3232. Cf. Yren. 

Is, put for His, 8, 69, 181, &c. 

Both spellings occur in 1. 4369. 
It-selue, itself, 3116. 
luste, v. to joust, 1237. P. PL 
lustislich, adv. justly, exactly, 

closely, 1724; iustili, 2596 ; 

iustly, 751. 

lurnes, journeys, 4286. 
I-wisse, adv. verily, truly, 697, 

739, 960, &c. ; i-wis, 3397. See 

Y-wisse. Ch. 

[For some words beginning with ka, 

ko, ku, see under C.] 
Kairus, go ye, 1 623. See Caire. 
Kan. See Can. 

Kares, imp. pi. be ye sad, be 

anxious, f 5 63. Cf. Carestow. 
Karp, Karpes. See Carpen. 
Kast, sb. design, f!46. Ch. 
Kastyng, sb. casting, 942. 
Kau^t. See Cacche. 

Kaysers, n. pi. Caesars, emperors, 

Kechene. See Kichen. 

Ked, adj. renowned, famous, 
f556. See Kid. [In P. PL A. xi. 
56, MS. U has kedde where MS. 
T has kid.] 

Kempe, n. S. knight, champion, 
4029 ; kemp, 3746 ; pi. kempes, 
3352. A.S. cempa. Icel. kempa. 

Ken, n. kindred. See Kin. 

Ken, n. pi. kine. See Kin. 

Kende. See Kenne, v. intr. 

Kende, adj. natural. See Kinde. 

Kendely. See Kindeli. 

Kene, adj. keen, eager (said of 
thought), 616 ; (cold), 908 ; 
(kisses), 1011 ; (knights), 1205. 

Keneli, adv. sharply, eagerly, 
shrilly, 4843 ; kenely, 152, 859 ; 
kenly, 37, 2174 ; kenliche, 
2532. * 

Kenne, v. tr. to inform, shew, in- 
struct, charge, 1665 ; pt. s. kenned, 
2212, 5205 ; pt. pi. kenned, 343; 
imp. pi. kennes, 591. " Kenne, or 
teche. Doceo" Prompt. Parv. 

Kenne, v. intr. to know, f 623 ; 
pt. s. kende, 1 193 ; pt. pi. kende, 
f 367. Ch. " Kennyn, or knowyn. 
Agnosco" Prompt. Parv. 

Kepen, v. S. to keep, take care 
of, 8 ; kepe, 66, 123 ; 1 p. s. pr. 
kepe = I care, intend, wisli, 993 ; 
kepe = I tend, 244 ; kepe = I re- 
gard, desire, 4738 ; pt. s. keped, 
171 ; pt. pi. keped, 187 ; kepten, 
. 3645 ; pp. kepud, 5 ; ceput, 4094. 

Kerneles, n. pi. battlements, 
2858 ; cournales, f 295 - Ch. 
Rom. Rose, 4195. P. PI. A. vi. 
78. 0. F. crenelx. 

Kesse, v. S. to kiss, 5045 ; pt. s. 
kest, 63, 1265, 1570, 3205 ; keste, 
1587, 1613, 4015; kessed, 1833; 
kessede, 4239 ; kust, 675 ; pt. pi. 
keste, 3100 ; kest, 2424 ; pp. kest, 
859 ; pres.part. kessing, 1396. Ch. 

Kessing, n. kissing, 1053, 3076, 



3474; kesseng, 3659. [Always 
joined with clipping.] 

Kete, adj. bold, fierce (?), or quick, 
smart (?), 330, 3793. A rare word, 
of which the following are instances. 
We find, "in a poem of the .13th 
century : 

Pikede beth the shete, 
And wormes ther beth kete 
To don the soule tene. 

Sawe ofSeint Bede, MS. 

Digby 86, f. 127 6." M. 
We also find mention of " a king 
kete," Eel. Ant. ii. 9 ; and the 
beams of the sun are called "kete," 
in Wright's Popular Treatises on 
Science, p. 138, 1. 262 of the Eng- 
lish fragment. Cf. also "Clerkes 
and kete men," P. PL A. xi. 56, 
where kid and kedde are other read- 
ings. " In our text, the most 
obvious etymology seems to be 
the Teut. 'kut, Belg. kuyt, audax, 
ferox." M. Coleridge suggested 
O. N. katr, dad; and the Sw. 
katiffhed, boldness, may also be 
worth considering. Or again, as 
we find the forms moulder and 
smoulder, knap and snap, we may 
connect it with the O. E. skeet, 
O. N. skjottr, sharp, quick, which 
is connected with to shoot and to 
skate. This would give the sense 
sharp, quick, or smart, which seems 
not inappropriate. See Ketli. 

Ketli, adv. quickly, smartly (?), 
3023; ketly, 1986, 2105. See 

KeJ>J>e. See Ki]>en. 

Keuer, v. tr. F. to make to recover, 
to heal, 635; keuere, 1521; 
kuuere,to attain to, 128; keueren 
him gate = to procure or make for 
himself a passage, f 904 ; pt. s. 
cuuerede (recovered), 2824; 
keuered hem = obtained for them- 
selves, f 235 ; also (2) keuer, v. 
intr. to recover, become whole, 
1488 ; pt. s. keuered, made good 
his retreat, retreated, 3625 ; pt. pi. 
keuered, 3647 ; cf. vp-keuerede, 
2759 ; pp. keuered, procured, made 

ready (unless it means covered), 
4450. [Connected with F. re- 
couvrer, Lat. recuperare.~] 

Keuered, pt. s. covered, 3034; 
pp. keuered (unless it is from the 
preceding), 4450. [Connected with 
F. couvrir, Lat. coope.rire.~\ See 

Kicben, n. kitchen, 2171 ; 
kychene, 1707 ; kechene, 1681. 

Kid, pt. t. and pp. of KiJ>en, q. v. 
Also, as adj. renowned, famous, far- 
known, fll, f!72, t310, f597; 
kud, 51, 111, 114, 501, 512, 
713, &c. ; kedj f 556 ; sup. kuddest, 
631, 3047, 4231 ; in the first of 
which it simply means best. " It is 
very evident, that the adj. andjojo. 
of kibe are one and the same 
word." M. 

Kin, n. S. kindred, 584 ; ken, 
513, 722; kun, 110. 

Kin, n. pi. kine, 480, 503 ; 
ken, 6; kyn, 244. 

Kinde, adj. natural, related, 
spoken of that which is conferred 
by kindred or acquired by birth, 
128, 3138, 3474, 4098 ; kynde, 
241 ; kende, 513 ; kyn, 364. 

Kinde, n. S. nature, kindred, 
birth, 107, 109, 821, 3136 ; - 
kynde, 1445, 2506 ; bi kinde = by 
birth, 1425 ; bi kynde, 507. 

Kindeli, adv. by nature, kindly, 
in an accustomed manner, 1265, 
1570; kindely, 111, 522; 
kindliche, 1697 ; kindeliche, 
1613; kyndely, 14; kynde- 
liche, 1396; kendeli, 4867; 
kendely, 1110. 

Kinghod, n. S. kingly office, 4059. 
King-riche, n. S. kingdom, 2127. 
Kinbed, n. S. kindness, such as 

one relation shews to another, 

Kinnesman, n. S. kinsman, 365. 

[Probably an error for Thomasin ; 

see note.] 

Kinrade, n. S. kindred, 522. 



ib, n. S. country, 4254, 4511, 
f241, t298; kith, +48, f 65, 

Kijjen, v. S. to cause to know, to 
make known, shew, declare, 1 162 ; 
kibe, 1184, 2126, 2986, 4086, 
f286; kithe, f655 ; kube, 
1680 ; kebbe, 4964 ; 2 p. s. pr. 
kubest, 603; kibes, 4515, f509; 
pr. s. kibes, t 298, f 529 ; kithes, 
1 716, f 783 ; pt. s. kudde, 231 ; 
kid, f 222, f 842 ; pt. pi. kidden, 
2301,4526; bidden, 1223 ; kibed, 
5287 ; killed, 1011 ; imp. s. kibe, 
626 ; pp. kid, f 169 ; kyd, 321, 
A.S. cytan. [In 1. 2301, kidden 
= shewed how to rather than knew 
how to.] 

Kleped. See Clepe. 

Knaue, n. S. a boy, 2394. Ch. 

Knightweede, n. S. knight's cloth- 
ing, armour, f 544. 

Knoulecheden, pt. pi. acknow- 
ledged, 4782. 

Knowen, v. S. to know, 577 ; 2 
p. s. pr. knowes, 1174 ; knowestow 
(knowest thou), 5365 ; 2 p. pi. pr. 
knowen, 594 ; 2 p. s. pt. knew, 
3182 ; pt. pi. kneu, 2209 ; pp. 
knowe, 726. Ch. 

Kolieres, n. pi. colliers, 2523; 
choliers, 2520. 

Komaundinent, n. commandment, 

Kome. See Com. 

Konichauns, n. F. cognisance, 

badge, 3569. P. PI. Crede, 185. 
Konyng. See Conyng. 
Kontre, Kontrey. See Cuntre. 
Koraious. See Coraious. 

Kortesie, n. F. courtesy, 3926 ; 

kurteysie, 501. 
Kortesliche. See Curtesliche. 
Kosses, n. pi. kisses, 1011. 

Kouchid him, laid him down, 

Koueyne. See Couyne. 

Koure, v. to cower, crouch down, 

kneel, f 558. See Couren. 
Kowden. See Can. 

Krepe of, creep out of, 3084. See 

Kud. See Kid, Kiben. 

Kun. See Kin. 

Kunne. See Can. 

Kuntenaunce. See Contenaunce. 

Kunteyned, j?. s. demeaned him- 
self, 3301. See Contenaunce. 

Kurteyslyche. See Curtesliche. 

Kust. ^See Kesse. 

Ku]>e, Ku]?est, Ku)>j)ed. See 

Kubbes, n. pi. S. manners, habits, 

Kuuere, (1) v. E. to cover, 1037; 

pt. s. and pp. keuered, q. v. 
Kuuere, (2) v. F. to attain to r 

succeed, 128. See Keuer. 
Kyrke, n. church, 4086. 

Lac, v. S. to lack, be without, 453. 
[Sir F. Madden suggests to read 
laty dismiss : I think lac may stand.] 

Laced, pt. s. laced up, 1736. 

Lachen, v. S. to catch, receive, 
take, acquire, embrace, f 4, f 199 ; 
lache, f 123, f 214 ; pr. s. lacchis, 
4525 ; imp. s. lacche, 666 ; pt. s. 
lau^t, 1234, 2237, 4708 ; lau^t 
lond (landed), 2761 ; laught leue- 
(took leave), f250; la^t vp 
(caught up), 2308 ; lau^t out (drew 
out), 1244; pt. pi. lauiten leue,. 
5413; Iau3t leue, 5087, 5201; 
lachte (they embraced, greeted, i.e. 
the Phocians and their allies), 
f 427 ; pp. lau^t, 671 ; lauht, f 161. 
A.S. laccan, gelaccan, whence E. 

Ladde, pt. s. led, 1609, 2618 ; pt. 
pi. ladden, 1226, t 20 ; ladde, 
4292; lad, 459 ; ledden (governed), 



Lafte. See Leue (2). 

Laike. See Layk. 

Lang, long, 4130. 

Langes. See Long. 

Langour, n. F. languishing, faint- 
ness, pain, 918, 986, f 245 ; 
langor, 869 ; langure, 737; pi. 
langoures, 1034. Ch. 

Langured, pp. F. pined, lan- 
guished, 983. 

Lappen, v. S. to lap, wrap, 1712; 
lappe, 2576 ; pt. s. lapped, 1908 ; 
pp. lapped, 740, 2153, 2246. 

Laske, v. F. to relax, slacken; 
hence, to shorten, 570 ; lask it ( = 
lask it, relax it, assuage it), 950. 
Cf. O.E. lascher; Sc. lasche (lazy); 
E. lax, slack ; Sw. Idska-dryck 
(cooling-draught); Sw. sloka, to 
droop, &c. Cf. Lask, sb. in Halli- 

Lasse, adj. comp. less, 1079, 1490, 
2414, &c. Ch. 

Last, conj. lest, 641, 953, 2971. 

Last, pp. lasted, endured, 1281 ; 
pres. part, lastend (enduring, 
strong), 1736. 

Late, v. S. to let, permit, 2680 ; 

2 p. s. imp. late, 2336, 2355 ; 3 p. s. 

pr. subj. late, 2581 ; 2 p. pi. pr. 

subj. late, 985 ; late me worjj, 

2355, 3597; cf. t!186. See Lete. 
Lai^eden, pt. pi. laughed, 1784. 
Lau^t. See Lachen. 

Launced, pt. s. launched, i. e. 

leapt, 2755. Cf. F. se lancer, and 

see Lans in Jamieson. 
Launde, n. a lawn, or open space 

in a wood, f 520, f 710. Ch. 
Layk, sb. a " lark," a game, play, 

678, 1784; laike, 3110. Sw. lek. 
Layke, v. to play, 1021 ; pt. s. 

layked, 1026 ; layked him, 31, 

1411 ; pt. pi. laykeden, 3110 ; 

pres. part, layking, 699. 

Layne, v. to conceal, act falsely, 
906, 918, 1309. O. N. leyna. 

Leame. See Leme. 

Lebard, n. F. leopard, 2935 ; 

lybard, 2896 ; pi. lebardes, 2874. 
Leche, n. S. a physician, 576, 

1032 ; pi. leches, 1328. Ch. 
Ledden. See Ladde. 
Ledes. See Lud. 

Lederes, gen. sing, leader's, pro- 
vost's, 2303. 

Leef, Leefe, adj. See Leue. 
Leef, leave we, 1836. See Leue. 
Leese, Leeue. See Lese, Leue. 

Lef, adj. lief* dear, 1879, 4372 ; 
(glad), 517 ; as sb. (dear one, the 
dear one), 2314, 1645 ; lef Jrinkes 
(seems dear, i. e. pleases), 384 ; 
cf. leefe thought (pleased), f60; 
leefe, f 774 ; leef, 1839; 
leue, 341, 666, 887, 1183, f 847 ; 
leeue, f 226 ; sup. leuest, 3213. Ch. 

Leflich, adj. trustful, f 427 ; 
leeflich (trusty), f 139. A. S. 
leofltc, lovely, faithful. Cf. Leue. 

Lege, adj. F. liege, 1174, 2663, 

Legge, v. S. to lay, 3234 ; pp. 

leide, 1448. Ch. 
Leie, pt. pi. See Ligge. 

Lei, adj. F. loyal, leal, true, just, 
5119; pi. lele, 1312. 4158; sup. 
lellest, 4809. 

Lelen, v. to make leal, sanction, 
authorize, 5284. 

Lelli, adv. F. loyally, leally, truly, 
687, 1281, 1807 ; lelly, 985, 
989;-lelliche, 117, 999 ;-lellyche, 
357; lelich, 1 64 ; sup. leliest, 592. 
[ It occurs more than 30 times.'] 

Leme, n. a limb, 1736. 

Leme, n. gleam, light, f 774 ; 
leame, f 1078. Ch. 

Lemman, n. S. (lief-man), love, 
sweetheart, 663, 666, 695, 717, 
&c. [Used of both sexes.'] Ch. 

Lende, v. to tarry, stay, 1466. 
See Leind in Jamieson. Cf. Lengen. 



Lene, 3^. s. imp. grant, impart, 
give, bestow, afford, 327 ; 2 p. s. 
imp. 4398 ; pt. s. lente, 1233 ; lent, 
885 ; pt. pi. lent, 22 ; pp. lend, 
4578. Ch. 

Lengen, v. S. to tarry, stay, re- 
main long, dwell, f 44 ; lenge, 
5421, 5538; leng, f 455, f 758; 
pr. s. lenges, 843, 5536; lenge J>, 
2070 ; 2 p. pi. pr. lengen, f 1 ; pt- 
s. leiiged, 2842; pt. pi. lenged, 
2205, 5408, 5462; pp. (be]?) 
lenged, 1457 ; (is) lengged, f 196. 
A.S. lengian, to prolong. [In 1. 
2680, the MS. can be read leng]>e 
orlengye; read lengye, another form 
of the infinitive.'] 

Lenger, longer, 633, 1113, &c. 

Lengjje, v. S. to lengthen, 957 ; 

miswritten lenge^, 1944; imp. pi. 

leng^es, 4348 ; length 4353 ; pp. 

lengged, 1351, 1549 ; miswritten 

lengej?d or lengeyd, 2345. 
Lep, pt. s leapt, 702, 2756. 
Lere, n. S. countenance, features, 

227. A.S. hleor. P, PL 
Leren, v. S. to teach, 4770 ; 1 p. 

pr. lere, f 325 ; pt. s. lerde, 341 ; 

pp. lered (taught, learned), f 603, 

j-1152. A.S. /^rara. 
Lere, v. S. to learn, 119. Ch. 

Lese, n. S. a pasture, 175, 3138, 
3141. See Lease, Leasow, in Halli- 
well; cf. A.S. lam. It is not the 
plural of lea. 

Lese, v. S. to lose, 1258, 1484, 
1645, f 280 ; leese, f 378 ; pr. pi. 
lesen, f 126 ; imp. s. les, 988 ; imp. 
pi. leses, 3369 ; pt. s. les, 887, 
1234. Ch. 

Lesed, pp. See Lissen. 

Lesten, v. to listen to, 31 ; 1 p. 
imp. pi. lesten, 3528; 2 p. imp. pi. 
lestenes, 1183, 3329 ; listenes, 170, 
1929; lustenek 384; lesteneh 
4607; lesten, 1439. Ch. 

Lestes. See Listes. 

Lestejj, pr. s. lasts, 5538. 

Leten, v. to forego, let go, leave, 
forsake, 2184; 1 p. s. pr. lete, 382, 
5465 ; pt. s. let (Iwtere of, i. e. 
thought the less of), 2119 ; 1 p. pi. 
imp. let, 3528 ; imp. pi. lettes, 1186 r 
3 p. pr. subj. lette, 4144 ; pp. lete 
(left), } 563. As a simple aux- 
iliary vb. it is spelt late, q. v. It 
is common with infinitives in the 
sense to cause ; as, he let sende, 
2145 ; lete wite, 2171 ; let make, 
5532. See Do. For the phrase, 
lete him worj>e, f 1186, see note to 
"Werwolf," 3597. 

Le]>erly, adv. wickedly, evilly, 
1231 ; lujjerli, 2646, 3151; 
luj>erly, 2334, 2775. See Li)>er. 

Letrure, n. F. letters, reading, 
fll52. Ch. 

Lette, n. S. stay, hindrance, 1340, 
2685, 4751. Ch. 

Lette, v. S. to prevent, hinder, 
1253, 3552, 4258 ; lett, 2971, 
f!49. Cf. Late, Lete. [It is 
worth noting that this verb, in the 
sense to permit, is usually spelt 
late ; in the sense to forego, it is 
lete ; in the sense to prevent, it is- 
lette.] Cf. A.S. ketan, lettan. 

Lettered, pp. learned, instructed, 

Letteres, n. pi. (in sing, signifi- 
cation), a letter* 4842, 4844. 

Leue, v. S. to helieve, 708, 4175 ;. 
1 p. s. pr. leue, 497, 1032, 4105 ; 
leeue, f 639 ; 2 p. s. pr. leuestow 
(believest thou), 2358; imp. s. 
leue, 1553 ; imp. pi. leue, 1351,. 
2071; leueth, 5068. Ch. 

Leue, v. S. to leave, 2358 pt. s. 
lafte, 1858 ; pp. leued, 83 ; 1 p. pi. 
imp. leef, 1836 ; 2 p. pi. imp. leues, 
1806. In neuter sense, to remain, 
dwell, pt. pi. left, 1588 ; cf. Leuis. 

Leue, adj. dear. See Lef. 

Leued, pp. leaved, covered with 
leaves, 22, 757. 

Leuer, comp. adv. liefer, rather, 
453, 546, 855, 918, &c. Of. Lef. 



Leuere. See Liuere. 

Leuis, pr. s. lives, dwells, 525 ; cf. 

left * 1. 1588. $?* Liuen. 
Leute, n. F. loyalty, fealty, 4838. 

Leye, v. S. to lay ; " leye mi lif," 

2169 ; pr. s. leyes on (lays on), 

1208. ' 
Liand, Ligand. See Ligge. 

Libbing. See Liuen. 

Liche, adj. like, 3678, 3698, 

Liche, n. S. body, f 195. 

Lidene, n. S. speech, f 782 ; 
ludene, f 601. A.S. lyden. Ch. 

Lift, adj. left (arm), 2961, 5499. 

Ligge, v. to lie, dwell, 2194, 
3062, f 689 j lygge, f 1158 ; pr. s. 
ligges, 166 ; lis, 965 ; pr. pi. lyen, 
2266 ; pt. pi. leie, 4307; part. pres. 
liand, 2180 ; ligand, 2246. Ch. 

Liif, n. life, 957, 961, 994. 

Liken, v. like, 2 p. pi. pr. 5529 ; 
lyken, 162 ; as impers. vb. ( =. 
pleases), likes me wel, 450 ; likes 
]>e, 957, 1727 ; likes 3011 dere, 
1050 ; pt. liked him, 28, 678 ; liked 
hire, 2032 ; pres. part, likand 
(pleasing), f 192; pp. lyked, 1012. 

Liking, n. S. pleasure, 452, 2023 ; 

likyng, 869, 1021. Ch. 
Lime, n. S. limb, f 1121. Ch. 

Lisse, n. S. comfort, happiness, 
631,2828,5228. A.S. liss. Dan. 
Use. Ch. 

Lissen, v. to loosen, assuage, 
mitigate, heal, 848 ; lisse, 631 ; 
pp. hssed, 869 ; lesed, 1577. A.S. 

List, v. impers. pt. s. it pleases, 
1 658 ; pt. s. lust, 1907 ; list, 2600. 
A.S. lystan. 

Listenes. See Lesten. 

Listes, n. pi. lists (in the phrase, 

lists of love), 740, 1057 ; lestes, 


Listli, adv. S. slily, 2742 ; - 
lisdy, 2355 ; listely, 25. A.S. 
listlice, artfully. 

Litel and litel, 950. 

Li]?, n. S. a joint, 1724. [It also 
means a limb. Ch.] 

Lifer, adj. S. wicked, evil, bad, 
2169 ; luj>er, 5240. A.S. Ifier. 

Liuen, v. to live, 5394 ; pr. s. 
leuis, 525 ; pt. pi. liueden, 4802, 
5508 ; pres. part, liuande, 3678 ; 
liuand, 1690 ; libbing, f 790. 

Liuere, n. F. delivery (of blows), 
" ;-leuere, 1233. 

List, v. S. to lighten, gladden, 
10. Ch. 

Li^tere, comp. adv. lighter, less, 
2119 ; Ibttere, adj. (nimbler, 
lighter), 154. 

Li^teli, adv. lightly, 702 ; 
liitly, 1244; Ibtli, 1973; comp. 
l^tliere, 1894. 

Lo, lo! 731; loo, 1208. 

Lof, n. S. love, 430. 

Loged,#p. F. lodged, 1918. 

Loke, v. S. to keep, guard, take 
care of, 1757, 3166, 4770; imp. s. 
loke, 430. 

Lome, adv. frequently, often, 
f 321 ; ilome, f 52 1- A - s - 

Londe, n. S. land, 2763 ; lond, 
2761; pi. londes, 1175, 3055. 

Long, v. S. to belong, f 547 ; pr. 
s. longe>, 143 ; longes, 360 ; langes, 
331 ; pt. s. longed, 73, 1147; longet, 
2719 ; pt. pi. longede, 2766 ; pres. 
part, longyng, f 635. 

Loos. See Los. 

Lorchipe (read lordchipe), n. S. 
lordship, 3680 ; lorldschip, 3955. 
\Cf. Lorld, Lorlde (for Lord), 
3404, 3405.] Lordship = lords, 



Lordesse, n. pi. lords, 4539. Of. 

Lordinges, n. pi. lords, 1183, 

1206, 3004. 
Lore, n. S. lore, learning, teaching, 

advice, 328, 346, 2070, 2917. Ch. 
Lore, pp. lost, 1360, 1556, 2584 ; 

lorn, 668 ;-lorne, 4396. Ch. 
Lorel, n. F. laurel, 2983. 
Lorked, pt. s. lurked, slunk along, 

25 ; pres. part, lorkinde, 2213. 

Los, n. F. praise, 1386, 5132 ; 
loos, 1448, 3973 ; loose, f 4. 
Lat. law. Ch. 

Losengeres, n. F. flatterers, 5482. 

Lojj. adj. S. loath ; him loj? 


( = it seemed loath to him 
1255 ; hem loj> were, 5201. Ch. 

Lojjed, pt. pi. loathed, f 335. 
Lobli, adj. S. loathly, 50 ; 

Ioelike,f99. Ch. 
Loueliche, adj. S. lovely, 965 ; 

adv. in a lovely mannner, excel- 

lently, 975, 1315. 
Louen, 2 p. pi. pr. love, 162. 
Lourand, j?res. part, louring, 21 19. 

Du. loeren. P. PI. 
Louwe (hire), v. S. to lower her- 

self, condescend, 708 ; pt. s. lowed, 


Lou^te, v. S. to bow, make obeis- 
ance, submit, 2900 ; pt. s. louted, 
3485 ; pt. pi. louted, 3464. A.S. 
hlutan. Cf. A-louted. Ch. 

Lowed. See Louwe. 

Lud, n. S. a man, 452, 535, 
1001, f 231, &c. ; lude, f 588 ; 
lued, f 44 ; pi. ludes, 390, 525, 
f331; ledes, 195, 1233. Londes and 
ledes, 4001 ; londes and leedes (where 
the MS. has leethes, with a d, or 
a , above it), f 12. On this difficult 
phrase see Sir F. Madden's reply 
to Mr Singer's remarks on Havelok. 
Cf. also Wedgwood on Lease, Leet. 
It seems to mean "lands and 

leases" or " lands and tenements," 
as Robert of Brunne uses it fre- 
quently to mean tenements, rents^ 
or fees. The older form of the 
word is lethe or lithe, and it may, 
after all, not be connected in any 
way with ledes, the plural of lud. 
In 1. f 12, we surely ought to read 
leefoes or le%es. 

Lufsum, adj. S. lovesome, lov- 
able, f 176. 

Lust. See List. 

Lusteneth. See Lesten. 

Luberli. See Leberly. 

Lybard. See Lehard. 

Lykame, n. S. body, 227. P. PL 

Lyked. See Liken. 

Lyst, n. S. desire, inclination, 

f 794. Ch. 
Lysted,^. s. desired, f 776. Cf. 

Lyte, adv. S. little, 1 323. 

Maat. See Mat. 

Maister,rc. F. master, 2735, f 682 ; 

pi. maistres, 2744. 
Maistres, n. F. mistress, 1016. 

Maistrie, n. F. mastery, victory, 

f 170 ; maistry, 3341 ; - 

maistrye, 3137. Ch. 
Make, n. S. mate, companion, 

1898, 2498, f 249, f 843, &c. ; pi. 

makes, 1757. Ch. 
Makeles, adj. matchless, f 799. 

Makes, imp. pi. make ye, 4933 ; 
pp. maked, 1951, 4131, 4933 ; mad, 
4876 ; pres. part, makende, 2985. 

Malencoli, n. F. anger, 4362. 

Malskrid, pt. s. wandered, 416. 
Probably with the sense of be- 
wilderment ; cf. Maskede in Halli- 
well, Mask in Coleridge's Gloss- 
arial Index, and masquer in Burguy. 
Malskred seems = bewildered, 
MM. Poems, ed. Morris. C. 255. 

Manchipe, n. S. manhood, courage, 
3337 ; manchip, 2676. 



Maner, n. manner, kind (used 

without Qi following}, 698, 1155, 

Manerli, adv. in a mannerly way, 

Manhede, n. S. manhood, 431 ; 

man-hede, 4390 ; manhed, 

197. Ch. 
Mankynne, n. S. mankind, 143. 

Manly, adv. S. manly, hence, 
fittingly, suitably, 1042, 2040; 
manli, 2690, 3341 ; manliche, 
2325, 3253; manlich, f 375. 
"This adverb is often used as a mere 
expletive, merely to fill up the al- 
literation, as manly hem meked, 

Manly, adj. S. manly, 1424; sup. 

manlokest, 3419. 
Manquellere, n. S. mankiller, 

murderer, 993. 
Marche, n. S. boundary, limit of 

territory, territory, f 312, f 1031 ; 

pi. marches, 2214, |14, f!37; no 

doubt marques is written for, or is 

equivalent to, marches, f 173 : of. 


Mark, v. F. to inflict by way of 
reprisal, f 497 ; merken, f 284 ; 
pt. s. marked, f 932. 0. F. 
" marguer, user de represailles." 
Roq. Cf. the phrase, letters of 

Marques. See Marche. 

Marres, pr. s. mars, harms, 1171 ; 
pp. marred (bitterly vexed, mad- 
dened with chagrin), 438, 664, 

Marring, n. a harming, injuring, 

Mase, 1 p. pr. s. am confounded, 
am at a loss, 438 ; pp. mased 
(stupefied), 884. Cf. A-mased. 

Massager, n. F. a messenger, 4156 ; 
messanger, 4204 ;pl. massegeres, 
4251 ; messageres, 1441 ; 
messageris, 1382 ; messagers, 
1465 ; messangers, 1330 ; 
messangeres, 1143. 

Mat, adj. F. dejected, faint, 
almost dead, 2441 ; maat, 1776. 
Du. mat. Fr. mat. G. matt. Cf. 
Span, matar, to kill. Ch. 

Maugre, n. F. ill-will, spite, harm, 
i 932 ; used as an adv. in spite of, 
1 101, f 680 ; mawgrey, 3745. 
F. malgre. Ch. 

May, n. S. maiden, 659. Mceso- 
Goth. mawi. Ch. 

Mayne, n. S. a company, host of 
attendants, 416 ; meyne, 184, 
202, 1199, 1573. G. menge. Moeso- 
Goth. managei. 

Mayntene, i\ F. to maintain, 
2698 ; meintene, 3002 ; meyn- 
tene, 3642 ; imp. pi. meyntenes, 
2676. \Miswritten meynte, 1098.] 

Mechef. See Meschef. 

Mede, n. S. reward, 2135, 4726 r 
5355 ; to mede (= by way of re- 
turn, by way of security), 2341 ; to 
medis (= by way of requital on 
my part), 3253. P. PL Ch. 

Mede, adj. meet, fitting, 604. Cf. 
A.S. medeme. 

Meded,^. s. bribed, 4646. 

Medle, v. F. to mingle (in fight) r 
f 93 ; pt. s. medled him (was busy), 
2492, f 170 ; medled, 2325 ; pp. 
medled (meddled), f 96 4. Ch. 
[It occurs also in the shorter form 
mele (2) q. v.] 

Meken, v. to humble oneself, to 
submit, 2118 ; meke him, 2104, 
3928 ; 1 p. s. pr. meke me, 665 ; 
pt. pi. meked hem, 1276 ; imp. s. 
meke, 3919 ; imp. pi. mekes (quiet, 
silence), 4604. 

Mekeli, adv. S. meekly, 642, 659, 
1480; mekkeli, 4456; mek- 
liche, 408; mekeliche, 808. 

Mele (1), v. S. to talk, speak, 
discuss, 621, 4009 ; 2 p. pi. pr. 
mele, 1342; pt. s. meled, 4684, 
5204 ; pt. pi. meleden (twittered), 
821. A.S. mdelan^ to speak, con- 
verse. [Observe the distinction be- 
tween this word and the next.~\ 



Mele (2).v. F. to mingle in fight, to 
fight,3325 ; pt.s. meled (assembled), 
1287 ; melled hire (busied herself), 
1709, 1719. O.F. mesler, to meddle, 
mingle, mell. [This verb is a 
shortened form o/'medle, q. v.] 

Meling, n. S. conversation, 760. 
See Mele (1). 

Meling, n. mingling, 5257 ; hence, 
meling-while (hour of combat), 
3858. See Mele (2). 

Menden, v. F. to mend, 647 ; 
imp. pi. mendes, 845. 

Mene, v. S. to mean, intend, sig- 
nify, tell, 4808; \p. mente, 
560 ; mennede, 1925 ; pt. s. ment, 
641 ; pt. pi. mened, 4845 ; pp. 
ment (intended, designed), 1819. 
A.S. manan. Ch. 

Mene, v. S. to bemoan oneself, 
mourn, 493 ; pt. s. mened, 940 ;pp. 
mened, 561, 1490. A.S. mdenan. 

Menge, v. S. to tell, speak, men- 
tion, '1422; mengge, 449; 
meng, 613 ; minge, 1624, 1925, 
1937, 4327, 5032, &c. ; munge, 
831, 1441, 1635, 2616, 2735,4767 ; 
- rnyng, 1404 ; pr. s. minges, 
1067, t 839 ; 2 p. pi. pr. mingel?, 
1876 ;\p.s. pt. munged, 4863 ; 
pt. s. munged, 833 ; pi. pi. munged, 
2999 ; minged, 3711 ; munged, 
1335 ; pp. munged, 4847 ; minged, 
2844 ; 1 p. pi. imp. munge, 3097 ; 
menge, 794 ; myng, f 45. A.S. 

Mennes, gen. pi. men's, 6 ; 
mennis, 480. 

Mensk, n. S. honour, worship 
(lit. humanity), 1257, 2028, 3900, 
5527 ; menske, 313, 2050. Cf. 
P. PI. Crede, 81. O.S. menniski. 

Mensk, v. to honour, 4815 ; 
menske, 4834 ; pp. menskked, 5132. 

Menskful, adj. honourable, wor- 
shipful, 202, 242, 405, 431, 508, 
&c. ; menskfull, f 555 ; sup. 
menskfulles[t], 1435. 

Menskfully, adv. honourably, wor- 

shipfully, 1142 ; menskfulli, 
4992, 5048. 

Menskliche, adv. honourably, 
with worship, f 173. Cf. the pre- 

Menstracie, n. F. minstrelsy, 
1155, 1619, 3812; menstracye, 
1951; minstracie, 5011. 

Merciabul, adj. F. merciful, 4406, 
5131 ; merciabule, 5146 ; - 
mercy abul, 5118. 

Merie, adj. S. pi. 1148, 1880; 
merye, 821 ; mirie, 1905, f 821 ; 

murie, 2853 ; rauri (houndes), 
2192 ; sup. muriest, 4926. 

Merken. See Mark. 

MerJ>e, n. S. mirth, 823, 2017 ; 
mur}>e, 1634. 

Meschef, n. F. mischief, misfor- 
tune, sorrow, 1044, 1247, 1362, 
3096; mechef, 5131. 

Mest, sup. adj. most, chief, 2735; 
adv. chiefly, above all, 1433, 4729. 

Mesurabul, adj. F. moderate, 333. 

P. PI. 
Mete, v. S. to meet, 815 ; imp. 

pi. metej>, 3338. 
Mete, v. S. to dream, 658, 862 ; 

pt. s. mette, 2869; mett, f 726, 

fl!42 ; met, |821 ; used reflexively , 

hire mette, 2920, 5497. Ch. 
Meting, n. S. a dream, 900; 

metyng, 698, 706, 716, 733, t 839, 

&c. Ch. 
Meued, pt. s. moved, 4285 ; 

meeued, f 204 > ft- P l - meuede, 

4330. Ch. 
Meuwe, n. F. a mew, i. e. a cage, 

prison, 3336. Ch. 
Miche, adj. S. great, much, 117, 

1362, 3555 ; rnich, f 600, f 932 ; 

moch, 313 ; moche, 202, 891, 
1073 ; muche, 2374. Cf. Mo. 

Michel, adv. S. greatly, very, very 
much, 4305 ; mochel, 367, 900, 
1044, 1406, 1490, 2039 ; - 
nmchel, 850. Ful mochel (very 




much), 4095; to raochel (too 

much), 1747. See Mo. 
Midde,^>rep. with, 5009; mide, 

2133 ; myd, 3143. A.S. mid. 
Midesoiner, n. midsummer, 1464. 

Middel-erbe, n. S. the earth, world, 

Mildeliche, adv. S. mildly, 1898. 

Mile-wei, n. a mile-way, used to 

denote a very short space of time, 

1578. Cf. Oh. Shipm. Ta. 276. 
Minge, Minges, Minged. See 

Mires, n. pi. miry places, 3507 ; 

ef. 2619. 

Mirie. See Merie. 
Misdone, v. tr. S. to wrong, harm, 

2581 ; ft. pi. misdede, 2548; intr. 

2 p. pi. pr. misdon (do amiss), 

Misdrede ^ow, imp. pi. fear, 1567. 

Misferde, pt. pi. fared amiss, 
2999 ; pp. misfaren, 1359 ; misfare, 

Mis-gilt, 7i. S. offence, fault, 2118, 
3919, 4792 ; mis-gelt, 3996, 
4397 ; mis-gelt, 1541 ; misse- 
gilt, 2104. 

Mislikede me, pt. s. impers. mis- 
liked me, 2039. 

Misproude, adj. S. pi. haughty, 
1 312 ; misseproude, 2944. 

Missaide, 1 p. pt. s. reproved, 

Misse, n. S. a fault, error, offence, 
532 ; hence mysse, adv. amiss, 
wrongly, 141, 1480. Perhaps in 1. 
1480 myssetrowed is one word; 
cf. Mistrowe. 

Misse, v. S. to miss, 1016 ; 
misseden, 1827- 

Misseliche, adv. S. wrongly, 711 ; 
missely (mistakenly), 207. 

Misseproude. See Misproud. 

Missespeche, n. S. evil report, 
defamation, 1523. "In the same 

manner is formed the Isl. mismali, 
from mis and mali, loquela." M. 

Mister, n. F. need, want, 1919. 

O.F. mester ; Koq. 
Mistrowe, n. S. mistrust, 3314. 

Miswerche, v. S. to act amiss, 

Mite ; in phrase a mite worjj 

(the worth of a mite), 4543. 

Mix, n. S. a vile wretch, 125. Cf. 

FelJ>e, which is similarly used. A.S. 

meox. O.E. mixe, filth. Hence the 

pp. mixed = filthy. 

"That fule traytour, that mixed 

cherl." Havelok, 2533. 
Mi^t. See Mow. 
Mijth, n. S. might, 3508. 
Mijthi, adj. S. mighty, 2859. 
Mi3tow, thou mightest, 3041. 

See Mow. 
Mo, comp. adj. S. more, 1162, 

1189, 1454, 2780, 5241 ; more 

(greater), 3464. 

Mo, adv. more, 1271, 3457. More 

beter, 2134. 
Moche, Mochel. See Miche, 

Mod, n. S. mood, mind, 1985. 

Moder, n. S. mother, 242 ; gen. 

sing, moder, 1177. 
Molde, n. S. mould, i. e. earth, 

85 ; mold, 377, 528, 618. Men 

vpon molde is a common phrase, 

both here and in P. PI. 

Mornes, imp. pi. mourn ye, 633 ; 

pt. s. morned, 1761; pres. part. 

mornyng, 1640. 
Morning, n. S. mourning, sorrow, 

742 ; mornyng, 746. 
Morwe, n. S. morning, 763, 776. 

A morwe (on the morrow), 1296. 
Most, Moste. See Mot. 
Mot, 1 p. s. pr. I am obliged, I 

must, I ought, 548 ; pr. s. mot, 

4141, 4171 ; 1 p. pi- pr. mot, 3988 ; 



2 mote, 1043 ; pt. s. most, 
5188; pt. pi. moste, 1052; pr. s. 
subj. mot (expressing a wish), 602, 
1433,1547,4509; subj. most 
(= might, would), 3252; pt. s. 
subj. most, 3547, 3978, 4226, 4817; 
must, ffi8 ; subj. most, 4798. 
Mot nede, pr. s. 4141 ; most nedes, 
pt. s. 5188. A.S. ic mot, pt. t. ic 
Mountance, n. F. amount, 2391. 

Mow, 1 p. s. pr. I may, I can, I 
am able, 636, 3802 ; pr. s. 730, 
2085, 3998 ; I p. pi. pr. mowe, 
2794, 3903 ; 2 mow, 1458, 
4092 ; pr. pi. mowe, 4162 ; 1 p. s. 
pt. mwt (could), 2351 ; pt. s. mi^t, 
3623 ; mi^th, 3621 ; pt. pi. mijth, 
3539 ; mi2t, 3632. Mntow (= 
mightest tnou), 3041. A.S. mag an, 
pr. t. ic mag, pt. t. ic mihte. Moeso- 
Goth. magan, pr. t. ik mag, pt. t. ik 

Muche. See Miche. 
Muchel. See Michel. 
Munde, n. S. mind, 4123. 
Munge, Munged. See Menge. 
Muntaynes, n. pi. F. mountains, 

2619, 3507. 
Mures, n. pi. moors, 2619. Of. 

Mires in 1. 3507. 
Murdred (to de]>e), pp. 2859 ; 

murdered (to de)?e), 1774. 
Muri, Murie. See Merie. 

Mut, n. F. cry of hounds, 2192. 
0. F. esmeute ; Cotgrave. 

Mys, adj. false, 716. [But mys 
is generally a substantive, or a pre- 
fix, and I should prefer to read 
mys-metyng.~] See Misse. 

Myslych, adj. S. various, of all 
kinds, f 1160. Moeso-Goth. missa- 

N. " This letter, by a species of 
prosthesis, is often taken from the 
end of an article or pronoun, and 
prefixed to the substantive which 


follows. Examples of this occur in 
no nefy for non eij, 83 ; a noyne- 
ment, for an oynement, 136 ; my 
nother, for myn other, 468; thi 
narmes, for thin armes, 666 ; Bister 
neue, for Cistern cue, 2160, &c. See 
Tyrwhitt's Gloss, in v. nale. The 
practice existed in familiar writing 
so late as the reign of Q. Elizabeth, 
and, perhaps, later still." M. Cf. 
note on Nones. 

Na, adv. not, 1172. See Ne. 
Namore, no more, 28l2, 2924, 
4907; written na more, 2556; na 
mo, 1271. 

Nad (contr. from ne had), pt. s. 
had not, 154; nade, 1358;- 
nadde, 119, 1350, 2465 ; pt. pi. 
nad, 460. 

Nam. See Nym. 

Nameliche, adv. S. namely, espe- 
cially, 1203; namliche, 2604; 
namli, 2508. 

Namned. See Nempne. 
Narmes. See under N. 

Nas (contr. from ne was), was not, 
278, 2784, f 460, &c. 

Na)) (contr. from ne haj>), hath 
not, 4934. 

Napeles, adv. nevertheless, 1751, 
4506, 5265. Ch. 

Naueye, n. navy, collection of 
ships, 2719. Ch. 

Nay, adv. no, 251, 482, 543, 547, 
1559, 1814, 1826, 2003, 2314, 
&c. ; nai, 916, 965. There is 
a clear distinction between no and 
nay. No signifies assent to the pre- 
vious speaker ; nay implies strong 
denial, and is generally followed by 
an oath. See No, and Nickes. 

Ne, adv. not, nor, 315, 450, 457, 
&c. Hence, nad for ne had; nis 
for ne is ; nas for ne was; nath for 
ne hath; nel for ne wil ; nere for 
ne were ; nolde for ne wolde ; not 
for ne wot ; nist for ne wist. 

Ned, n. S. need, 3210; nede, 
119 $ pi. nedes, 1436, 4164, 4251. 



tf. s. needed, 1919. 
Nedes, adv. of necessity, ne- 
cessarily, 1042, 1679, 5185, 5188 ; 

nede, 3922, 4141. A.8. neddes, 

Needely, adv. S. urgently, f 747 ; 
nedelich (necessarily), f 817. Ch. 

Nei}. See Nest. 

Nei^h, adv. nigh, nearly, 434, 
664, 686 ; nei^, 151 ; nebe, 
1511 ; neie2, 3185 ; nesh, 979 ; 

ney, 2074. Comp. nerre, 1911 ; 
Jjenere, 758. Nei^honde (lit. nigh 
hand), nearly, 1494 ; neb honde, 
884; nei^h hondes, 438. 

Nei3he, v. S. to approach, draw 
nigh, 3230, 3241 ; ne^h, 278 ; 
nye, t 493, f 700, f 764 5 pt. s. 
nei3ed, 770 ; nebet, 2599 ; neiyed, 
1606; neihed, f 739; nyed, f!36, 
1 505 ; pt. pi. nebed, 4899 ; ney*- 
)>ed, 2179. [/ 1. f 493 it may 
mean, to annoy; cf. Noy^ed.] 

Nei^ede, pt. s. S. neighed, 3238. 

Nel (for ne wil), 1 p. I will 
not, 484, 718, 1098, 4907 ; pr. s. 
nel, 986, 4260; neUe, 4937. 

Nempne, v. S. to name, tell, 4213; 

nymphe, 2179 ; pt. s. nemned, 
368 ; pp. namned, f 524. Ch. 

Nende ; here, a nende = an ende, 

Nere (contr. from ne were), pr. s. 

subj. were not, 714, 2409. Cf. 

Nere, Nerre. See Nei^h. 

Nere, never, f 316 ; the usual 

form, is neuer, 735, &c. 
Nesche, adj. S. soft. In hard 

and in nesche, 495 ; to harde and 

to nesche, 534. Ch. 
Nest, n. 83. " Nest and no nei3 

(= nest and non ei}, i. e. nest and 

no egg), evidently a proverbial 

phrase." M. 
Neuen, v. S. to name, tell, 2453, 

2517. Ch. 
Neuew, n. F. nephew, 1198, 3537, 

4211; newe, 1023, 3418, 
neweu, 5095, 5098 (in which 
last line it seems to mean great- 

Newe, adv. S. newly, lately. 1354 ; 

(anew), 2999. 

Newene, v. S. to renew, 779. 
Nickes with nay, refuses with a 

"no," 4145. "A proverbial phrase 

familiar to our old poets. See 

Gawayne and the Grene Kni-^t, 706 ; 

Pis till of Susan, st. xii. ap. Laing ; 

Amis $" Amiloun, 2176, ap. Weber ; 

Kina Estmere, 47, ap. Percy, and 

Pinkerton's Scotish Poems, vol. iii. 

pp. 15, 72, 82." M. Cf. Swed. 


Nigramauncy, necromancy, 119 ; 

nigremauncie, f 460, f 981. 
Nigremaunciens, necromancers, 

Nis (contr. from ne is), is not, 

377,1357, 3210; nys, 712. 
Nist. See Not. 

No, adv. no, 2701, 3115; ne, 

1556. See note on Nay. 
No, put for Ne, not, 67, 85, &c. 

Conversely, we find ne for no ; see 

the preceding. 

Nobul, adj. noble, 1109, 1198. 
Noijjer. See Nofer. 

Nold (for ne wold), would not, 1731, 1877;^. 5.561, 
2692 ; nolde, 2184 ; pt. pi. nolde, 

Nome, Nomen. See Nym. 

Non, pron. no one, 396, 443, 
2461 ; (neither of them) 2423 ; adj. 
(=no) 509; no, 275, 1282;- 
none, 74 ; adv. no, 2455. 

Nones, for J>e, 1157, 2015. In 
the note to 1. 7160 of Dr White's 
Ormulum, vol. ii. p. 642, we find 
" Forr ]>e naness, for the purpose. 
This phrase is so written in the 
MS., but its grammatical structure, 
as admitted on the authority of the 
late Mr Price and of Sir F. Madden, 



requires the form forr \en aness, 
being a slight variation of the A.S. 
for loan anes, literally for the once. 
In La^amon we have to \>an ones, 
to \>nn one, for that only." For 
further information, see the rest of 
the note, and cf. the remark under 

Nory, n. F. nurse, 1511. 

Not (for ne wot), know not, 1 p. 
s. pr. 320, 541, 903, 4155 ; pt. s. 
nist (for ne wist), 741. 

Nbfer, conj. neither, 1675 ; 
notyer, 722, 2385. "This broad 
pronunciation is not peculiar to 
the English provinces, but has also 
been remarked in France, in such 
words as chandoile for chandelle, 
&c. A writer on the subject says, 
" En general, quand, dans le Fran- 
pais, se trouve un e ouvert, le 
rustique y substitue oi" Melanges 
sur les langues, p. 71. 8vo. Paris, 
1831." M. 

NoJ>er ; we find my nojjer (= myn 
oj?er), my other, 468 ; no no)?er 
(= non o}>er), no other thing, no- 
thing else, 1679 ; spelt no nooj?er, 
f 489, f 756. 

Nov, adv. now, 78, 79 ; nou, 
454 ; nouj?e, 1543; nowf>e, 354, 
356, 603; no^e, 1005, 5032; 
nou^, 626. 

Nou^t, adv. not, 13, 299, 358, 
450, &c. ; n. nothing, naught, 72, 
83 ; miswritten nou^, 720. 

Noyce, n. noise, 823. 

Noynement, 136. A noynement 
= an oynement, an ointment, un- 

Noy^ed, pp. annoyed, grieved, 
770, See note to Nellie. 

Nyce, adj. foolish, 491. Ch. 

Nym, v. to take (take prisoner), 
1364; pt. s. nam, 1203, 2450, 
f 468 ; nam hede (took heed), 368 ; nomen (the nom. case being 
sondes), 1309 ; pp. nome, 233Q. 
Moeso-Goth. niman, pt. t. ik nam, 
pi. weis nemum, pp. numam. 

Nymphe. See Nempne. 

0, art. and adj. one, a, 1112, 
1350, 1628, 2461, 3017, 4033, 
4321, 4733 ; on, 192, 403, 1345 ; 
|>at on (the one), 1198. 

0, miswritten for Or, 1455. 

0, prep, on, f 258. 

Of, prep, of, passim; (out of), 
1039, 3084, 3141 ; (off), 1218 ; 
(for), 442, 500. Brou^t of Hue, 
brou^t of dawe (brought out of 
life, brought out of day), killed, 
1159, 3817 ; as opposed to on Hue. 
As a verbal prefix, it is the A.S. 
of- or a-. Moeso-Goth., Du., Dan., 
Swed., Isl. af-. It occurs in Of- 
reche, Of-se, Of-sende, Of-sette, 
Of-sou^t, Of -take ; see below. 

Of-reche, v. to reach to, 3874 ; 
pt. s. of-ramte, 1233. A.S. a- 
rdscan. Cf. Rob. Glouc. 285,6. 

Of-se, v. S. to perceive, 2223 ; 
pt. s. of-sei, 2245 ; of-seie, 273, 
2771 ; of-sey, 4444 ; of-seye, 224 ; 
of-saw, 49, 3283 ; of-sewyen, 
1221. A.S. of-seon. 

Of-sende, v. S. to send after, send 
for, 5293 ; pt. s. of-sent, 1081. See 
of-sended in La^amon. 

Of-sette, pt. pi. beset, 2648 ; pp. 
of-sett, t 308, f 395. A.S. of- 

Of-souhte, pt. s. searched out, 
hence approached, fl^l?; PP- of- 
somt (sought after), 1676 ; of- 
sought (attacked), f 25. A.S. a- 

Of-take, v. to overtake, 1275, 
2198, 2398, 2590 ; pt. s. of-tok, 
3895 ; of-toke, 3916 ; pt. pi. of- 
toke, 3881. See oftake, atake, in 
Wycl. Gloss., and oftake in Laja- 

Of-turned, pt. pi. turned off, 
stripped off, 2590. [Perhaps the 
words of and turned should be 

Ofte, adv. S. oft, often, 1570; 
comp. ofter, 610. 



Oijjer, conj. or, 3130. See Oj?er. 
Ok, n. S. an oak, 295. 

Omage, n. F. homage, 1306, 
5403, 5474. 

On, prep, in ; often represented 
in modern language by a-; see 
Acts xiii. 36. On, dayes, by day, 
244, 773. On face, in face,' 2634. 
On felde, afield, 173. On gate, on 
their way, 2092 ; see Gate. Fpon 
hast, hastily, 5195. On heii, on 
high, 2020. On Hue, alive, 2100 
(cf. I-liue, 1690). On-loft, aloft, 
j-1186. On morwe, in the morn- 
ing, 3640. On nhtes, by night, 
739 ; on a niyt, 656. On. peces, in 
pieces, 3410. On-sunder, asunder, 
5455 (cf. a-sunder, 1759). On 
swowe, in a swoon, 87. On weie, 
on their way, 1751. 

On, adj. one. See 0. 

One, adj. S. alone, 211, 511, 
3156. Al him-selfone, 3316 ; him- 
self one, 657 ; bi here-self one, 3101. 
Him one, 17, 4112 ; hym one, f 792. 
pei \>re one, 1415. Al-one, 659, 864; 
allone but, 1532. God one, 4002. 
On \>e one (by thee alone), 4575. 
Cf. Alane in Jamieson. 

Ones, adv. S. once, 195, 611, 637- 
At ones (at once), 5412 ; at onis 
(to-gether), 5180; (once for all), 

On-honged, pp. S. hanged, 1564. 

Onliche, adv. S. only, 3155, 3799. 

Onwhar, adv. anywhere, some- 
where, 1820 ; onwar, 2251. 

Or, adv. S. before, 147, 1747, 
2351, t 30, f 142, 1 310. 

Or-trowed, pt. s. supposed, ima- 
gined, f 738. See or-troweden in 
Wycl. Gloss., and cf. Ouer-trowe. 

Ost, n. F. host, 1127, 1197, 3767. 

Ofer, conj. or, 696, 966, 1498, 
1823; (or else), 4067. Of>er or 
(either or), 1212, 1822. Ch. 

0]>er, adj. other ; hence, J>at o]?er 
= the second, the next, 1199 ; pi. 

o}>er (others), 5218. 0)>er-gate 
(otherwise), 3761 ; and hence, 
elliptically, o>er = otherwise, 2071, 

Ouer-borde. overboard, 2823 ; 
ouer-bord, 2778. 

Ouer-gret, adj. over-great, very- 
great, 1069. The MS. has ouer- 
gart gret ost, probably by mistake. 
"Ouer-gret is used by Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 16116 (Chan. Yem. 
Prol.)." M. 

Ouer-macched, pp. over-matched, 

Ouer-pase, v. to pass by, pass un- 
noticed, 4113. 

Ouer-ride, v. to ride over, harry, 
4147, 4262. Ch. 

Ouer-slide, v. to pass away with- 
out effort to retain it, to slip away, 

Ouer-trowe, n. S. mistrust, suspi- 
cion, 1402. Cf. Or-trowed. 

Our, adv. over. But our on titly 
tumbel, except one (of us) soon 
tumble over, 3388. 

Our, poss. pron. our, 4223 ; pi. 
oure, 3385. 

Out, prep, out of, 1640 ; ou^t 
(out), 3068 ; omt of (out of), 
1204, 1691. 

Out-wende, v. S. to go out, 4853. 

Ou^t, n. S. anything, aught, 952 ; 
out, 1823, 2090, 2971; adv. 
ou3t (at all), 2395, 3244, 5219. 

Out, pt. s. possessed, 2627 ; ou^t, 
3229; aught, 1 14, 1 173, f237; 
pt. pi. ou^ten (owed), 1080. As 
auxil. vb. out, pt. s. ought, 520, 
874, 1323 ; aught, f 547 ; 1 p. pi. 
pr. ou2t, 3589 ; 2 p. pL pr. omt, 
4129 ; pr. pi ou$t, 5221. 

Ow, you, 106. See $ou. 

Paide, pt. s. pleased, 4988 ; pp. 

payed, 1313, f 1038. From Lat. 

pacare. Ch. 
Paie, n. F. pleasure, 193, 5427, 

t 701 ; paye, 5492, 5524, 1 159. 



Paleis, n. F. palace, 2838 ; 

paleys, 2845. 
Pane, n. F. cloth, or fur, 5356. 

" See Sir Tristrem, p. 37." M. See 

also Pane in Wedgwood and Halli- 

Parades, Paradise, 443. 

Paramours, n. F. mistress, lover, 
1534 ; gen. pi. paramoures, lovers', 
2987 ; for paramours, for love, 
1758 ; of paramours, of love, 1412. 

Parayled, pp. apparelled, 1990. 
Park, n. a park, 2845. F. pare. 

A.S. pearroc. 
Partened, pt. pi. belonged, 1419. 

Party, n. F. to hold party to = 
to maintain the battle against, 
3643 ; pi. parties, sides, 1146 ; 
partyes, 1150. 

Pas, n. F. course, 3915 ; a "pas- 

sus," canto, 161 ; pase, pace, 

Passed, pt. s. passed, went, 4112 ; 

passad, 3068 ; pt. pi. passeden, 

2166, 3938. 

Patriarkes, patriarchs, 5047. 

Pauilons, n. pi. pavilions, tents, 
1630 ; pauilounns, 1627. 

Payenes, gen. sing, pagan's, 365. 
Payj?e, or PaJ)]>e, n. path, 1674. 

Pellure, n. F. costly fur, 53. " See 
Roq. and Jamieson's examples, 
which might be greatly augmented." 
M. $P.H.A.iL?. 

Peple, n. F. people, 1122; 
puple, 499, 4139, 5061. 

Perauenture, peradventure, 254. 

Perced, pp. pierced, 1225. 

Pere, n. F. peer, equal, 443, 709 ; 

pi. pers, 3976. Ch. 
Perelouste, sup. adj. F. most 

perilous, 1191. 
Perles, adj. F. peerless, 499, 516, 

740, 933, &c. 
Perrey, n. F. precious stones, 

jewels, 53. Cf. P. PI. A. ii. 12, 
and Ch. 

Pert, adj. F. true, lit. evident, 

4930. Lat. apertus. 
Pertly, adv. F. openly, clearly, 

plainly, 180, 2536 ; pertli, 2489 ; 

pertely, 156, 684 ; pertily, 
1325; pertili, 4384;-pertliche, 
5044, pertely che, 53; perti- 
lyche, 361; pertiliche, 96, 291. 
Cf Apertli. 

Pes, n. F. peace, 2951. 

Peter, by saint Peter ! 681. The 
line means "But, by saint Peter ! 
it was only his pillow," &c. Cf. 
P. PI. A. vi. 28 ; Ch. House of 
Fame, ii. 526; Morte Arth. (ed. 
Perry), 2884. 

Peyne, v. S. to punish, 2898, 
3662; pt. pi. pinte, f238 ; pp. 
peyned, in phr. J>at on croyce was 
peyned, that was put to a painful 
death on the cross, 350, 3127, 

Piled, pp. F. robbed, plundered, 
5123. Ch. 

Pilus, feathers, down, f 814. 
"Poilfolet, the first down or soft 
feathers of a young bird." Cot- 

Pitous, adj. F. piteous, 643 ; 
pytous, 1180; pitevows, 5488. 

Pitousli, adv. F. piteously, 1168 ; 

pitously, 933; pituosli, 1756. 
Pi$,pp. S. pitched, 1627. Ch. 

Piece, v. F. to please, 4729 ; 

plese, 5435. 
Pleie, v. to play, 678, 1020, 2736 ; 

pt. s. pleide, 216, 1195 ; pt. pi. 

pleide, 1477 ; pleyed, 1058. 

Pleint,w. F. complaint, 1180. Ch. 
Plenerli, adv. F. fully, 5435. 

Plenteousliche, adv. F. plenteous- 
ly, 180 ; pleiiteousli, 4970 ; 
plentiuosly, 1122. 

Pleyn, adv. F. full, 3158. Ch. 



Pleyned hem, pt. pi. complained, 


Pli^t, n. S. plight, condition, 5373. 
Pope, 1957. See the note. 
Porayle, n. F. the poor, the lower 

order of people, 5123. Ch. 
Porsewed, pt. pi. pursued, 2196; 

pp. porsewed, 2474. 
Portingale, Portugal, 116. 

Portreide, pp. pourtrayed, 445, 

Posterne, n. F. postern-gate, 1752, 

3068 ; posterne-gate, 2166 ; pos- 

terne-^ate, 2871. 

Pouert, n. F. poverty, 5373. Ch. 
Praide, pt. s. he prayed, 270; 

prated, 3546 ; preiede, 1168 ; 

preide, 643 ; pt. pi. preid, 1903 ; 

imp. pi. preieth, 164 ; preijes, 5529. 
Praire, n. prayer, 996. 
Praisen, pr. pi. praise, 617. 

Preeued, pp. proved, approved, 

Prened, pp. pinned, f 420. See 
Prein in Jamieson. A.S. preon, 
Dan. preen, a bodkin. We still 
use the phrase, "pinned to the 

Prent, n. F. print, f 845. 

Pres, n. F. press, throng, crowd, 

1191, 1225, 1481, 3431; prese, 

3848. Ch. 

Presed, pt. s. pressed forward, 
3424, 4959. 

Prest, adj. F. ready, prepared, 
1598, 1 6, f 165, f 422, f 595, &c. 

Prestly, adv. F. readily, quickly, 
soon, 1146, 1232, f 171, t 368 ; 
prestli, 2649 ; prestely, 291, 335, 
996 ; presteli, 1237, 1717; 
prestili, 3319, 3431 ; presteliche, 
399 ; prestlich, f 792. [It occurs 
more than 20 times.] 

Prie, v. to pry, look, 5019; pt. s. 
pried, 96. 

Prike, v. S. to spur, ride fast, 

2382 ;/tf. s. priked, 1191, 3319; 
prikede, 1481, 3362 ; pt. pi. prike- 
den, f 382. 

Pris, adj. F. worthy, choice, rich, 
noble, 161, 411, 2442, f306, t466 ; 
pi. pris, f 6 ; prise, f 1038 ; price, 

Prisely, adv. choicely, well, f733. 
Prisoun, n. F. a prisoner, 1251 ; 

pi. prisouns, 1290 ; prisons, 3458, 

4215. P. PI. 

Proddest, sup. adj. proudest, 2942. 

Properly, adv. F. properly, truly, 

652 ; propirli, 619 ; propirly, 

Proueyed hire, pt. s. provided 
for herself, procured, 3064. 

Prouost, n. provost, 2265, 2270. 

Pult, v. to put, 3093 ; pt. s. pult, 
4593 ; pp. pult, 381, 4219, 4223, 
4236, 4522, 5373. " In O.E. the 
word put was frequently written 
with an intrusive I, pult, analogous 
to the / in falter, halt, jolt" 
Wedgwood; who derives it from 
F. bouter. In 1. 2951 we find Put. 

Puluere, n. F. a pillow, 675, 681, 
684 ; pulwere, 672. 

Puple. See Peple. 

Pure litel, very little, 3093. 

Purli, adv. purely, wholly, 4219 ; 
purliche, 4428 ; purlieu, f 1038. 

Pursewend, pres. part. F. pur- 
suant, suitable, 5028. 

Purueaunce, n. F. provision, 1598, 

Purueyed, pp. provided, 1605. 

Quarrere,rc. F. quarry, 2232, 2319 ; 
quarrer, 2281, 4692. 

Quaf>,p. s. quoth, said, 251, 2028, 
2168,f638; quod, 3753, f 682. 

Queite, pt. s. whisked, darted, 
moved swiftly, 4344. Sir F. Mad- 
den suggested a derivation from the 
A.S. cwehte, moved (which is, how- 
ever, transitive), or that it might 



mean crept, from the F. quatir, 
explained by Roquefort to mean se 
tapir, i. e. to squat. But it is 
rather from the W. cliwido, to move 
nimbly, and is familiar to us in 
Lowland Scotch in the forms quhid 
and whid. See quhid in Jamieson. 

Queintyse, n. F. cunning, skill, 

Quelle, v. S. to kill, 1246, 2123, 

2773, 2811, &c. ; pr. s. quelles, 

179; pt. s. quelled, 1109. Qf. 

kyllen in 1. f 924. 
Queme, v. S. to please, delight, 

satisfy, 3404, f 227, t 682, 1 1181 ; 

2 p. s. pr. quemest, f593; pp. 

quemed, t 788. Ch. 
Quemfull, adv. S. pleasing, giving 

delight, 1 582. 

Queynt, adj. F. quaint ; i. e. cun- 
ning, skilful, 4136, 4254 j quinte, 

1401. Ch. 

Queyntli, adv. F. quaintly, i. e. 
cunningly, 4644 ; queyntliche, 
3233. Ch. 

Quic, adj. S. alive, 1564 ; quik, 

1212. Ch. 
Quicliche, adv. S. quickly, soon, 

908 ; quikliche, 2127. 
Quinte. See Queynt. 
Quite, v. F. to repay, requite, 325, 

4726 ; pr. s. zubj. quite, 4713. Ch. 

Quitly, adv. freely, entirely, 2341. 

"Used by Ch. Cant. T. 1794 

(Knightes T. 934)." M. 
Quod. See Qua)). 

Eadde. See Rede, v. 

Raddely, Radely, Eafli. See 

Rau^t, pt. s. S. reached, 1193, 

4424 ; raught, f 1174 ; pp. raujt, 


Railled,^. striped, decked, 1618. 
See Rail in Wedgwood, Riole in 
Cotgrave, and cf. Norman Railer, 
to score, draw lines, streak. 

Rapli, adv. very quickly, hastily, 
3179. Du. rap, nimble. P. PI. 
A. v. 176. 

Real, adv. F. royal, splendid, 866, 
1310, 1405, 1597, 1601; riall, 
f!78, |267; sup. realest, 3944. 

Realy, adv. F. royally, 352, 1260, 
1391, 1426, 1618 ; reali, 5460; 
rialiche, 4859; comp. realiere, 
4852. Ch. 

Realte, n. F. royalty, splendour, 
5006 ; reaute, 1926, 1959 ; re- 
aulte, 5331, 5345 ; riaulte, 5057. 

Reaume, n. F. realm, 1310, 1964, 

3920, 4102. 
Reching, n. explanation, f 599. 

A.S. recan, to say, explain. 

Recuuer, n. F. to recover, i. e. to 
gain, 2801; pt. s. intr. recuuered 
(recovered), 3874. 

Recuuerere, n. F. recovery, revival, 

Reddour, n. F. violence, injury, 
2953. [The words reddour = 
violence (O.F. roideur), and reddour 
= fear (Suio - Goth, reedde), are 
often mistaken for each other.] 

Rede, adj. ready, 1963. 

Rede, n. S. advice, counsel, 803, 
1458, 1692, 5115, f 356. What is 
me to rede, what is advisable for me, 
903 ; shortened into what fo rede, 
3885 ; take hire to rede, considered 
as advisable for herself, 133. Cf. 
A.S. to rcBde, s.v. reed in Bosworth. 

Rede, v. S. to advise, counsel, 
1356 ; 1 p. pr. pi. rede, 1112; pt. s. 
radde, 1301 ; (= read), 4433 ; pr. 
s. subj. rede, 2262. Too rede, to 
read, to explain, f 856. Ch. 

Redeles, adj. S. without counsel, 
at a loss what to do, f 394 ; 
redles, 2915. 

Redeli, adv. S. readily, quickly, 
soon, 461, 1824, 1828, 2516;- 
redeliche, 439, 5467 ; redili, 
3563 ; rediliche, 1226 ; redli, 



2143, 2488; redly, 866, 1153; 
reddely, 1367 ; radely, 41 5 
raddely, 810. [It occurs nearly 30 
times. In 1. 3179 Sir F. Madden 
explains rafyli by quickly, but we 
should read rapli, as in the MS.] 

Regal, n. F. regality, 282. 

Reioische, v. F. to enjoy, 4102. 
Cf. Reioshe in Coleridge's Gloss. 

Reken,<y. S. to reckon, tell, 1597, 
3179 ; rekene, 336, 1934, 1958. 

Kemued, pt. s. intr. removed, 
went, 1325 ; remewed, 5106, 5317; 
pt. pi remewed, 1297. Ch. 

Renkes. See Rink. 

Eenne, v. S. to run, 219, 2268, 

3179. Ch. 
Reproue, n. F. reproof, 652. 

Res, n. S. rush, of emotion, conflict 
of mind, 439 ; attack, onset, f 389; 
violence, f H89. A.S. rds, rush, 
onset, violence. Ch. 

Resset, n. F. a place of shelter or 
refuge, 2801. See facet in Cole- 
ridge's Gloss. Index. 

Restored, pp. stored, 2846. 

Rette, v. to impute, ascribe, 461. 
"Rectyn, or rettyn, or wytyn. 
'Imputo, reputo, ascribo" Prom. 
Parv. Used by Ch. O.N. retta. 

Reue, v. S. to rob, bereave, 1824, 

4392; reued, 2755. Ch. 
Reueles, n. pi. F. revels, 1953. 
Reuested, >p. dressed, 1959,5047. 

Reuliche, adv. ruefully, pitiably, 


Reuowres, n. pi. S. robbers, 5478. 
Reube, n. S. ruth, pity, 2115, 


Reward, n. F. regard, 3339. 
Rewes me, pr. s. grieves me, 562; 

pt. s. rewed him, grieved him, 4987- 

Rialiche. See Reali. 

Riaulte. See Realte. 

Riche, v. F. to enrich, or more 

probably, to be rich, 3014. 
Riche, n. S. a kingdom, f 58. 

Richesse, n % F. riches, 1935, 
3014, 5057. [It is in the sing, 
number.] Ch. 

Richlier, adv. more richly, 1934. 
Ridende, pres. part. 1954. 
Rif, Rifliche. See Riuedli. 
Rigge, n. S. back, 1 1174. Ch. 

Rink, n. S. a man, hero, warrior, 
1193, 1935, 3563, fl05, f480; 

rynk, 1472 ; ring, 5213; 
ryng, f H45 ; pi, rmkes, 1213, 
1226, 1 341, f 354 ; renkes, 1153. 

Rise, n. Reggio, in Calabria, 2717. 
"See Panizzi's Life of Bojardo, 
vol. ii. p. Ixxxi. n. The same, 
change seems to have taken place 
in regard to Riez in Provence, as 
remarked by Mr Nicol, to whom I 
am indebted for a reference to 
Martiniere's Dictionary, sub. v. 
Riez." M. 

Rist, n. S. rising ; sonne rist = 
rising of the sun, f 791 ; hence, the 
East, f 855. 

Rit, adv. right, 4268 ; ri3t, 273. 

Riue, adj. S. rife, abundant, full, 
4415, 5414, t 726; ryfe, f268. 

Riuedli, adv. abundantly, widely, 
2953, 3840 ; riuedliche, 2115 ; 
rifliche, 1472; rif, 1953. 

Ri3t, adv. See Rit. 

Ri3tes, n. pi rights, 3218. At 
here mttes, exactly, rightly, suit- 
ably, 4906 ; at alle i^tes, 4255 ; 

to J>e ri3tes, 5006, 5026; to 
}>e ri^ttes, 53 ; to ^tes, 1957 ; 
tomttes, 1605, 1632; too rightes, 
f 660, f 846, f 980 ; to rightus, 
f 1222. Anon rbtes, straightway, 
immediately, 1306; anon ri^ttes, 
235. Vp-ri^ttes (upright), 1789 ; 
doun-mtes, 1165, Rijtes gates, 
by the right way, 5322. [In At 



all fi^tes, to rtyes, &c., I suppose 
rtyes to be the pi. of ntf, sb. ; in 
anon rtyes, vp-ri^ttes, doun-ri^tes, it 
is the gen. case sing, used adver- 
bially; cf. rihtes, adv. in La^amon. 
In ri^tes gates, I think ri^tes is the 
gen. sing, of ri$t, adj. agreeing 
with gates, gen. of gate ; the whole 
expression being used adverbially.] 

Ei^tleche, v. S. to govern, 282, 

1310. A.S. rihtlacan. 
Ei^tly, adv. directly, straightway, 

232. Cf. Kit. 
Eoche, n. F. rock, 2367. Ch. 

Eode, n. S. rood, cross, 1669, 

1802, 2083, 2360. Ch. 
Eode, n. complexion, f 178. O.N. 

rodi. Cf. A.S. rudu, redness. 
Eomed, pt. s. roamed, 1608; pt. 

pi. romden, 810. Ch. 
Eote, n. S. root, 638. Ch. 
Eoted, pp. rotted, 4124. 
Eoute, v. F. to trouble, harass, 

Eoute, n. F. a rout, company, 

troop, 1213, 1616, 1942, 3354; 

ro^te, 4276 ; rowte, 397. Ch. 

Eoum, n. a room, i. e. a space, 

while, f 1030. 
Eou^t hem, it recked them, i. e. 

they cared, 3353 ; pi. rought 

(recked), f 383.- 

Eowe, adj. S. rough, 4778. Ch. 
Budli, adv. rudely, 3270. 

Sad, adj. firm, steadfast, in various 
senses ; as, discreet, steady, sober, 
228 ; firm, massive, 1072 ; firm, 
sure, 1463 ; severe, grievous, 
2775 ; sadde, firm, sure, 1371 ; 
sup. saddest, chiefest, 677 ; in 
which last instance it is very nearly 
equivalent to most joyous ; cf. 1. 
3675. "In the sense of heavy, 
hard, or solid, it is used in the Wyc- 
liffite Bible, in the Prompt. Parv. 
(A.D. 1440), and in Stanbridge's 
Vocab. (A.D. 1513). In the North, 

this signification is not yet obso- 
lete ; see Brockett, and Hunter." 
M, Cf. Welsh, sad, firm, steady, 
discreet. Ch. 

Sadly, adv. firmly, 1014 ; serious- 
ly, 488, 557; steadfastly, 469, 
524; earnestly, 418, 1165, 2388; 

sadli, fixedly, 762 ; discreetly, 
969 ; earnestly, 2524 ; seriously, 
4146, 4170; purposely, 2750; 
heavily, 539 ; saddeli, closely, 
2281, 2592 ; saddely, quietly, in 
a low tone, 311 ; sup. saddest, most 
earnestly, 3675 ; cf. 1. 677. Ch. 

Saf. See Sauf. 
Sai, Saie. See Se. 
Saile, v. to sail, 2673 ; sayle, 
2721 ; pt. pi. saileden, 2763. 

Sake, n. S. cause ; hence, for J>at 
sake = on that account, 2019. A.S. 
sacu, a dispute, suit at law, cause. 

Saluede, pt. s. saluted, 4017. 

Samen, adv. S. together, 433, 
909, 1288, 1907, 2267, 2445, &c. ; 

same, 4318, 4899 ; samme, 
t 342. It occurs 19 times. The 
expressions samen to-yeder (909), 
and samen y-fere (2267) are pleon- 
astic. It is found in Spenser. 

Samli, adv. together, 1835 ; cf. 11. 
433, 909. A.S. samodlice. 

Sarre, comp. adv. more sorely, 

2025, 3441. 
Sauf, adv. F. safe, sound, whole, 

868, 1329, 2816, 4634 ; saf, 

1332. Sauf and sound, 868, 2816. 

See Fouche. 
Saufly, adv. safely, 3051 ; - 

saufli, 2688 ; saufliche, 256 ; 

safliche, 258. Ch. 

Saules, n. pi. souls, 3705. 

Saundbruel ; the name of a horse, 
3585. " So named from its colour." 

Sauor, n. F. scent, perfume, 638, 
818; sawoiir, 849. 

Sau3t, n. F. assault, 2651 ; 



saute, t 301 j pi. samtes, 2682; 

sautes, 2857. Ch. 
Sawe, n. S. saying, word, 1112, 

1305, 1483, f 757 ; pi. sawes, 


Say. See Se. 
Sayle. See Saile. 
Sehal, pr. s. shall, 2938, 2945, 

&c. ; 1 p. pi. pr. schul, 5422 ; 2 p. schul, 5162; schulle, 3690; 

clml, 3339 ; pr. pi. schul, 964, 

2943, 2952 ; schulle (ought), 3807 ; 

2 p. s. pt. schuldest, 5194 ; pt. s. 

schold, 2969, 2971 ; chold, 2014 ; 

2 p. pi. pt. sehuld, 3685 ; pt. pi. 

schuld, 3810. See next word. 

Schaltow, shalt thou, 340, 5132 ; 
schalstow, 325. 

Schamful, adj. S. harmful, 1855. 

Schamly, adj. S. shameful, 556. 

Schap, n. S. shape, 2885. 

Schape, v. F. to escape, 2749 ; 
pt. pi. schaped, 2752 ; pp. schaped, 
460, 731, 1282 ; schapit, 2151. 

Schapen, pp. shapen, shaped, 
126, 225, 1447 ; schape, 3214. 

Scharplyche, adv. S. sharply, 178. 

Schabe, n. S. scathe, harm, dis- 
grace, 3008, 3084, 4051. 

Schajjeles, adv. S. scatheless, 
without injury, 1855 ; sca^eles, 

Schajjli, adv. harmfully, hardly, 
2794. [But it may be a mistake 
for scha}>elesli.~\ 

Schawes, n. pi. groves, 178. Ch. 

Schawes, n. pi. men, f 484. The 
sing, shawe, f 766, should rather be 
spelt schawe. A.S. scealc, a servant, 

Sche, pron. she, 836, 837, &c. ; 
hue, f34, |35, f36; che, 
462, 641. A.S. heo. 

Scheche, v. S. to seek, 2068. 

Scheld, n. S. shield, 3214; 
schel, 3216. 

Schenchip, n. S. shame, dishonour, 
556, 1803. Ch. 

Schende, v. S. to shame, dis- 
honour, disgrace, 556, f 995 ; 
schend, f 566 ; pp. schent (de- 
stroyed, dead), 2798, f 1028. Ch. 

Schene, adj. S. fair, beautiful, 
bright, 3214, 3296 ; scheene, 
f 202. Used as sb. t lady being 
understood, 733, 3299. Ch. 

Scheenely, adv. S. brightly, |631. 

Schepe, n. S. ship, 5088 ; 
schipe, 5212 ; schip, 2729 ; pi. 
schippes, 2728. 

Schete, v. S. to shoot, 2399 ; 

schote, 178 ; pt. s. shet (read 

schet), f 277". 
Schette, v. S. to shut, fasten, 

3649 ; pt. pi. schetten, 3267. Of. 

Bi-schet, 2014. 

Scheuered, pp. shivered, 3411. 
Schilde, 3 p. s. imp. shield, 1803. 

Schille, adj. shrill, 213 ; adv. 

(shrilly), 37, 3831. Du. schel. 
Schinnes, n. pi. skins, 2420. 

Schipmen, n. pi. sailors, 2768; 

chipmen, 2811, 2818. 
Schire, adj. clean, f 1008. See 

Sheer in Wedgwood. 
Schoche, v. F. to suspect, 1398. 

souche, 1983 ; pt. s. scouched, 
1413 ; souched, 1059. 0. F. 
souche, souci. Roq. 

Schon, n. pi. shoon, shoes, 14. 

Schonde, n. S. shame, dishonour, 

Schore, n. S. a score ; foure 

schore, 1102, 2540 ; ten schore, 


Schorned, pp. scorned, 554. 

Schortely, adv. shortly, 1132; 

chortly, 2035. 

Schortet, pp. shortened, 1549. 
Schote. See Schete. 

Schour, n. S. shower ; scharp 



scliour = shower of darts or blows, 
4514; cf. 1. 2756. Cf. fiana 
scuras, showers of arrows, in the 
A.S. fragment of Judith. 

Schoute[s], n. pi. flat-bottomed 
boats of light draught, f 484. See 
Shout in Halliwell. l)u. schuit. 

Schrewe, n. a wicked person, 
4643 ; pi. shrews, f 80. See Shrew 
in Wedgwood. On. 

Schrewedest, sup. adj. most 
wicked, 4643. See Wycl. Gloss. 

Schuft, pt. s. either shifted, from 
A.S. scyftan, or shoved, from A.S. 
scufan, 3290. See Shift in Wedg- 

Schuft, pp. well-shaped, t 186. 
A.S. sceaft, adj., formed, made. 

Schul. See Schal. 

Sclaunder,w.F. slander, 4045. Ch. 

Se, v. S. to see, 765 ; sen, 
1283, 3203 ; sene, 759, 3834, 
4487 ;Ip.8. pt. sai, 2160 ; 2 p. s. 
pt. sei, 276 ; pt. s. sei, 2117 ; sey, 
4901 ; seu, 34, 590, 871, &c.; say, 
228, 1585 ; seie, 1505 ; 86*36, 402, 
2183; seye, 26; seup, 
3501 ; pt. pi. sei^en, 1063 ; seien, 
4503; se3en, 2760; saie, 2232; 
pp. seie, 279, 2344, 2886; seien, 
5003; seisen, 1792; seyn, 5058; 
imp. pi. sej, 1715. 

Seccleled, pt. s. sickened, 575. 
A.S. saclian. 

Sece, v. to cease, 2124 ; pp. seced, 
2114; 1 p. pi. imp. sece, 2707 ; pt. 
pi. sesed, 2190. See Sese. 

Seche, v. S. to seek, 223, 2203 ; 
pr. s. seche]}, 4121, 5520; 
sechande, 2603. See Sou;t. 

Sechyng, n. S. a seeking, search- 
ing, 2190. 

Sede, Seide, &c. See Seie. 

Seemeli, Seemlich. See Semli. 

Seg, n. S. a man, 226, 518, 772, 
839, &c. ; segge, f 232 ; pi. 
segges, 1341, 2223, 1 286 ; seges, 
1063. P. PI. 

Seged, pp. F. "besieged, 3805. 

Segging, n. S. a saying, a repeti- * 

tion of words of incantation, f 531. 
Seie, t?.S. to say, 1279 ; sei}, 60; 

seye, 1281 ; segge, f 584, f 1033 ; 

sigge, f 8 ; %p. seistow, 2256 ; 

pt. s. seide, 70, 3191 ; seyde, 954 ; 

sede, 943 ; seyede, 2274 ; 2 p. s. 

pt. seidestow (= seidest >ow), 267; 

imp. pi. seie, 4173 ; seij>, 4170 ; 

sei^th, 593. 
Seile, n. S. 2731 ; where be seile 

= sailing, voyage ; we find sayle = 

a sail, 568. 

Sei^t, of his = out of his sight, 
420. [Probably miswritten for 
sijt.] See Si^t. 

Sek, adj. S. sick, 557, 590, 1489. 

Sekly, adj. S. sick, 1505. [We 
still use sickly as an adj.~] 

Seknes, n. S. sickness, 842 ; 
sekenes, 841 ; seknesse, 593. 

Selcoub, adj. S. strange, wonder- 
ful, admirable, 1621, 2708 ; sel- 
cou^e, 658, 700, 2329 ; selco^e, 
2869, 2989 ; selkouthe, t 130. 
Used as gb., thing being understood, 
selcou]>, 2291, 2579 ; selcoufo 700, 

Selcoubli, adv. S. strangely, 
wonderfully, 2650, 4924, 5064 ; 
selcou^eli, 3263 ; selkou^ely, 

Sell, n. F. a seal, f 834, t 853. 

Sell, n. F. a cell, f 525. Ch. 

Selue, S. self, same, very, 1149, 
1300, &c. ; self, 1839 ; pi. selue, 
727, 889, &c. Selue wise, very 
way, same way, 462, 490, 1438. 
pat selue, the very same, 3502. pe 
selue duk, the duke himself, 1368. 
What I suppose J>e selue, what if I 
suppose that very thing, 549. 

Seluer, n. S. silver, 2554. 

Semblant, n. F. outward sem- 
blance, appearance, show, 228, 841, 
3502, 4512. 

Sembul, v. F. to assemble, gather, 



3555 ; pp. 2147, 3319. In 1. 3811, 
we have pt. pi. sembled, which pro- 
bably means encountered ; cf. 1. 
3815. Semblyng = encountering 
occurs in Lancelot of the Laik, 

Semes, me = it seems to me, 
620 ; pi. me semen, seem to me, 
1686 ; pt. pi. semde, 2880. 

Semes, n. pi. S. horse-loads, 
2554. " A sack of eight bushels 
is now called a seam t which was a 
horse-load hence generally a load, 
a burden" Bosworth, in v. seam. 
Cf. G. saum, a burden. F. sommier, 
a sumpter or pack-horse, &c. [Sir 
F. Madden suggests that the word 
(which is somewhat indistinct) 
may, however, be selues^\ 

Semli, adj. S. seemly, comely, 
fair, 829, 1882 ; semly, 298, 
765, 837, 849; semliche, 49, 
1454, 2232; semlyche, 568; 
seemelich, f 322 ; seemeli, f 232. 
fat semly = that seemly person or 
lady, 732, 853, 871, &c. Sup. 
semlyest, 518, 551. 

Semly, adv. in a seemly manner, 
courteously, 1432 ; seemlich, 
becomingly, f 189. 

Sendeth, imp. pi. send ye, 2068. 

Sene, 3035. This can hardly 
mean seen, and I have no doubt 
that it is simply miswritten for 
sone = soon, which ends 1. 3037 
below. It is an instance of the 
common confusion between e and 
o, like sweto for swete in 1. 818, 

Sent, n. assent, agreement ; in 
the phr. at o sent == with one 
assent, 3017, 5253 ; at sent = in 
agreement, well aware, 1983. 
Halliwell quotes 
" Many armys were tynt, 
That were never at the sent 
To come to that tournament." 
MS. Lincoln, A. i. 17. f. 134. 

Sere, put for Sire, sir, 3570. See 

Serliche, 2149, j adv. explained 

Serreli, 3316, j by Sir F. Mad- j 

den to mean "surely." But I 
would suggest different explana- 
tions in both places, and I take 
them to be distinct words : (1) ser- 
liche, closely ; cf. " Serre, to join 
closely" (Halliwell), from F. 
serrer ; also " Sarreliche, closely" 
(Halliwell). (2) serreli, lordly, in a 
sir-like manner, as explained by 
Wedgwood, s. v. Surly : cf. " Sik'e 
sirly shepherds lian we none," 
Spenser, Sheph. Cal. July, 1. 203, 
where the "Glosse" has " Surly \ 
stately and prowde." 

Sertes, adv. F. certainly, 268, 
280, 543, 899, &c. 

Seined, pp. deserved, 4352. 
Semes, n. F. service, 3729. 

Sese, v. to cease, 1516; sece, 
2124 ; pt. pi. sesed, 2190 ; pp. 
sesed, 648; seced, 2114; 1 p. pi. 
imp. sece, 2707. 

Sese, v. to seize, f 135 ; pr. pi. 
1 299 ; pt. s. sesed, 1236 ; pt. pi. 
seseden, |234. See notes to 11. 
j-135, f299. In 1. 5391, *<<? is- 
explained by Sir F. Madden to 
mean to take, attain; it is rather 
the regular law term, to seize a 
person of a thing, i. e. to put him 
into legal possession of it, Cf. Ch. 
Trail, and Ores. (Aldine ed.), bk. 
iii. st. 57. 

Se)>J?e, (1) adv. S. since, after- 
wards, then, 433, 902, 2047; 
sej>]?en, 104, 206, 420; sej>en, 
1 370, 3672 ; si|>J>e, 3050 ; si|>J>en, 
f 308 ; sithen, f 624 ; sithe, 
f 45 ; also in the sense ago, 1647, 
4210 ; sejtye a gret while = since 
a great while, 1991; (2) conj. since, 
seeing that, after that, 329, 454, 
456,516, 4207; se)>, 973. 

Set, pt. s. dealt (a blow), 2775; 
sette (set), 2459 ; pt. pi. setten, 
appointed, 1462. 

Sete, 1 p. s. pt. did sit, sat, 1622. 
[It implies that the reciter of the- 
story did not stand, but sat.] See- 



/?. S. settled, sunk, 2452 ; 

setteled, settled, composed, 4562. 
Seue-ni^t, n. seven-night, a week, 

766 ; seueni^t, 573. 
Seurte, n. F. surety, 1463. Ch. 
Seute, n. F. suit, case, 1080, 1250. 
Seute, n. F. pursuit, chase, 2392, 

Sewe, v. F. to follow, pursue, 

2821; sew, 2751; seuwe, 581; 
pr. s. sewes, 1376 ; sewej), 4897 ; 
pt. s. sewede, 3354; sewed, 418; 

sued, f 957 ; pt. pi. seweden, 2193, 

2766 ; sewede, 204 ; sewed, 2190, 

2388, 3506 ; pp. sewed, 1773 ; imp. 
pi. sewes, 1116. Ch. 
Sexti, num. sixty, 1087. 
Sigge, v. to say, f 8. See Seie. 
Signifiaunce, n. F. significance, 

2958. Ch. 

Sikamour, n. a sycamore, 829. 
Siken, v. S. to sigh, f 395 ; sike, 

691, 780 ; 1 p. s. pr. sike, 433 ; 

si}h, 909 ; pt. s. siked, 1487, 1641, 

4069 ; sijt, 2971; 0m. sikande, 

5448; sikand, 539, 662 ; sikende, 

894 ; sikinde, 490 ; sikimr, 5189, 

5209. Ch. 
Siker, adj. S. secure, sure, 2361, 

4366, 4657; sup. sikerest, surest, 

strongest, f 334. Ch. 
Sikered, pp. secured, assured, 

Siking, n. S. a sighing, lament, 

5451 ; sikyng, 601 ;pl. sikingges, 

Simple, adj. F. of low degree, 


Sin, conj. since, f 103. 
Sinifieth, pr. s. signifieth, f 853. 

Of. Signifiaunce. 
Sire, n. F. sir, 326, 1250 ; sir, 

1095 ; sere, 3570 ; pi. sires, 2248. 
SiJ>e, n. S. only in pi. 780, 1755 ; 

Oousand) 1696, 5154 ; (six) 2098; 

also in form styes, 103, 1038, 

1265, 2470, 5200. Ch. [The form 

si}>es = A.S. styas ; si)?e = A.S. 
si^on or styum, forms which often 
follow numerals^ 

Sittus, pr. s. sits, 446-; sittes, 
620; \p. sete, 1622. 

Si}t, n. S. sight, 933, 1687, &c. 

Slates, n. pi. S. 924. "Sights, 
used for the singular." M. But 
may it not mean sighs, which suits 
the context better, and requires no 
forcing ? Cf. Du. zucht, a sigh ; 
A.S. siccet. See sihten in Strat- 

Skil, n. S. reason, 1680, 4098; 
skille, 336. Ch. 

Skoumnt, pp. F. discomfited, de- 
feated, f 371 ; skoumfyt (mis- 
written skoumkyt), f 86. 

Slake, v. (1) trans, to slacken, 
relax, assuage, abate, 728, 778, 
788, 1521 ; pt. s. slaked on = fell 
relaxingly upon, f 779 ; pp. slaked, 
1507, 4796 ; (2) intr. pr. s. slakes, 
becomes less, 924; pt. s. slaked, 
died out, faded away, f 714. Icel. 
slokva, to extinguish, O.N. slokna, 
to die out. Suio-Goth. sldcka (v. 
Hire) ; Sw. slakna, to become 
slack, A.S. slacian. Ch. 

Sle, v. S. to slay, 2797 ; pt. s. 
slow, 1196 ; slouj, 3890 ; pt. pi. 
slowen, 1275 ; slowe, 1165, 3459 ; 
pp. slawe, 1779, 3421, 3435; sleie, 
379. Ch. 

Slei3)?e, n. S. sleight, 2151. 

Slepend, pres. pt. sleeping, 2291 ; 
pt. s. slept, 656 -,pt. pi. slepten, 

Sluli, adv. slily, secretly, in- 
sensibly, 792 ; sli^liche, 1065 ; 
sliliche, 1413 ; sleiliche, 637. 

Slod, pt. s. S. slid, slipped, 792. 

Smyl&nd, pres. part, smiling, 991. 

So, adv. S. so ; hence, wat so = 
whatsoever, 607 ; what so = what- 
soever, 621 ; who-so = whosoever, 
f 87, See Ho. So as = in like 
manner as, 338. 



Soberliche, adv. soberly, i. e. 
seriously, prudently, 237 ; so- 
burli, 991. Ch. 

Socoures, imp. pi. succour ye, 

Sode,pp. S. sodden, 1849. 

Softili, adv. softly, gently, 632, 

Soget, n. F. subject, 473 \ pi. 
sogettes, 463. Ch. 

Solas, n. F. solace, comfort, en- 
joyment, 677, 1550. Ch. 

Solas, v. F. to solace, delight, 

Solempne, adj. F. lit. solemn ; 
suitable to a great occasion, 1599 ; 
grand, famous, 1454. See Solempne 
in Roq. 

Solempte, n. F. solemnity, solem- 
nization of marriage, 1462. 

Son. See Sowne. 

Sond, n. S. lit. that which is 
sent, just as zjincl is that which is 
found ; hence (1) a messenger, 
1872 ; pi. sondes, 1078, 1308, 
1594, 5271, t 291 ; (2) a message, 
5195, 5199 ; (3) a God's-send, a 
gift, that which is sent us by God's 
grace, 4561 ; sonde, 64, f 973 ; 
and hence we may explain the 
difficult phrase " seemely to sonde" 
in f 175 as meaning "a comely 
creature for a man to acquire ; " cf. 
1. 64 of the Werwolf. 

Sonken, pp. sunk, 4111 j 
sounk, f 1092. 

Soothelich. See Sofli. 

Sor, n. S. sorrow, 894 ; sore, 
891 ; pi. sores, 598 ; soris, 639. 
Cf. sorwe in 1. 3543. 

Sore, adv. S. sorely, 593 ; comp. 

sorer, 634. 
Sorful, adj. S. sorrowful, 3541. 

Sori, adj. worthless, 3509 ; pain- 
ful, 3696. 

Sorly, adv. 463. "Surely (?) ; 
see Serlicfe." M. Probably mis- 

written for serly, as Sir F. Madden 
suggests, in which case I would 
explain it by straightly, strictly, 
closely ; see note on Serliche. The 
French has, "sont il a lui oil por 
voir, et font du tot a son voloir." 

Sorwfuliche, adv. sorrowfully, 

SoJ>e, n. S. truth, 108, 116, 238, 

772, &c. Ch. 
So]?, adj. S. true, 2799; soj>ly 

so}), verily true, true indeed, 700. 
Sojdi, ode. truly, verily, 949, 

1194; so]?ly, 76, 379, 473; 

soHiche, 1452; soothelich, f973. 

Sotilest, sup. adj. most subtle, 

most secret, 2603. 
Sotiliche, adv. subtly, 3117, 4783. 

Souche, v. to suspect, 1983 ; pi. 

s. souched, 1059, 1065. See 

Soudiour, n. Low Lat. soldier, 

3954 ; sowdiour, 3951. Ch. 
Souerayn, n. F. chief, leader, 

4938 \gen. sing. souerayne,provost's, 

4695. "The title is still retained 

in some towns in Ireland." M. 

Soueraynest, sup. adj. most 
sovereign, chiefest, above all others, 
524, 4932 ; cf. most souereyn, 518. 

Soueraynli, adv. above all, chiefly, 
supremely, 1062. 

Souked, pt. s. sucked, 2702. Ch. 

Soupe, v. F. to sup, 3524. Ch. 

, pt. s. of to seche, but used 
in a peculiar manner ; thus, sou^t 
for]) = found out his way onward, 
46/7 ; sou3t out = ventured out, 
went out, 4681 ; sought to = made 
for, reached, f 95 ; pi. sou^t to = 
reached, 2717 ; soute on-sunder = 
parted, 5455 ; soi^ten on gate = 
went on their wav, 5214. Cf. 
Sowdiour. See Soudiour. 

Sowne, n. F. sound, 210 ; son, 
39. [It is vulgar to say gownd for 



but custom has sanctioned 
"sound for so-un. Ch. has soun, but 
sownde is the form in the Prompt. 
Parv. A. D. 1440.] 

Spakly, adv. wisely, knowingly, 
excellently, well, 19 ; but more 
generally it is an expletive, meaning 
quickly, soon, as in 966 ; spakh, 
3357, 3631; spacly, 3399;- 
spacli, 3389, 3392, 3529, 4499, 
4887, 5212. " The root is, appar- 
ently, to be sought in the Su-Goth. 
spak, Icel. spakr, sapiens. See Ihre." 
M. The same root probably is 
that of Sc. spae, and of 0. H. Ger. 
spahi, prudent ; Dan. spaae, to pre- 
dict; and probably also of Ger. 
spahen, Eng. spy, &c. The word 
occurs in the form spakely in Morte 
Arthur, ed. Perry, 1. 2063. 

Spaynols, n. pi. Spaniards, 3631, 
3730, 3770, 5168, 5212; spay- 
noles, 3399-; spaynolus, 3529 ; 
spaynolnes, 3357. 

Spede, v. (in out-spede or out 
spede) to succeed, 548 ; pp. spedde, 
1293, 1715 ; (2) trans, to help, 
succour, in^. s. spedde, 4922. 

Spedeliche, adv. speedily, 19 ; 

- spedly, 5468, f 296. 
Spei3ed, pt. pi. spied, saw, 3399. 

Of. A-spie. 

Speldes, n. pi. S. splinters, 3392, 
3603, 3855. Cf. E. spell or spill, 
originally a chip of wood for light- 
ing a candle. See Spall, Spelk, 
Spell in Wedgwood. "In the 
Prompt. Parv. we have Spalle, or 
chyppe. Quisquilia, assula. The 
latter term is still used in the 
North ; v. Brockett." M. See 
also Spawl, Speall, Speel, Spelder, 
Spelk, Spelt, in Halliwell, all mean- 
ing a chip ; and cf. G. spalten, to 

Spenen, v. S. to spend, f 362 ; 
pp- spended, distributed, 4324. 

Spille, v. trans, to destroy, con- 
found, overthrow, 966, 1891, 3009, 
3437, 4100, 4395 ; pp. spilt, 3764; 

(2) ititrans. to die, 1 p. s. pr. spille, 
1535. Ch. 

Spire, v. S. to inquire, seek, 
4594. Sc. speir. 

Spors, spurs, 1482. Ch. 

Spret, n. S. a boatman's pole, 
2754 ; sprite, a pole, f 1097. 
See Spret in Halliwell. " It is still 
preserved in the term bow-spnV." 
M. A JtpriV-sail has its name 
from the pole that traverses it 

Stabled, pp. established, f 514. 

Stalkeden, pt. pi. S. walked 
cautiously, one step at a time, 
2728. "Dan. stalke, to go with 
high uplifted feet, with long 
steps ; " Wedgwood. Ch. 

Stalworjj, adj. S. strong, stout, 

Standes, imp. pi. stand ye, 2263 ; 
pt. pi. stoden, 2728. 

Stede, n. S. place, stead, 3521, 
f 303, f 769. Ch. 

Stef, adj. S. stiff, strong, 2894, 
3600, 3604 ; styf = deep, pro- 
found, 4056 ; stif, 3535. 

Stelen, adj. of steel, 3535, 3859 ; 
stel, f416. 

Stepchilderen, n. pi. 131. 

Stepmoder, n. stepmother, 2640 ; 
pi. stepmoderes, 130, 4099. 

Sterne, adj. S. stern, fierce, brave, 
159, 2981, 3243 ; sturne, 3409, 
3780 ; sup. sturaest, 3226. 

Stemely, adv. S. sternly, fiercely, 
bravely, boldly, 1158 ; sternli, 
2894, 3240 ; sturnli, 3907. Ch. 

Stert, v. S. to start off, gallop, 
3600 ; 1 p. s. pt. sterte, I started 
off, I ran, 2277 ; pt. s. stert vp, 
started up, 4355 ; stirte vp, 3275. 

Sterue, v. S. to die, f 445 ; pp. 
storue, died, 1515. Ch. 

Stif. See Stef. 

Stifly, adv. S. earnestly, eagerly, 




736, 880 ; stifli, 
L657; stiffuly, 219. 
Stiked,^. pierced, 3818. 

Stint, n. S. stop, delay, 2350, 

Stint, v. S. to stop, dwell, cease, 
pause, leave off, 159, 1612, 1961, 
5232; stinte, 1042; stynt, 
2781 ; in transitive sense, to make 
to leave off. 4056 ; pt. s. stint, 61, 
f 951 ; stinte, 1574 ; stinten, 
f 445 ; stint, f 386 ; imp. s. stint, 
1652 ; imp. pi. stintes, 1206 ; 
stinteh 1113. "It is inserted in 
the Prompt. Parv. ' Styntyn'. 
Pauso, desisto, subsisto.' " M. Ch. 

Stirte vp. See Stert. 
StiJ?, adj. S. strong, f 91. 

Stiued, pp. baked hard, 3033. 
Lit. 'stiffened.' " Stijven, als, 
doecken stijven, to Stiffe linnen;" 

Stiward, n. S. a steward, 3378, 
4211 ; gen. sing, stiwardes, 3446. 

Stty,pp. S. set, fixed, 4425. 

Sti^tli, v. S. to dispose, arrange, 
manage, 3841, 5379 ; stijtli to- 
gadere = arrange matters between 
them, 3281 ; pt. s. stifled, 1199 ; 
(disposed of), 2899. Cf. P. PL 
Crede, 315. 

Stightlich, adv. disposedly, in 
right order, in their proper place, 

Stoden, pt. pi. stood, waited, 
2728. Cf. Standes. 

Stonen, adj. of stone, 1072. 

Store, n. F. story, 4806. 

Storue. See Sterne. 

Stoteye, n. cunning, stratagem, 
4985. Lat. astutia, O.F. astuce. 

Stounde, n. S. a space of time, a 
while, 159, 1360, 1574, 1657, 2263, 
f630; bi a stounde, for a short 
while, 1832; a stouude while, a 
moment, f 951. Ger. stunde. Ch. 

Stoundemele, adv. = A.S. stund- 
mgplum, by little times, by degrees, 
736. Cf. stownd-meel in Wycl. 
Gloss., and see Ch. 

Stour, n. F. battle, conflict, 3536, 
3907 ; stoure, 4214 ; sthoure, 
3530. O.F. estour ; cf. Icel. styrr, 
a battle. Ch. 

Stoutliche, adv. stoutly, 1950. 

Strane, pr. pi. strain, f 349. See 

the note, 
Strawed, pp. strewn, 1617. 

Strecche, 0..S. to stretch, 219; 
pt. s. streyt, 2957 ; street him = 
went, 3279 ; #p. strayed, 3617; 
imp. pi. strecches, 1113i 

Streijt, adv. straight, 3328 ; 
streuet (probably miswritten for 
stre^te), 3592. Ch. 

Strek into a studie = fell into 
deep thought, 2981, 4038. A.S. 
strican, to pass on. Cf. G. streicken, 
to strike, to fly, &c. It is even 
applied to the flowing onward of a 
stream "Ase strem that striketh 
stille : " Lyric Poetry ; ed. T. 
Wright. Percy Soc. 1842, p. 44. 

Striked, pp. streaked, strewn, 

Striued, pt. s. strove, 4099. 

Sturne, Sturnli. See Sterne, 

Studie, n. F. deep thought, 4038, 
4056. Cf. 1. 130. 

Sty, n. S. a path, 212. 

Sued, pt. s. followed, f 957. See 

Sufreded, pt. s. suffered (mis-writ- 
ten for Sufred), 783; pp. suffred, 
1014 ; imp. pi. suffrej?, permit ye, 

Sunder, v. intr. to part, 1052. 

Sunner, comp. adv. sooner, 962, 

Surgens of salerne = surgeons of 
Salerno, 964, 1576 ; spelt surgyens, 
1033. Cf. " A surgyne of Salerne 



enserches his wondes." Morte 
Arthure; ed. Perry, 1. 4312. 

Suster, n. S. sister, 2643, 5093, 
1 175 ; gen. sing, susteres, f 236. 

Swapped, pp. struck off with a 
sweeping blow, 3609. Cf. A.S. 
swapan, to sweep ; swipe, a whip. 

Swelt, pt. s. S. fainted, 4268. 
" Swalteryn for hete, or febylnesse, 
or other cawsys. Exalo, sincopizo." 
Prompt. Parv. A.S. sweltan, to 
die, perish. 

Swenged. See Swinge. 

Sweteliche, adv. sweetly, 1329. 

Sweting, n. S. sweetheart, a term 

of endearment, 916, 1537, 2799, 

Sweuen, n. S. a dream, 2312, 

2869, 2916, &c. ; sweuene, 658, 

915, 2294; pi. sweuenes, f599. 

Swiche, such, 414, 544, 710, 766, 

781, &c. ; swich, 869. A.S. 

swilc. Ch. 
8 wittiest, sup. adv. swiftliest, 

Swinge, pr. pi. they strike, 3439 ; 

pt. s. swenged, 3444; swonge, 

3856. A.S. swingan, to beat. 

Swijje, adv. S. quickly, 41, 266, 
1078, 1129, 1256, 1303, 1824, 
4843, 5214; before an adj. swij?e 
= very, as in 1628, f 107 ; and as 
in t 546, f 567, f 833, where it is 
spelt swith. As swi}>e = as quickly 
as may be, 108, 352, 837; alse 
swi^e, 3158. Swtye vpon hast, 
very fast, very soon, 5195. [It 
was by his criticisms upon this 
word as occurring in Havelok that 
Mr Singer demonstrated his singu- 
lar ignorance. He interprets swtye 
to mean a sword ! At this rate " a 
swith faire swerd" in Alisaunder, 
1. 833, would be tautological in- 

Swowe, n. S. swoon, 87. Ch. 

labours, n. pi. 3813. 

Tach, n. F. spot, blemish, dis- 
grace, f 282. Ch. 

Takes, pr. s. bestows, gives, 866 ; 
pt. s. tok, delivered, gave, 4683 ; 
pp. take, 1271, 1289 ; put for un- 
take, 1280. 

Tale. See Telle. 

Taliage, n. F. a tax, impost, 5124. 
O.E. taillage. 

Talke, v. to tell, 1018, 1322, &c. 

Talliche, adv. in a seemly manner, 
1706. " This obsolete and unusual 
word, from the S. tela, bene, is 
preserved in the Prompt. Parv. 
Tally, or semely and in semely 
wyse. Decenter, eleganter." M. 
Cf. Welsh telaid, graceful. The 
Fr. faille sometimes means well 

Tamid, pt. pi. tamed, subdued, 

Targe, v. to tarry, f 211, f 410 ; 

pt. s. targed, t 94. 0. F. targer, 

whence targa, which occurs at p. 

210, 1. 8 of this volume. 

Te, put for To, 1222. Of. forte= 
for to, note to 1. 788. 

Teued,pp. S. tied, 3226; teied, 

Telle, v. to teU, 34; tele, 4993; 

tale, 160; pr. pi. tellus, 198; 

pt. s. teld, 1475; told, 2009;jttf.j9/. 

telden, 1662; tolde, 1469; pp. 

teld, 2009 ; told, 1478 ; i-told, 

1493; telles, 1346 ; telle|, 

Tended,^, pi. attended, regarded, 

1781 ; pp. tended of all, heard by 

all with attention, t 997 ; imp. pi. 

tend, f 7. 
Tene, n. S. (1) sorrow, trouble, 

grief, 607, 1107, 2369, 2476, 3013, 

3735, 5192 ; teene, f 142, f 241, 

+ 285; pi. tenes, 1013; also (2) 

teene = anger, wrath, f 94, f 806 ; 

treie and tene, vexation and anger, 

2073. Ch. 




Tene, v. S. to vex, 2812 ; teene, 
f380;^.5. teued, 2025 ;/>/?. tened, 
1992, 2201 ; teenid, f 71 ; teened, 
f 345. Ch. 

Tenful, adj. S. vexatious, griev- 
ous, painful, 2666, 4712 ; teene- 
full, t 282. 

Tenefully, adv. grievously, 437 ; 
teenfully, harmfully, f 353. 

Tent, n. intent, purpose, 1662. 
See Tent in Halliwell. 

Tentifly, adv. attentively, dili- 
gently, 2258 ; tentyfli, 5124. Cf. 
tentyfin Ch. 

TenJ?edel, n. S. tenth part, 4715 ; 
tijjedel, 5346. Cf. twenttye parte, 

fea, pron. that, the, 765, 2458, 
3059, 3422 ; rel. pron. who, which, 
843, 2536, 4115 ; pi. 5274 ; )>e 
(rel. pron.} 1687, 4422; conj. that, 
544, 571, 903, 1983. 

fea, put for feo, then, 571. See 
po. [Or else miswritten for pa#.] 

feai, they, 11, &c.; J>ei, 24, &c.; 
pi. J>aim, them, 5407. See Hem. 

fean, the, ace. sing, ofdef. art, 91. 

fean, then, 83, 92, &c. ; J>anne, 
100, &c. ; }>en, f 730. 

fean, than, 589 ; >en, f 319. 

fearto, thereto, 808. 

feat, " when prefixed to a verb in 
the present tense, [sometimes] 
gives it a subjunctive or optative 
signification, as in 319, 2795, &c." 
M. pat, those who, 3459. 
patou, that thou, 3128, 5159; 
J?atow, 285, 914, 2787 ; J>attow, 

fee, rel pron. which, 4422 ; pi. J?e, 
1687. A.S. \>e, which is often a 
relative pronoun, and is indeclin- 

J)ede, n. S. land, country, 1658. 

feeder, adv. thither, 2235 ; 

Hder, 33. 
feederward, adv. thitherward, 835. 

feei, they. See feai. 

feei^h, conj. S. though, 451, 689, 
3342; ^h, 919, 1017; J>ei, 
1563 ; frouah, 349 ; J>ouh2, 
2347 ; ei, t 677. pel *ei = 
though they, f 511. Ch. 

feemperour, put for \e emperour, 
212, 218, &c. ; but written \>e 
emperowr, 205. The pi. \>emper- 
oures also occurs, 1612. 

feen, than, f 319. See fean. 

feenchesoun = J?e enchesoun, the 
occasion, the cause, 2624. Ch. 
See Enchesoh. 

feende = }?e ende, the end, 4869, 

5092. Ch. 
feenke, v. S. to think, 4908 ; 1 p. 

s. pr. )>enke, 711 ; }>enk, 1624 ; 2 

p. pi. pr. thinken, f 2 ; pr. s. subj. 

J>enk, 3370; imp. pi. Jnnkes, 3701. 

Impersonal, seems, as in me mkes, 

430, 446, 622 ; me Hnkeh 839 ; 

sou dere |>inkes, 4727 ; 3011 lef 

Hnkes, 384. Ch. 

feennes, adv. thence, 2191; 

Sennes, |67. Ch. 
feer, adv. S. where, 1627, 3319, 

&c. ; }>ere, 216, 279, &c. 
feer as, there where, 1232, 1708 ; 

>ere as, 3480. 
feer a-boute, about it, 972. 
feer-a-gayn, against it, 1450. 
feer-mide, therewith, 5358. 
feer-out, thence, 2820. 
feer-tille, thereto, thereof, 2337. 
feer-to-fore, before that time, until 

then, 3435, 2611. 
feer-vnder, under it, 3034. 
feer-wi3t, therewith, 138. 

feerjje, put for \e er]>e, the earth, 
the ground, 3866, 5014. Ch. 

feerwe, through, 107. See ferou^. 

feewe, n. S. slave, bondman, 5514. 

A.S. }>eow. 
feewes, S. manners, customs, 



189, 342, 500, 518. A.S. beam 

Jrider, adv. thither, 33, 752, 
1082 ; }>eder, 2235. 

j?ilke, the same, 2954 ; pi. those, 
3530. Ch. 

jjinkes. See jjenke. 

Juries, pr. s. S. pierces, thrills 
through, 612, 351%', fmrlen, 
910 ; pt. s. Hrled, 3696 ; thurlude, 
1 608 ; pp. Hrled, 826. Ch. 

Jties, n. pi. S. thighs, f 191. 

jtis, used in pi. these, 2240, 4251; 

Jrise, 849, 889. Ch. 
J)o, adv. S. then, 1865, 3265, 

3591, 4342, &c. ; |>a, 571. A.S. 

K Ch. 

J)o, ^??. ^>?m. those, them, 1757, 
2285, 3648, f!25, +137, f233. 

A.S. M. 

)5o, probably miswritten for J?e, 

Dof, though, f 966. See jjei^h. 

pole, v. S. to suffer, 918, 1247; 

jojo. boled, 4514. Ch. 
Conges, n. pi. thongs, 1720, 1736. 
Jjonke, n. sing. S. thanks, 297. 

Jjonke, v. S. to thank, 3522; 
J>onk, 2794 ; 1 p. s. pr. 1248 ; pr. 
s. f>onkes, 63 ; pt. s. Bonked, 1003, 
1038, 1269 ; thonked, 2143; 
Bonked, 1716, 2444. Ch. 

J)orou-oute, throughout, f 191. 

])ort, pt. s. need, might, ought, 
1076, 3563, 3671; frurt, 3355, 
4441, 4541, 4705, 4821, 4960; pt. 
pi. jmrte, 3788. "It is derived 
immediately from S. tharf-an t 
thearf-an, thurf-an, thorf-ian, mak- 
ing in pt. t. thorfte, and is allied to 
a large class of words in the re- 
maining Gothic dialects. Thus, 
' dar (= thar) no mon hem wite, 3 
[1. 2434] in the pr. t. corresponds 
precisely to 'no gom thurt him 
wite,' [1. 4705] in the pt. t. Hence 
may be corrected the explanation 
of the word in Havelok, vv. 9, 10. 

He was the wicteste man at nede, 
That thurte riden on ani stede. 
A few more instances may not be 
out of place. In Robert of Bruune's 
translation of the Manuel des 
Peches, completed in L303, we 
have : 

He wax so mylde and so meke, 
A mylder man thurt no man seke. 
MS. Harl. 1701, fol. 39. 
So also, in the Romance of the 
Seven Sages : 

He toke a chamber nere that stede, 
Him thurt noght care than for his 


MS. Cott. Galb. E. ix. fol. 30 b. 
In Harbour's Bruce, according to 
Jamieson [p. 407] is written: 
Tor scho wes syne the best lady, 
And the fayrest, that men thurst se. 
But we evidently ought to read 
thurt se." M. The verb occurs 
even in Moeso-Gothic, as, " land 
bauhta jah tharf galeithan jah 
saihwan thata " "I have bought 
land, and I need to go and see it," 
Luke xiv. 18; and in the past 
tense, " hwa gatawida Daweid, than 
thaurfta jah gredags was" "how 
David did, when he needed and was 
hungry," Mark ii. 25. 

ftourh, through, 4219. See 

Jjoutest, 2 p. s. pt. thoughtest, 
1249 ; Routes, 4066 ; pt. s. J>ou}t, 
462 ; ]>out, 855 ; impersonal, me 
bout, 2298 ; him fxm^t, 673 ; boujt 
him loj>, 1255 ; hire bou$t, 857 ; 
hire tout, 2908; him del boutf, 

pers. pron. thou, 312, 692. 
, J^ouh}. See fieijh. 

u$t, n. S. thought, 4054 ; 
bout, 4116 ; 2out (read bout?), 
447; pi. bodies, 861, 941, 4064. 

Jpridde, adj. S. third, 2866, 4941. 

)?ristliche, adv. S. lit. boldly ; 
hence, beautifully (much as our 
poets use bravely}, \ 191. 
o, adj. vehement, eager, 3264, 



3564. Shortened from the word 

Jjroli, adj. S. vehement, severe, 
3518 ; J>roly, 612. A.S. ^red-lie, 
severe, dire. Cf. thra in Jamieson. 

#roli, adv. vehemently, heartily, 
eagerly, earnestly, 910, 1038, 3176, 
3407, 3664; J>roly, 127, 1696 ; 
broliche, 103, t 215. It occurs 
in P. PL A. ix. 107. 

gropes, n. pi S. thorpes, small 
villages, 2141. See Halliwell. 

, prep. S. through, 459 ; 
Jmrth, 216, 254, 522, 635, &c. ; 
Jmrath, 1320, 1643; burh, 2149; 
' bunh, 655; thorou, f 612, 
f 897. [In 1. 3799 we find yurh, 
probably miswritten for \>ourh, 
(cf. 4219), owing to confusion with 
the word ^our following soon after.] 

)}rowe, n. S. time, while, a trice, 
462, 622, 649, 679, &c. Ch. 

ftrusch, n. a thrush, 820. | There 

Jprustele,rc. a throstle, 820. j seems 
to be a distinction here. Pals- 
grave gives gryue (grive} as the 
French for thrush, and maulvis 
(maums Sc. mams) as the French 
for throstle. 

j^urlen, Thurlude. See Juries. 

fturth, fturh, ftur^h, feui^th. See 

burth-out, throughout, 1472 ; 
Jjurth-oute, 5028 ; |>orou-oute, 

Tid. See Tit. 

Tide, v. S. (often impers.) to befall, 
betide, 3017; tyde, 326; pr. s. 
subj. tide, 137,607; tyde, 1560; 
pt' s. tidde, 198, 797, 1067, 1416, 
2496, 3962 ; tid, 787, 4178 ; (fol- 
w. s. him 

by an ace. case) _ 

tides, 1 681 ; pt. s. hem tidde, 1659, 

1763, 2829 ; sou tidde, 1346 ; pp. 

tidde, 4918. See also Bi-tide. 
Tide, n. S. time, season, 859, 

Tidi, adj. timely, seasonable ; 

hence, also, fair, brave (time), 1710 ; 

(host), 3556 ; (men), 4166 ; (earl- 
dom), 5384 ; tidy (child), 160 ; 
(tidings), 1339 ; (words), 3077 ; 
tide (werwolf), 2496 ; sup. tidiest, 
3909 ; tide^ist, 3556. A.S. tid-lic. 
Du. tijdig. G. zeitig. 

Tidili, adv. seasonably, suitably, 
fitly, 4454 ; tidely, 5482 ; tidily, 

Tiding, n. tidings, news, 1478 ; 
pi. tiding, 1493, 4877 ; tyding, 
1075, 1134, 2677 ; tidinges, 4942 ; 
twinges, 250. {The use of tiding, 
tyding as pi. forms is worth notice. J 

Tidly. SeeTitll 

Tiffed, pt. s. attired, dressed, 
arrayed, 2995 ; pp. tiffed, 2995, 
3183. Cf. O. N. typpa. See Cole- 
ridge's Gloss. Index. 

Tille, prep. S. unto, to, 232, 662, 
864, 977, 4039 ; till, f 605, 
f 1025 ; til, 412, 788, 1475. Ch. 

Timbred, pp. S. built, 2015. 

Time, v. to happen, in the pin: so 
me wel time (so may it happen 
well to me, so may good betide 
me), 3570, 5433 ; so me wel tyme, 
279. A.S. getimian, Sw. tirna, 
Dan. times, to happen. See the 
note in Wedgwood on the word 
Beteem. [Mr Wedgwood is of 
opinion that I have wrongly ex- 
plained tymen in P. PI. Crede, 742, 
and that " Y mi}t tymen" = I could 
find it in my heart to, as in the 
phr. " I could teeme it," for which 
see Halliwell, s. v. Teem. This 
would connect tymen in the Crede 
with A.S. getimian, to happen, not 
with A. S. tymian, to tame, compel.] 

Tine, v. to lose, 299, 1365, f 358, 
f378; tyne, 358, 2176; 
pr. tine, 3015 ; pp. tint, f 30 ; tynt, 
1560. O.N. tyna. [Marked as 
A.S. by Halliwell, but not given 
by Bosworth.] 

Tire, v. to attire, 4478 ; pp. tyred, 

Tijjedel. See Ten}>edel. 

TiJ>inges. See Tiding. 



Tit, adv. quickly, soon, 1013, 
1054, 3445, 3552, 4066, fSO; 
tyt, 1373, 4245 ; tid, 753, 4167, 
4192, 4763, f 377, f549; tijt, 
133. As tit = as soon as might 
be, thereupon, 328, 3550; as tyt, 
238, 292. As tit as, as soon as, 
852, 2921; sup. tittest, soonest. 
Icel. tittj from #/$, time. Sw. tidt, 
from tid, time. Hence the word is 
nearly related to Tidily. Cf. Titli, 
also spelt Tidly. 

Titli, adv. quickly, soon, 2666; 
titly, 1416, 2694, 3388; tit- 
liche, 2528 ; tytely, t 7 ; tutli, 
1706, 2282, 2476 ; tiatly, 66, 285, 
487, &c. ; tidly, f 640, -f 809, 
f 974. As titly, very soon, 2108. 
[In 11. 66 and 1706 it is possible 
that tidily or ttyli may mean 
tightly, closely.] 

To, adv. too, 11, 5024. 
To, two, 2877. See Tvo. 

To-, verbal prefix. It does not 
seem to have been hitherto suffi- 
ciently noted, that there are, in 
A.S., two distinct prefixes spelt 
alike. They are (1) to-, 0. Sax. 
te- y Mceso-Goth. dis-, Ger. zer-, 
Lat. dis-, meaning apart, asunder, 
in two pieces; and (2) to-, Du. 
toe-, G. zu-y Mceso-Goth. du-, which 
is merely the prep, to in composi- 
tion. Examples of the first are 
common in Early Eng., but of the 
second less so, which has led to an 
undue disregard of its force. Of 
the examples below, only the two 
last, To-wawe and To-^elde, belong 
to the latter class ; and in the 
Wycl. Gloss, there is but one, viz. 
to-ne^hen = to approach. The 
verbs with this prefix are here 

To-barst, pt. s. S. burst asunder, 
374. G. zerbersten, 0. Sax. tebres- 
tan. Ch. 

To-brak, pt. s. S. brake in pieces, 
3237 (see Judges ix. 53) ; pp. to- 
broke, utterly broken, 3410. G. 
zerbrechen. Ch. 

To-clatered, pp. broken to pieces 
with a loud clatter, 2858. "This 
reading is rendered certain by a 
passage in the Romance of Ferum- 

Ys scheld that was wyth gold y- 
batrid : & eke wyth ire 

Sone thay had hit al to-clatrid : 
the peeces lay e on the grounde. 
MS. Ashm. 60 ft fol. 12." M. 
I add another example. 
" And on the hed he hym batrid 
That hys hedd all to-datride." 
Sir Degare, MS. Camb. Univ. 
Lib. Ff. ii. 38, fol. 259 6. 
And see Halliwell. 
Too-clef, pt. s. S. intr. broke in 

half, split asunder, f 1009. 
To-cleued, pt. s. S. trans, clove 

asunder, 3865. 

To-drawe, pp. S. drawn asunder, 
1564, 2020, 2086, 2138, 3740, 
4773, 5479. 

To-hewe,j?p. S. hewn to pieces, 
3412. G. zerhauen. Ch. 

To-shett, pt. s. S. brake in half, 
1 1008. Lit. shot asunder; cf. the 
quotation in Halliwell, "Hys fote 
scJiett" = his foot shot aside, 

To-sprong, pt. pi S. sprang 

asunder, cracked asunder. G. 

To-tere, v. S. to tear in pieces, 

3884 ; pt. s. to-tare, 3884. Ch. 
To-twi^t, pt. s. S. twitched 

violently, pulled up by the roots, 

2097. See To-twitch in Coleridge's 

Gloss. Index. 
To-wawe, v. S. move about, 

toddle to and fro like a child, 19. 

Wawe = wag is common; but it is 

also found in the exact sense used 


" Thanne is the child quic anon : 
of stren^the naveth hit no^t 

Enes for to wawe : er hit beo 
furthe i-bro^t ; 



Of thulke soule hath ech man : 
that may wawi and gon," &c. 

Pop. Treatises on Science, ed. T. 
Wright, p. 139. 

The prefix to- has here nearly 
the force of the G. zu- in zuwanken. 
The compound verb is very rare, 
but it is the same, I believe, as 
occurs in a transitive sense in the 
following " weder bifc fseger . . . 
beofc wolcen to-wegen; " i. e. "the 
weather is fair, the clouds are re- 
moved." Phoenix, pt. III. (1. 2) ; in 
Codex Exoniensis, ed. Thorpe. Cf. 
Sc. "wauchle, to move from side 
to side in walking, like a young 
child ; " Jamieson. Cf . G. zuwanken, 

i, A. S. To-gewaegan, to 
carry to. 

To-^elde, pt. s. yielded to ; vp to- 
selde = yielded up to, with the to 
repeated, 3924. Cf. G. zugeben, to 
grant, as showing the force of the 
prefix to-. 

To-fore, prep. S. before, 2091 ; 

also adv. before (of time), 142, 793, 

925, 2446, &c.; (of place), 2390; 

to-for, 2886; tofore, f 46, 

f 930. Ch. 
To-gaderes, adv. S. together, 699 ; 

to-geder, 909 ; to-gidere, 1011. 
TokeneJ), pr. s. betokens, 2937. 

Tol, n. tool ; egge-tol = edged 

tool, weapon, 3755. 
Tom, n. leisure, 3778. Cf. Sc. 

toom, Dan. and Sw. torn, vacant. 

The word occurs in P. PI. A. ii. 

160. "Toom. Spacium,tempus, opor- 

tunitas." Prompt. Parv. 

Tombled, pt. s. tumbled, 2776, 
3866. See Tumbel. 

Ton, n. pi toes, f!94. Ch. 

Too-clef. See the word preceding 

Top ouer tail, head over heels, 
2776. " A proverbial phrase, used 
also in Lynasay, which I believe is 
not yet obsolete." M. It occurs 
in Barbour's Brus, ed. Jamieson, 

v. 755. Halliwell gives another 

Tor, adj. difficult, 1428, 5143 ; 
toor, 5066. "From the Su-G. 
and Isl. tor, difficile. This term, 
spelled tore and teir, occurs also in 
the three Romances of Sir Gawaync, 
in the Houlate, pt. 2. st. 9, ancl in 
Rauf Coilzear, ap. Laing, st. 37." 
M. See Gawayne and Grene 
Knty, ed. Morris, 165, 719. 

To-ri^tes, 3066, &c. See Kijtes. 
Touche, v. F. to touch upon, 

talk, treat of, 5033 ; 1 p. s. pt. 

touched, 4108 ; pt. s. toched, 

4991 ; touched, 4993 ; pt. s. 

(= belonged to), 5384; pres. part. 

touchend, 1383. 
Tour, n. F. a tower, 2015. Ch. 

Tow, used for foil (thou), after \at 
preceding, 4478. Cf. Seidestow, 

To-ward, adv. S. forward, forth- 
coming, ready at hand, 1443 ; 
toward, 1101. Cf. ZbowrrfinNares. 

To-heuene-ward, towards heaven, 

Trattes, n. pi. old women, spoken 
contemptuously, 4769. " Sec 
Jamieson' s notes on this word, and 
Tyrwhitt on Chauc. v. 7164. The 
most obvious etymon is Teut. trot, 
a woman, an old woman, a witch. 
See Wachter, in v." M. See also 
Trot in Halliwell ; and cf. 
" An aged trot and tough did marie 
with a lad." 

Of a contrerie manage, by G. 
Turberville, ab. A.D. 1567. 

Trauaile, n. F. labour, 1560; 
trauayle, 358, 2176 ; trawayle, 
299 ; pi. trauayles, 2666, 4712. 

Traysted.^)/?. F. deceived, betrayed, 
2075, 4769. " See Jamieson, in v. 
Betreyss, and Skinner. From the 
latter Chatterton borrowed the 
word, therefore Bryant might have 
saved himself the trouble of quoting 
passages from the present poem to 
prove the authenticity of the phan- 



torn Rowley." M. Cf. 0. F. 

traistre, a traitor. 
Treie, n. S. vexation, 2073. See 

the note. 
Trestes, 2 p. s. pr. trustest, 970. 

Trewe, adj. S. true ; leue me for 
trewe = believe me to be true, 
1562 ; trew, 596. 

Triaele, n. treacle, i. e. an antidote 
against poisons and diseases,! 198. 
See Treacle in Prompt. Parv., and 
Way's note. Ch. 

Trie, adj. F. lit. tried, proved; 
hence choice, excellent, noble ; 
(tree), 761 ; (attire), 1721, 4542 ; 
(lords), 1289; (order), 4465; 
(towers), f!6; (town), f 157 ; 
(treacle), 1 198 ; (places), f 333 ; 
(folk), f 345 ; tri (tree), 753, 789; 
trye (game), 387 ; sup. triest, 
1443. " The same word occurs 
in the Romance of Richard Coer 
de Lion, 1. 6450, ' with fyn syluyr 
and gold ful trye ; ' in the Romance 
of Octavian, 1. 1467, 'of Sarsyns 
stout and trye ; ' in Chaucer's 
Cant. T. ' with suger that is trie ;' 
and in the poems of Friar Michael 
Kyldare, MS. Harl. 913, which 
contain the earliest instances of it 
I have yet met with. It is un- 
doubtedly an abbreviation of the 
pp. tried, as shown bv the various 
readings of the Wychffite texts of 
the Bible, Exod. c. xvi. and Lev. 
c. ii., where is the expression trie 
or tried flour." M. So also 
trieste, trhest, and tryest are various 
readings for triedest in P. PI. A. i. 
126, q. v. 

Trieliche, adv. choicely, excellently 
(always joined with a-tired), 4819; 
triliche, 1228 ; tryli, 3198 ; 
tri^liche, 4861. 

Trist, imp. s. S. trust thou, f489. 

Tristy, adj. trusty, 596, 1228, 
2015, f 329, t 952. 

Triced, pt. s. 3556, in " & triced 
him to a tidi ost." Explained by 
Sir F. Madden to mean "drew, 

joined." But I believe that him to 
is put for to him, (a not uncommon 
usage, cf. 11. 662, 864, &c.), and 
then triyed to him = chose out for 
himself, picked out the best men 
he could find, which is the drift of 
the passage. Cotgrave gives 
"Trier, to pick, chuse, cull out 
from among others ;" which further 
explains why the word trie bears 
the sense of choice. See Trie. 

Trompes, n. pi. trumpets, 3358 ; 
trumpes, 3813. 

Trowe, v. S. to believe, trow, hold 
for a truth, 4840 ; I p. ,<?. pr. trowe, 
540, 1031, 1995; trow, 299; pt. 
s. trowed, 1018 ; trowede, 1480 ; trowed, f 919 ; imp. s. trowe, 
4363 ; imp. pi. trowe}), 2112. Ch. 
[In 1. 1480 perhaps we should read 
mysse-trowede as one word; but 1. 
141 renders this doubtful.] 

Trusse, v. to pack up, f 549. Cf. 
Havelok, 2017. 

Trustili, adv. S. courageously, 

Tumbel, pr. s. subj. tumble, 3388. 
See Tombled. 

Tunnes, n. pi. S. casks, 2743. 

Tvo, two, 1688, 1698, 1777, 
2162, &c. ; to, 2877. 

Tweie, two, 2008, 2147 ; tweine, 
2507; twevne, 812, 929, 1528. 
[The distinction between this word 
and tvo is that tweie is used after 
the personal pronouns vs, hem, ]>ei, 
&c. ; whilst tvo precedes a noun.] 

Twentife, twentieth, 5354. 

Twi3es, adv. twice, 3721. 

Twynne, v. S. to part, 1572. Ch. 

Tyr, n. F. attire, 1725. Cf. A-tir. 

Uch, each, every, 776, 884, 1488; 

uche, 5000; vch a, 511. 
Venge, v. F. to avenge, 5197; cf. 

auenged, pp., f 281. 
Yenorye, n. F. beasts of the chase, 

game, 1685. 



Verali, adv. verily, 5197 ; 
veraly, 639. 

Vitayles, n. pi. F. victuals, 1121. 

Ymbe-cast, pp. S. beset, sur- 
rounded, 2319, 4693. Cf. Bi-cast. 
[The prefix is the A.S.' ymb-, Old 
Saxon umbi-, G. um-, Du. Dan. 
and Sw. om-, Gk. a/^.] 

Unclainte, pr. s. f 1172. This is 
surely miswritten for unclamte-=. 
undamped, unfastened, from A.S. 
clam, a clamp. The only difference 
between m and in, in the hand- 
writing of the MS., would consist 
in there being a dot over the first 
of the three downstrokes. The 
copyist may have been thinking of 
unchainte = unchained. 

Yndede, pt. s. undid, unfastened, 
4846 ; pp. vndo, 2078. 

Vnder-fonge, v. S. to take, receive, 

Vndersto (miswritten for vnder- ' 

storc), pr. pi. they understand, 

5533; .pi. s. vnderstod, 877; pp. 

vnderston, 5262. 

Ynglad, adj. S. joyless, 2106. 

Ungome, v. S. to unman, to drive 
the men away from, f 294. [The 
meaning is clear, but I know of no 
other instance of the word.] Cf. 

Vn-hendly, adv. S. discourteously, j 

492. Cf. Hende. 
Un-hent, pp. S. uncaught, un- 

captured, 1671. Cf. Hent. 

Unkinde, adj. S. unnatural, f34. 

Unkouthe, adj. unknown, un- 
familiar, strange, f 48 ; unkouth, 
unknown, not understood, f683. 

Ynnejje, adv. S. scarcely, 132. 

Vn-tetche, n. disgraceful action, 
509. Tetche is another form of 
Tach, q. v. The O.F. tache means 

a quality or disposition, either good 
or bad ; so in the Prompt. Parv. 
" Tetche, or maner of condycyone, 
Mos, condicio" Hence vn-tetche 
means an evil habit, or disgraceful 
act. At the same time, as the 
word was most commonly used in 
a bad sense, we find tach used 
for a blemish. See tache, tacher, 
teche, in Roq. ; tacches in P. PL ; 
tache in Halliwell and Cotgrave. 
Vntille, prep, unto, 2998. 

Yntydi, n. pi. mean, poor, 1455. 
Cf. Tidi. 

Unwele, adj. S. wicked, f513. 
Well = good, adj. is given in Cole- 
ridge's Gloss. Index. 

Yn-woundet, pp. unwounded, 

Yowche-sauf, imp. s. vouchsafe, 

grant, 1449. Cf. Fouche. Ch. 
Yp, prep. S. upon, 2378, 2809. 

Cf. G. auf. 
Yp happe, perhaps, 2722. 

Yp-keuerede, pt. s. recovered, rose 

again, 2759. 
Yp-leped, pt. s. leapt up, 3283. 

Yp-rise, v. S. to rise up, 1791 ; 

pr. s. vp-rises, 872. Ch. 
Vp-ri^ttes, upright, 1789. Cf. 


Wahan, Wan, Wanne. See Whan. 

Waie, miswritten for weie, f 530. 
See Wei}. 

Waite, v. F. (1) intr. to watch, 
look about, spy about, 1821, f 760 ; 
wayte, 1023; pt. s. waited, 2729 ; 
waited him, 1230; waited out, 
2425 ; wayted, 835 ; wayted 
aboute, 682; weited, 3030; pt. 
pi. wayteden out, 3300 ; wey- 
teden out, 5018; waited aboute, 
2231; pres. part, waytend out, 
2982 ; waitende out, 3713 ; wey- 
tende to, 779. (2) trans, to be on 
the look-out for, watch for, seek 
after, pr. s. waites him = seeks out 



for himself, 1 808 5 in f. whayte, 
1885; waite, 4051; wayte, 148. 
\In the latter sense it generally has 
tf double accusative^ Cf. A-weite. 
O.F. waiter, gaiter. See Wait in 
Wedgwood ; and cf. " Waytyn or 
done harme, waytyn to harme. 
Insidior" Prompt, Parv. 

Wake, v. S. to watch, keep awake, 

Walken, v. S. to walk, go, 2129 ; 
pres. pt. walkende, 2427. 

Wallop, n. F. gallop ; lience, a 
wallop, on the gallop, 1770. " In 
the Prompt. Parv. we read, 
' Waloppynge of horse, Voluptacio;' 
and ' Waioppon, as horse. Pblxpto. 3 " 
M. See Gloss, to Romans of 

Walt, Walte. See Welde. 

Waltres, 2 p. s. pr. S. waverest, 
rollest about, 947. See Welt and 
Welter in Jamieson, Waltrynge 
and Welwynge in Prompt. Parv., 
and Wallow, Welter in Wedgwood. 
A.S. wealtian, to reel. See Wycl. 

Wan, Wanne (when). See Whan. 

Wan (pt. s. won). See Winne. 

War, adv. where, 3832. See Whar. 

War, adj. S. aware, 1201, 1238, 
1769, 3594, 3635, 3827; whar, 

Warchet. See Waryshe. 

-Ward ; implying direction. See 
Cheping-ward, To- ward. 

Ward^. F. guard, keeping, 1370, 
2202 ; warde, 376, 961. Oh. 

Warded, pp. F. guarded, kept, 

Wardeyn, n. F. commander, 1104. 

Ware, pt. pi. = were, 420. 

Warfore, adv. S. wherefore, 
2027 ; werfore, 1081. 

Warison, n. F. reward, 2259 ; 
wareson, 2253, 2379. O.F. 
warison, garison ; from garir, to 
guard. Cf. Garisun. Ch. 

Warnestured, pp. furnished, pro- 
vided, 1121. 0. F. warnesture, 
provisions ; Roq. Cf. Warnestore 

Warnished, pp. furnished, 1083. 
O.E. warnir, garnir. Roq. 

Warysche, v. F. to cure, 4283 ; 
pp. warsched, 604 ; warchet = 
guarded, 2622. O.F. garir, guerir, 
preserver, garantir. Roq. "In 
the first sense it occurs [used in- 
transitively] in the Prompt. Parv. 
' Warschyn ' mrecuryn of sekenesse. 
Convalesce, convaleo? " M. Ch, 
Wycl. Gloss. 

Was, used for had, 538. "This 
is still provincial." M. 

Waschen, pp. washed, 5070 ; 
whasche, 2997. 

Wast, in plir. in wast = in waste, 
i.e. in vain, 703, 718, 802, 1660, 

Wat, put for What, 2829, 4246. 
Wat so, whatsoever, 607. 

Wateren, v. S. to water, provide 
with water, 3234. Wycl. Gloss. 

Wawe, n. S. wall, 19. So in Sir 
F. Madden's edition ; but see To- 
wawe, and the note on this line. 

Wax, Waxen. See Wexe. 

Waywarde, adj. S. (used as si.) 
wayward, perverse, averse, 3985. 

Wayned, pt. pi. 2386. Wayned 
from = got away from, departed. 
" The original meaning seems to be 
that of gaining, getting. In some 
O.E. works wayne is used like our 
word get. 

Than past up the proude quene in- 
to preve chambre, 
Waynes out at wyndow, and waytes 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 944." 
Quoted by Morris, Gloss, to Allit. 
Poems. The context shews that 
waynes out in this quotation = 
puts out her head. See also P. PI. 
A. vi. 92, where for wynne vp t 
MSS, of B-type have wayne vp. Cf. 



Winne. [O&s. This word is some- 
times confused with wayue, O.F. 

Wede, n. S. clothes, armour, 585, 
3535 ; pi. wedes, 1932, 2563, 3087. 

Weder, n. S. weather, 2440 ; pi. 
wederes, 5216. Ch. 

Wei, n. S. a way, road, 1578 ; 
weie, 1732 ; wey, 205, 1781 ; 
weye, 1019 ; pi. weies, 2131, 2150 ; 
weyes, 1224 ; wei^es, 2207, 3507, 
4677. In a mile wei = in a short 
space, i.e. in a short time, 1578. 

Weih,?i. S. a balance, 9 47. Waltres 
in a weih = waverest in a balance ; 
as we now say, tremblest in the 
balance. A..S.tcce>ye, wege, a weighing 
machine, balance. Cf. Weihe, 
Wycl. Gloss. 

Weilawey, inter j. S. alas ! 935. 
A.S. wa, la wa = wo, lo ! wo ! 
whence wei la wey, of which well- 
away is an unmeaning corruption. 

Weited, "Wey ten de. See Waite. 

Wei3, n. S. a man, 4466 ; weish, 
281, 745, 790, 793, &c. ; weie, 
t 777 ; weih, f 1184 ; waie, 
t 530 ; whi}, 4463 ; wijh, 565, 
724, 2021, 2415 ; pi. weies, f 164, 
t 653 ; whiles, 1221, 3456 ; whie^s, 
3364 ; wies, 208 ; wi^es, 239, 2036, 
2521 ; wishes, 1932 ; wie3S, 2709 ; 
wie^es, 3652. A.S. wiga, warrior, 
from wig, war. 

Wei^es, n. S. wise, manner, 5526. 
A better spelling is Wice, q. v. 

Wei, adv. S. very ; thus, wei old, 
very old, 4; wei long, very long, 
936; wei gret, very great, 1545; 
wei sore, very sorely, 1552; wei 
wo, very woful, 1642 ; wei god 
spede, very good pace, 1846. Wei 
is, it is a good thing for (the op- 
posite o/wo is), 3303. 

Welde,v. S. to wield, have power 
over j hence, to possess, enjoy, 
have, 2946, 5157, 1 206; weld, 
76, 135, 717, 1356, 1385, 1453, 

2017, 2253, 2959, 4741 ; 1 p. 
weld, 282, 4000; pr. s. weldes 
712, 1651, 1873, 3313,3752,3753, 
3832, 4466 ; weldes his hele, en- 
joys his health, 1375, 1377 ; weldes 
a wrong, enjoys a possession wrong- 
fully, f 87 ; pt. s. wait, 144, 2990, 
3887, 4730 ; walte, 1 450 ; welt 
142, 230, 3710, 4835 ; welte, 
3680; 2 p. wait, 3691 ; pp. 
welt, 856. [It often has little more 
force than simply to have.] Cf. 
Wycl. Gloss. 

Weie, n. S. wealth, 1325, 3658, 
4073,5046,5054. [In phr. "wor- 
chip and weie," except in 4073.] 

Wem, w. S. blemish, injury, 
2460. Ch. 

Wen. See Whan. 

Wende, v. S. to go, 320, 329, 
425, 2089 ; wend, 771, f 727 ; 
wen[d], 5185 ; wende of, to de- 
part, 1663 ; 1 p. s. pr. wende, 
1555 ; 2 p. s. pr. wendest, 1555 ; 
pr. s. wendes, 232, 1640, 1897; 
wendes of, departs from, 5537; 
wendej>, 408; pt. s. went, 1839, 
2069 ; wende, 259 ; pt. pi. went, 
4201 ; imp. pi. wende}>, 3338 ; 
pres. pt. wending, 1821. Phrase : 
be went = be a:one to, as in is went, 
701, 2064; was went, 15, 28, 
376, 1984, 2109 ; were went, 208, 
5409 ; be went, 2071. We also 
find was gon, 1859 ; and haue 
went, 1853. 

Wene, v. S. to ween, think, ex- 
pect, suppose, 554, 706, 715 ; 1 p. 
s. pr. wene, 931 ; 2 p. s. pr. wenes- 
tow = wenest >ou, 1558 ; pr. s. 
wene)?, 3116 ; 2 p. pi. pr. wene, 
4205 ; pt. s. wende, 680, 687, 731, 
1853, 1943; wend, 229, 671, 1488, 
1773, 4982, t 789 ; wen[d], 261 ; wend, 2765. Ch. 

Wenne, 4263. See Winne. 

Wepe, v. S. to weep, 310 ; pt. s. 
wepte, 38 ; wept, 45 ; wep, 50 ; 
wepud, 2914 ; part. pres. wepand, 
1668 ; wepande, 2357, 2419. Ch. 



Wer, n. doubt, perplexity, 3513. 
"Tyrwhitt considers this word, 
and, apparently, with reason, to be 
the Fr. guerre. See Gloss, to 
Chaucer, and Jamieson's examples, 
in v." M. Perhaps it may be 
better to say, rather, that guerre is 
obviously from a Teutonic source. 
Cf. Du. wore, contention (Kilian) ; 
G. mire, confused; gewirre, con- 
fusion. In fact, the word occurs 
in 0. Saxon. " The thit giuuer 
frumid, he who makes a sedition, or 
disturbance'' Heliand, ed. Schmel- 
ler, p. 148, 1. 1. Cf. Werre. 

Wer, adv. where, 3030 ; were, 
222, 4839. 

Werche, v. to work, 650 ; 
wirche, 1173, 1372, 2244, 2323, 
3925, 4790; wirch, f517; 
wirchen, 468, f 412 ; worche, 
257, 548, 809 ; pr. s. werches, 
1207 ; wirches, 1176 ; worchej>, 
2579 ; imp. s. wirche, 667. And 
see Wrou^t. 

Werder, adj. 3185. Sir F. Mad- 
den suggests "wild," but doubt- 
fully. By a mere guess, I suggest 
werder-bestes harmful beasts, as 
if from werder, a harmer, from the 
A.S. wyrdan, to harm, which is 
used in the Ormulum in the forms 
weordenn and icerdenn. The word 
is very plain in the MS., or we 
might conjecture it to be an error 
for wonder = wonderful, as in 11. 
1873, 2786. 

Werfore, wherefore, 1081. 

Werne, v. S. to refuse, oppose, 
305 ; 2 p. pi. pr. wern, f 1105 ; 
pt. pi. werned, f 66, f 905. Ch. 

Werre, n. S. war, 1083, 2349, 
2613, 2645 ; wer, 2625. 

Werre, v. S. to war, 1070, 1077, 
1173 ; pp. werred, 3997. 

Werwolf, n. S. man-wolf, passim ; 
pi werwolfs, 2540. Cf. P. PI. 
Crede, 459. 

Wery, adj. S. weary, 2236 ; wo 
wery, weary with woe, 793. See 
the note. 

Weues, pr. s. trans, sways, causes 
to waver, makes to vacillate, causes 
to change from hope to fear and 
from fear to hope, keeps in agita- 
tion, 922 ; infin. intr. weue, waver 
or hover in the air, 4368. \In the 
latter case, Sir E. Madden calls it 
the pp., but we may translate it, 
" the ashes of her body (shall) 
waver in the wind." The A.S. 
verb is wafian, to waver. Cf. G. 
weben, (intr.) to float about.] 

Weued, pt. s. raised, lifted, 2978. 
[The word implies a swaying or 
quivering motion in the thing lift- 
ed ; see the preceding word. Cf. 
tl wefden up ]>a castles ;ate" = 
weighed up the castle-gate ; La^a- 
mon, iii. 373 ; and see Wevynge in 
Prompt. Parv. In P. PL A. vi. 92, 
for To wynne vp \e wiket-ytt two 
MSS. have To weue out ]>e wyketJ] 

Wexe, v. S. to grow, become, 
124 ; wex, 563, 737, f 668 ; pr. 
s. subi. wex, 266 ; pt. s. wax, 630, 
785, 828, 1035, 1204, 1911, 2053, 
2222, 4095 ; wex to = became, 
140 ; pt. pi. waxen, 2931 ; pp. 
wox, 109, 798 ; wexen, 1776 ; 
woxen, f 54. Ch. 

Whayte. See Waite. 

Wham, pron. S. whom, 314, 441, 
769, 1275, 4155. [In 1. 4340 it is 
spelt whan, unless we supply hire, 
which is preferable.] 

Whan, pt. s. procured, 2852. See 

Whan, adv. when, 305, 308, 744, 
&c. ; whanne, 80, 145, &c. ; 
wanne, 11, 854, 1262 ; wan, 2484, 
4026 ; wen, 2821 ; wahan, 
(read whan?), 1572. 

Whar, adv. where, 394 ; war, 
3832. Wharbi, why, 2256. 

Whar, adj. aware, 3382. See 

Whas, pron. whose, 1441. 

Whas,^/0rWas, 3912. 

Whasche, pp. washed, 2997. See 



What = what if, 549. 

What rink so, whatsoever man, 

"What, put for Wot, knows, 1172. 

See Wite. 
Whatow, put for What fow, 

what thou, 4066. 
Whedir, Whederward. See 

Whennes,adv. whence, 478,3122. 

Where, put for Were, 261, 502, 

Where, adv. whether, 2946; 

wher, 799. Ch. 
Where as, where that, 1782. 

Whiche, used in the sense what 
sort of, 1777, 2705, 3118. See 

Whider, adv. whither, 104, 701, 
948, 2689 ; whedir, 2309. Whider 
sometimes has the sense of where, 
as in 2486. 

Whiderward, adv. whither, in 
what direction, 105, 223, 2167 ; 
whederward, 2827. Whiderward 
as, wherever, 2830. 

While, n. S. while, time, 15, 574 ; 

wile, 79, 487 ; wffle, 988. 
While, adv. whilst, 2537 ; wile, 

537 ; whille, 129 ; wil, 1492, 

2277,5228,5536. Ch. 

Whiles, adv. S. meanwhile, 2736. 
"Is formed, like nedes, from the 
gen. case. Hence our whilst" M. 
Cf. Whilis, Wycl. Gloss. 

Whiles, n. pi. S. wiles, 862. 

Whilum, adv. sometimes, at times, 
1788 ; whilom, in former times, 
formerly, 2846. [In f 521 whilome 
is a gloss for Home, q. v.] As 
whiles is the gen. sing, of A.S. 
hwil t so whilum is the dot. plural. 

White, v. See Wite (to blame). 
Whi}, n. See Wei}. 
Whi^t, n. See Wijt. 

Wic. See Wicke. 

Wicche, v. S. to practise witch- 
craft, use sorcery, 2539 ; pp. 
wicched, bewitched, 4427. A.S. 

Wicchecraft, n. S. witchcraft, 
118, 120, 4427 ; wichecraft, 4044. 

Wice, n. S. wise, way, 4380. Cf. 
Wei3es, Wise. 

Wich, pron. ace. sing, what, 
3981 ; ace. pi. masc. whom, 4093, 
4161. Wiche a = what sort of a, 
3354; wiche an = what sort of a 
(referring to the hart only, and we 
must suppose wiche repealed before 
an hinde), 2820. 

Wicke, adj. wicked, evil, bad, 
4599 ; wic, 4652 ; wicked (ap- 
plied to ways), 3507. Ch. 

Wide, v. S. to grow mad, 1509. 
The A.S. is wedan, and wide is 
perhaps miswritten for wede. Cf. A- 

Wide where a-boute, adv. S. 
abroad, everywhere, 2605, 4763; 
wide wher a-boute, 82, 2202. 
The word wide went, 1569. "A 
phrase much used in our old 
writers. See notes to Havelok, 1. 
959." M. Cf. P. PL A. ix. 53, 
and Ch. 

Wie^s, Wie^es. See Wei}. 

Wikkedly, adv. S. cruelly, danger- 
ously, 1218. 

Wil, Wile, Wille. See While. 

Willeful, adj. S. willing, desirous, 
bent upon, 5493 ; wilfull, f 412. 
Wycl. Gloss. 

Wilfulli, adv. S. willingly, with 
good will, readily, heartily, 1782, 
3300, 3322, 4733 ; wilsfully, 
1 590. Ch. 

Willenyng, n. S. wish, desire, 

choice, 3983. Cf. A.S. willnung. 
William, gen. case, 1221, 1372. 

Wilne, v. S. to wish for, desire, 
719, 3563, 4597, 4736 ; willne, 
3983, 3985 ; 1 p. s. pr. wilne, 



1732 ; 2 p. pi. pr. wilne, 3343 ; pr. 
s. wilues, 265, 301, f622; 
wilnen after, 59 ; 1 p. s. pt. wilned, 
4132 ; pt. s. wilned, 3925, 4590 ; 
imp. s. wilne, 4734; pp. wilned, 
2134. Ch. 

Wilsfully. See Wilfulli. 

Wilsum, adj. S. loved, desirable, 
amiable, 5394. 

Winne, v. S. to win, acquire, 
come (used much as we use get 
colloquially} ; winne in si^t = get 
in sight, come in sight, 94 ; winne 
horn = get home, 2457 ; winne 
him awei = get him away, 3623 ; 
winne J?e = get hold of thee, 4263 ; 
winne nere him, get near him, 
3889; 1 p. wan, 2026; pt. s. 
wan (got), 190, 1920, 2500 ; (came), 
2498 ; wanne, 3973 ; whan, 2852 ; 
wan in (came in), 4237 ; wan bi 
(went by), 417 ; wan vp (got up), 
3289 ; pt. pi. wonne, 1224, 2242 ; 
pp. wonne, 82, 1117. 

Wirch, Wirchen, Wirches. See 

Wirdernesse, probably an error 
for wildernesse, 3311. 

Wise, n. S. way, manner, 485, 
490, &c. ; wice, 4380. Ch. 

Wisli, adv. S. truly, verily, 2947, 
3118 ; wisly, 661 ; wiseli, 4615 ; 
wisseli, 673, 721 ; wislich, f 754. 

Wisse, v. tr. S. to make to know, 
to teach, instruct, shew, tell, 1356, 
1666, 2110, 3086; (to protect), 
f 806 ; wissen, 640 ; pr. s. subj. 
wisse, 1804 ; pt. s. wissed, 2207, 
2716, 2727 ; wist, 172 ; pt. pi. 
wissed, 5445 ; imp. s. wisses, 4004. 
P. PI. 

"Wisse ; phr. i wot wel to wisse, 
I know for certain, 3397. Here 
wisse seems to be an adj. (A.S. 

fewis, Old S. uuiss, certain). Cf. 

Wit-oute, prep, without, 2573. 
Wite, v. S. to blame, 458, 530, 
4705, f 972 ; white, 304 ; 1 p. s. 

pr. wite, 900 ; pp. wited, 519 ; imp. 
pi. witeK 2069 ; wite, 4335, 4600, 
5525. Ch. 

Wite, v. to keep, guard, preserve, 
257 ; 2 p. s. pr. subj. 302 ; pt. s. 
wited, 176 ; imp. pi. witej>, 3008. 
See Gloss, to Havelok and La^amon. 

Wite, v. S. to know, 542, 560, 
1458, 2081, 2733, &c. ; 1 p. s. pr. 
wot, 105, 239, 316, 478, 697, &c. ; 
wott, f 754 ; 2 p. s. pr. wost, 
4065 ; wostou (= wost }>ou), 2274 ; 
pr. s. wot, 314, 1871 ; what, 1172 ;. 
2 p. pi. pr. witen, 4328 ; 2 p. s. pr. 
subj. wite, 281 ; pr. s. subj. wite, 
937 ; pt. s. wist, 40, 375, 690, 951, 
1118, f 334, &c.; wiste, 145, 830, 
836 ; pt. pi. wisten, 2195, 5283, 
f372; wist, 1663; imp. s. wite, 
38 ; white, 1884 ; witow (= wite 
J>ou) 68, 105, 300, &c. ; wittow, 
375, 752 ; wittou, 3178 ; imp. pi. 
witeK 4351. Lete wite, 2171. Do 
vs to wite, 1459. Ch. 

Witerly, adv. plainly, openly, 
clearly, unmistakably, certainly, 
40, 229, 289, 316, 533, 624, 680 ; 
witerli, 5288; witterli, 667, 
815, 2705; witterly, 491, 514, 
1407. Cf. Dan. vitterlig, publicly 
known. Ch. 

Wij>, prep, witb (used in the 
sense of by), 1060, 1367, 1492 ; 
wist, 2177 ; wbth, 163 ; cf. Jer- 
wijt in 1. 138. Observe 11. 411, 824. 

Wijj-drow him, pt. s. refl. with- 
drew, 2993 ; pt. pi. wiJj-drow hem, 

Withlich. See 

Wijj-oute, prep, besides, 1291. 

With-sede, pt. s. gainsaid, con- 
tradicted, opposed, 3930. Ch. 

WiJ7-J?atow, on condition that. 
thou, 3161. 

Wiftli. See Wijtly. 

Witly. See Wittily. 

Witte, n. S. senses, reason, under- 
standing, 1204, 1483, &c.; witt, 
36, 142 ; pi wittes, 468. Ch. 



Wittened, pt. pi. imputed it to 
be, ascribed it as being, 3462. 
[Placed under Wite, to know, by 
Sir F. Madden, but may it not be 
from A.S. witan, which has the 
sense to ascribe (honour) as well as 
to impute (blame) ? If so, it may 
be connected with A.S. witnian, a 
derived form of the same witan. 
Cf. " Witton' or retton'. Imputo" 
Prompt. Parv. 

Wittily, adv. S. wisely, prudently, 
sagaciously, 2602 ; wittili, 3364, 
4142; witly, 259,1259. 

Witty, adj. S. possessed of reason, 
sagacious, wise, skilled, 145, 158, 
2712, 2832; witthi, 2182; 
witti, 2204. Wycl. Gloss. 

Wiue, n. S. wife, 242 ; dat wine, 

Wi3h, Wises, Wishes. See Wei}. 

Wi^t, Wi3th, prep. See WiJ>. 

, n. S. a wight, person, 407, 
685, 786; wi$th, 758 ; wlmt, 
4037 ; wight, f 590 ; pi. wightes, 
f598. Ch. 

Wi^t, adj. nimble, active, agile, 
brave, 2877, 3349 ; wi^ht, 3293 ; 

wyght, f 54 ; comp. wi^tere, 
3441 ; wuttere, 3576. Sw. vig. 
See Prompt. Parv. and Ch. 

Wi^tly, adv. nimbly, actively, 
quickly, bravely, 92, 140, 489, 669, 
791, &c.; wiitli, 135, 265, 1861, 
4188 ; wiatliche, 65, 310, 1195 ; 
wiehtly, f 3 ; withlich, f 326 ; 

wi)>tli (or wiytli), 1695 ; 
wi3ttli, 3612 ; wistthli, 3581 ; 
wisttili, 3640. {The spelling wtyli 
in the former edition (in 1. 1861) is 
a misprint for wistli.] 

Wlonke, adj. S. gay, proud, elate, 
grand (spoken of mirth), 1634 ; (of 
a den), 80 ; (of wits), 468. [In the 
two latter places it is written wolnk. 
The A.S. is wlonc, wlanc; the Old 
Saxon is uulanc, arrogant, proud.] 

Wo, n. S. woe, sorrow ; spelt 
W03h, 544; woo, 1483. Him was 
wo, 1167. Wo is me, 1642. 

Wod, adj. S. mad, 36, 554, 715, 
1483, 1770, &c. Ch. 

Wodly, adv. S. madly, 550 ; 
wodli, 3883, 4026. Ch. 

Wol, 1 p. s. pr. I will, 486, 533, 
607, 906, &c. ; 2 p. s. wolt (wilt), 
324, 4263 ; 3 p. s. wol, 326, 482, 
5126 ; wol sche = is she willing, 
4203; \\vQ\, 2260; Z p. 
pi. wol, 4004; 1 p. s. pt. wold, 457- 
1558 ;pt. s. wold, 529, &c.; 
wold, 5185. The form wil also 
occurs, as in 1568. [Schal is more 
often used than wol. Ne wil is 
contracted into nel s and ne wold 
into nold.~\ 

Wold, n. S. power, possession, 
4429. A.S. wald. G. gewalt. 

Wolnk. See Wlonke. 
Won, ?z. S. quantity, f 546. Ch. 
Often spelt woon, so that the o is 
long; also spelt wan, wane; see 
wan in Stratmaun. 

Won, n. S. any dwelling-place ; 
hence, a town, a country, a place, 
f 164, f 237, f 337; wonne,f598, 
t 622. Cf. A.S. wun-stow, a 

Wonde, v. S. to hesitate from fear, 
hesitate to say, 4071, f347; 
wond, 614 ; imp. s. wonde, 275. 
A.S. wandian, to fear. Woncl = 
to fear, occurs in Kyng Alisaunder 
(Weber's Metr. Rom.), 1. 6525. 
Cf. Ch. Leg. Good Women. Dido, 

Wonded, pp. wounded, 1377. Ch. 

Wonder, adj. S. wonderful, 
strange, 1873, 2786. Ch. 

Wonder, adv. wonderfully, 1895. 

Wonderli, adv. wonderfully, sur- 
prisingly, 1214, 1668, 2535; 
wonderliche, 345 ; wonderly, 3682. 

Wonne. See Winne, and 

Wonye, v. S. to dwell, 3312 ; pr. 
s. wone)?, 4471 ; pt. s. woiied, 4, 
1492; pp. woned, 8311. A.S. 
wunian. Ch. 



Woode, adj. S. mad, f 914. See 


Worche, WorcheJ>. See Werclie. 
Worchep, n. S. worship, honour, 

551, 4000; worchepe, 497, 515 ; 

worchip, 618 ; worchipe, 1324, 


Worchipe]?, pr. s. honoureth, 511. 
Worchipfulli, adv. S. honourably, 

"Word, possibly an error for wi3h, 

883. See the note. 
Wore, written for "Were, 2370, 


Worli,Worliche. See Worfliche. 
Wor]>, written for Wrof, adj. 

4335. Of. 2002. 
Wor)>i, adj. S. worthy, honoured, 

dear, 2792, 2795; contracted to 

wort (= A.S. iffurS), 2498, 2522, 

Worfliche, adj. S. worthy, dear, 

1814 ; worthlich, f 596 ; wortlyeh, 

f 1024 ; worfiliche, 1642 ; worjrili, 

2786; worliche, 2700; worli, 138. 

Worbli, adv. S. worthily, honour- 
ably, 673, 3202. 

Worj>e, v. S. to be, to become, 
327, 3081; 3 p. s. imp. worj?e, 
2567 ; pr. s. worf> (with future 
signification, will become, will be), 
2534, 2667, 2947, 3341 ; (used as 
an auxiliary verb, will be), 1673, 
4181, 4253 ; pi worfc 2291. Wo 
worjj me, wo be to me, 4118. Late 
me wor}>, let me be, let me alone, 
2355, 3597; lete hym worthe, 
1 1186. A.S. weorftan. G. werden. 
Moeso-Goth. wairthan. 

Woni3t, written for Wro^t, 5182. 

Wot, Wost, Wostou. See Wite. 

Wox. See Wexe. [In 1. f 337 
wox should rather have been 

Wo3h. See Wo. 
Wowes, n. pi. S. walls, f 1122. 
A.S.?aA. Wycl. Gloss. 

Wrajjed, 1 p. s. pt. made angry, 

Wreche, n. S. revenge, vengeance, 

3404, 1 937. A.S.;ra*. Ch. 
Wreche, v. S. to revenge, avenge, 

wreak vengeance, f 806 ; wreke, 

1111, 3335; pp. wroke, 5431 j 

wroken, f 76. Ch. 

Wrong, adj. false, 706. 

Wronger, comp. adv. more wrong- 
ly, 1176. 

Wrobli, adv. S. angrily, wrath- 
fully, 3683, 3738 ; wro^liche, 

Wro^t, 1 p. s. pt. I wrought, did, 
3694 ; wrout, 725 ; pi. wrou^ten, 
3873 ; wrout, 1571 ; pp. wrought, 
f 76 ; wrujt, 1503. Of. Werche. 

Wus, n. S. ooze, juice, f 712, 
f813. A.S.W*. 

Wynli, adv. pleasantly, 749. 
A.S. wynlic, pleasant. [Explained 
as laboriously, carefully, by Sir F. 
Madden ; as if from A.S. win, 
labour. See wynne in Allit. Poems, 
ed. Morris, and wynnelych, pleasant, 
in Gawayne and Grene Knht, 1. 

[For past participles beginning with I- 
or Y-, see below, and also under I-.] 

Y-armed, armed, f 230. 
Y-charged, loaded, 182. 
Y-clepud, called, 121. Ch. 
Y-gladed, gladdened, 850. 
Ytryed, selected, choice, 1233. 
F. trier, to pick, select. 

Yeeme. See 3eme. 

Yern, n. iron, f 1119, f H33. 

Cf. Irn. 

Y-fere, together, 2267. See I-f ere. 
Yie, n. S. eye, f 277, f 451 ; pi 

yien, 1 182- &* Ei3en. 
Y-now, enough, 836, f8, f 

See I-now. 




Yond, adv. yonder, 263 ; 

846. See jond. Ch. 
Youlden, pt. pi. yielded, f 304. 

See 3eld. 
Y-wisse, adv. verily, 846, 937 ; 

y-wis, f 465. See I-wisse. 

3 in these poems is equivalent to j 
at the beginning of a word, as in ^a, 
3jate ; to gh in n^t, burw^ ; in ^he 
it seems to be a guttural ; cf. hue. 
But it is also found (perhaps by 
mistake) in, place of \> in the words 
yanked, ^out, ^ourh. 

3a, adv. S. yea, 268, 326, 923, 
1380, 2255, 2585, 3245, 3723, 
4728, 4742, 5367, 5432; ;e, 2275, 
3493. S*y*. 

3af. See 3eue. 

3ain-torn, n. S. way of escape, 

3552. Cf. A^en-turn. 
Jald, 3alde. See 3elden. 
3anked, pt. s. thanked, 642. 
3are, adj. S. quick, nimble, ready, 

895, 1963, 3265, &c. ; sup. Barest, 


Jate, n. S. gate, 3757 ; pi. sates, 

3267,3649,f304. Ch. 
3e. See 3a, 3is. Also, see 3ou. 
3ede, pt. s. went, 1767 ; pt. pi. 

1429, 2199, 2238; ^eede, f 304. Ch. 
3ef, if, 1677. See 3if. 

3eft, n. S. a gift, 3664 ; pi. rifles, 

1061, 5357. Ch. 
3elden, v. to yield, requite, 3019; 

3elde, 321, 601, 3941 ; 3eld, 319, 

1547; pr. s. 2eldes, 234; pt. s. 

3alde, 3661; 3ald, 1256; pt. pi. 

2olde, 2708 ; youlden, f 304 ; imp. 

s. aeld, 1252, 3917 ; 3 p. s. imp. 

3elde, 4711. Ch. 
3eme, v. S. to take care of, to take 

charg^ of, rule, provide for, 91, 

2734, 3249, f 318, f 365, f 439 ; 

yeeme, f 43 ; pr. s. ^emes, 2790 ; 

pt. s. Denied, 2806 ; pt. pi. 2emed, 

3267,3320. Ch. 

3epii, adv. S. quickly, 3346, 3649, 
3896, 3941 ; 3 eply, 1252. A.S. 
gap, shrewd. P. PI. 

3erd, n. S. wand, rod (yard), 
"f" 481. 

3ere, n. pi. years, 1040; 2er, 

5369; ^eres, 1057. P. PI. 
3erne, v. S. to yearn for, wish for, 

58, 1633, 4730; pt. s. Denied, 782. 
3erne, adv. eagerly, quickly, soon, 

fast, 1893, 2027, 2197, &c. ; al so 

^ern (very soon), 2043. P. PL 
3er-while, adv. ere while, a short 

time ago, 1246, 3104. 
3ete, adv. yet, 2274 ; $it, 186, 

577, 609 ; mt, 515, 800, 993 j 

^utte, 1955. 

3eue, v. S. to give, 1110; siuen, 
2963 ; 3if, 5071 ; 3 p. imp. s. 2if, 
258, 876, 5536 ; pt. s. $af, 5381; 
pp. seuen, 2857; seue, 1471,5355; 
3iue, 2254. Ch. 

3he, she, 141, 172, 1983. Cf. 

3if, if, 147, 172, 324, &c.; 3 ef, 
1677. But 3if (except), 472. 

3is, yes, 697, 1567, 2260, 3184, 
3490, 4731, 4746, 5149. See 3a. 
\There is certainly a distinction be- 
tween 3a (}e) and $is. 3a = I admit 
that, granted that, that's true, or else 
it simply answers a simple question ; 
but 315 is an affirmative of great 
force = yes, I swear it, by all 
means, and is often followed by i- 
wisse, certes, bi marie, bi crist, or 
it answers a question involving a 
negative. See Marsh, Lectures, 1st 
Series, p. 579.] 

3ister-neue (=. 3istern-eue), yester- 
eve, yesterday evening, 2160. 

3it. See 3ete. 

3olde. See 3elden. 

3omen, n. pi. yeomen, 3649. 

3ond, adj. yon, 3384 ; 3one, 
4572 ; >e 2ond (the person yonder), 
3052. Cf. Yond, adv. Moeso-Goth. 
jains. G. jener. 



3ore, adv. S. long ago, formerly, 
1503, 2513, 3298 ; for 3ore, 4174; 
full ore, 4046. 

3ou, you, 262 ; }ow, 238 ; 
301131, 634, 2262, 3121 ; ow, 106. 
It is the ace. case, the nom. being 
3 e, 251, 269. 

3ourh (used for fourgh), through, 

3out (used for font), n. thought, 


3ut, 3utte. See 3ete. 

NOTE. Dr Stratmann (in his Dictionary of Old English) cites examples 
from the poem of " William of Palerne " thus : " hel, a hill. Will. Gloss. 
229." The numbers merely refer to the page of the glossary in which the 
word is found, not to the pages or lines of the poem. The references in the 
glossary to the edition by Sir F. Madden are to the pages of the book, and 
the following list is given, in order to shew with what line each page of his 
book begins. Most of his pages contain 28 lines, but page 1 contains only 16 ; 
page 16 has 24 lines ; p. 131 has 27 lines; p. 170 has 26 lines; p. 177 has 
27 lines ; p. 196 has 27 lines ; and p. 199 has 17 lines, being the last page 
of the text. 


















To find with what line any one of the succeeding pages begins, we must 
multiply the number of the page by 28, subtracting 43 for pp. 18 131 ; sub- 
tracting 44 for pp. 132170 ; subtracting 46 for pp. 171177 ; and sub- 
tracting 47 for pp. 178196. Thus p. 196 begins with line 196 X 28 47 = 
5441. Page 197 begins with 1. 5468 ; p. 198 with 1. 5496 ; and p. 199 with L 



[In this Index, the references under words in large capitals are to the pages of 
the book ; otherwise, the references are to the lines.] 

Abelot, 363. 

Acelone, 1. 42 on p. 2 ; Achil- 

lones, 4775. 
Akarin, 364. 

ALISAUNDRINB, daughter of the 
duke of Lombardy, p. 28 ; advises 
and assists Melior, pp. 28, 29 ; 
causes William to dream, p. 30; 
brings Melior to find William, pp. 
34 41 ; aids the lovers to escape, 
pp. 5962 ; excuses them to the 
emperor, p. 69 ; meets Melior again, 
p. 156 ; is betrothed to Braundnis, 
p. 159 ; is married, p. 160. 

Almauns, Germans of Saxony, 

William away, p. 3 ; leaves William 
in the den, p. 7 ; sees William 
adopted by the cowherd's wife, p. 
9 ; his father was king of Spain, p. 
10; he is made a WERWOLF by 
his stepmother, p. 10 ; finds that 
William and Melior are dressed up 
in bear-skins, and guards them, and 
provides them with food, pp. 65 
67 ; saves them from the hounds, 
p. 75 ; brings them to Benevento, 
p. 75 ; saves their lives by stealing 

the provost's son, pp. 80 83 ; kills 
a hart and a hind for them, p. 86 ; 
brings them to Reggio, p. 90; 
helps them over the Straits, pp. 91 
94 ; is seen by the queen of 
Palermo, p. 113 ; salutes the king 
of Spain, p. 129 ; threatens his 
stepmother, pp. 139, 140 ; is dis- 
enchanted, p. 142 ; is embraced by 
William, p. 144 ; he falls in love 
with Florence, p. 144; tells 
William's history, pp. 147150; 
is betrothed to Florence, p. 151 ; 
is married, p. 160 ; is made king of 
Spain, p. 167 ; meets William for 
the last time, p. 168; swears 
friendship to William once more, 
p. 172. 

Apulia. See Poyle. 

Bonuent, Benevento, 2221; 
Boneuent, 4692. 

DINE, is queen of Spain, and 
princess of Portugal, p. 10 ; en- 
chants Alphouns, p. 10 ; receives 
an embassy from her lord, pp. 135, 
136; goes to Palermo, p. 137; -is 
attacked by the werwolf, p. 139 ; 
disenchants him, p. 141 ; returns 
to Spain, p. 164. 



BEAUNDYNS, prince of Spain, asks 
Florence in marriage, p. 88 ; is 
taken prisoner by William, p. 117 ; 
is betrothed to Alisaundrine, p. 
159 ; is married, p. 160; comes to 
Palermo, p. 168 ; returns home, 
p. 171. [The name occurs in 11. 
4914, 5299, 5411.] 

Calabre, Calabria, 2628, 5512. 
Cisile, Sicily, 2603, 2628. 

Ebrouns. See Embrons. 

Edward es, (King) Edward's, 166, 
5531. [Sir Humfrey de Bohun's 
mother was a daughter of King 
Edward I.] 

EMBRONS, or EBROUNS, king of 
Palermo, p. 2; loses his son 
William, p. 3 ; pursues the wer- 
wolf without success, pp. 4 6 ; 
dies, p. 88 ; the story of his horse 
Saundbruel, pp. 106, 107 ; his re- 
semblance to his son William, p. 

Englyscb, English, 168. 

Far, a name for the Straits of 
Messina. See page 4, and the note. 

FELICE, queen of Palermo, and 
daughter of the emperor of Greece, 
p. 2 ; her grief at losing her son 
William, p. 5 ; is besieged in Palermo 
by the king of Spain, p. 94 ; her 
dream, p. 95; the dream expounded, 

pp. 96, 97 ; she encourages her 
knights, p. 99 ; she puts on a hind's 
skin, p. 100 ; she overhears about 

Melior's dream, p. 102 ; addresses 
William, p. 103 ; takes the hides 
off William and Melior, p. 105 ; 
sees the werwolf, p. 113 ; perceives 
a likeness between William and 
King Ebrouns, p. 119; discovers 
that William is her son, p. 147 ; 
her dream comes true, p. 174. 
FLORENCE, daughter to the queen 
of Palermo, and sister to William, is 
sought in marriage by Braundyns, 
p. 94 ; is admitted to see the wer- 

wolf after his disenchantment, p. 
143; marries Alphouns, p. 160. 
[The name occurs in 1. 4490.] 
Frensche, 167, 5522, 5533. 

Gergeis, n. pi. Greeks, 2200. 
Possibly miswritten for Gregeis. Cf. 

Gloriande, 1. 41 on p. 2 ; Glori- 
auns, 4775. 

Glouseter, 166. 

Grece, a groin of, 1767. 

GREECE, EMPEROR OP, is father to 
Queen Felice, p. 2 ; sends an em- 
bassy to Rome, p. 53; comes to 
Rome, p. 58 ; raises a hue and cry 
after William and Melior, p. 73 ; 
sends an embassy to Palermo, p. 

Greece, prince of. See Partene- 

Grewes, n. pi Greeks, 2080. See 

Gryffouns, n. pi Greeks, 1961. 
Roquefort gives the forms Greu, 
Greeux, Gregeois, Grifons, &c., as 
equivalent to the Lat. Greecus. 
Hence the forms Gregeis (mis- 
written Gergeis}, Grewes] and Gryf- 
founs in the present poem. 

Hereford, 5530 ; Herford, 165. 

Huet, 362. 

Hugones, Hugo's, 363. 

Hugonet, 362. 

Humfrayde Bowne, 165; Hum- 
fray de Boune, 5530. [Sir Walter 
Scott rimes de Boune with soon ; 
Lord of tfap Isles, Bk VI. c. xiv.] 

Kostant-noble, Constantinople, 

Krist, Christ, 1315. 

Lumbardie, 585, 1315. 



Marie, 838, 2229, 2698, &c. 

Martynet, 363. 

Meliadus, 3846, 3858, 3863, 

MELIOR, or MELIORS, daughter of 
the emperor of Rome, p. 19 ; falls 
in love with William, p. 23 ; her 
soliloquy, pp. 23 26; is comforted 
by Alisaundrine, p. 28 ; goes to 
the garden, p. 34 ; and finds 
William asleep there, p. 35 ; is 
betrothed to William, p. 40; is 
wooed by the prince of Greece, p. 
53 ; escapes with William, dis- 
guised as a bear, pp. 61 67 ; 
arrives at Benevento, p. 75 ; is 
saved by the werwolf, pp. 76 81 ; 
is disguised as a hind, p. 86 ; comes 
to Reggio, p. 90 ; is nearly killed 
by a barge-boy, p. 92 ; comes to 
Palermo, p. 93 ; her dream, p. 102 ; 
is received by the queen of Palermo, 
p. 105 ; her meeting with her 
Father, p. 156 ; is married to 
William, p. 160 ; is crowned em- 
press of Rome, p. 169 ; her children, 
p. 174. &* William. 

Midesomer, Midsummer, 1464. 

Moyses, Moses, the name of a 
priest, 2918, 3025. 

Nauerne, Navarre, 4076. 

Palerne, Palermo, 1. 61 on p. 3 ; 
2838, 4223, 4287 ; spelt Pallerne, 


of the emperor of Greece, and 
brother of Queen Felice, wooes 
Melior, p. 53 ; waits at church for 
his bride, who does not come, p. 
68; arrives at Palermo, p. 157; 
returns to Greece, 161. [The 
name occurs in lines 4930, 4939, 
5039, 5078, 5088.] 

Payenes, Pagan's, 364. 

Petyr, cherche of seynt, 1956. 

Pope, 1957. 

Portingale, Portugal, 116. 

Poyle, Apulia, 156, 2628, 5512. 

Eise, .Reggio, 2717. "It is so 
termed by the French and Italian 
Romancers of the middle ages. See 
Panizzi's Life of Bojardo, vol. ii. p. 
Ixxxi. n. The same change seems 
to have taken place in regard to 
Riez in Provence, as remarked by 
Mr Nicol, to whom I am indebted 
for a reference to Martiniere's- 
Dictionary, sub v. Riez" M. 

Roachas, 1437. 
Romaynes, Romans, 5167. 

ROME, EMPEROR OF, finds William 
in a forest, p. 13 ; talks to the 
cowherd, p. 14 ; adopts William, 
pp. 15 19 ; defeats the duke of 
Saxony, pp. 42 49 ; consents that 
his daughter Melior shall marry 
Partenedon, p. 54; loses Melior, 
p. 68 ; his wrath, pp. 6971 ;; 
finds his daughter at Palermo, p. 
155; his last advice to Melior, p. 
163 ; his death, p. 166. 

Saundbruel (a horse), 3585. 

Saxoyne, duke of, 1068, 1108,. 

SPAYNE, KING OF, father of 'Al- 
phouns the werwolf, p. 9 ; marries 
JBraunde, p. 10 ; besieges Palermo, 
p. 88 ; seeks to revenge his son 
Braundinis, p. 121 ; is taken, 
prisoner, p. 127 ; is saluted by the 
werwolf, p. 129 ; tells William his 
story, pp. 131, 132 ; escorts Melior 
to church, p. 160 ; returns to Spain 
p. 165 ; his death, p. 167. 

Spain, prince of. See Braundinis. 

Spaynols, Spaniards, 3631, 3770, 
5168 ; Spaynoles, 3399 ; Spay- 
nolus, 3529 ; Spaynolnes, 3357. 

King Ebrouns and Queen Felice, p. 
2 ; stolen by the werwolf, pp. 3 
6; found and adopted by a cow- 
herd, pp. 7 9 j found and adopted 
by the emperor of Rome, pp. 13 
23 ; is beloved by Melior, p. 23 ;. 



dreams of Melior, p. 30 ; betrothed 
to Melior, p. 40 ; is knighted, p. 
43 ; defeats the duke of Saxony, 
pp. 45 49 ; his sickness, p. 55 ; 
is healed, p. 57 ; escapes with 
Melior, disguised as a bear, pp. 
5965 } is saved by the werwolf, 
p. 75 ; hides with Melior in a 
quarry, p. 76 ; bids Melior save 
herself, p. 79 ; takes off the bear- 
skin, p. 81 ; hides with Melior in a 
forest, p. 82 ; is nearly discovered 
by some colliers, p. 84 ; disguises 
himself as a hart, and Melior as a 
hind, p, 86 ; comes to Reggio, p. 
90 ; embarks secretly in a ship with 
Melior, p. 91 ; carries her to land, 
p. 92 ; is found by the queen of 
Palermo, p. 103 : undertakes to 

assist her, p. 104 ; has a werwolf 
painted on his shield, p. 105 ; 
mounts King Ebrouns' horse, p. 
107; attacks the Spaniards, pp. 
110-112, 117-126; takes 
prisoner Prince Braundinis, p. 118 ; 
and the king of Spain, p. 127; 
sends for Queen Braunden to dis- 
enchant the werwolf, p. 134; em- 
braces Alphouns, p. 144 ; his story 
and parentage, pp. 147 150; is 
king of Apulia, p. 154 ; marries 
Melior, p. 160 ; is emperor of 
Rome, p. 167 ; creates the cowherd 
an earl, p. 170 ; his wise rule, p. 
173 ; his children, p. 174. 

William (the author's name), 



Alisaunder, son of Amyntas, 22, 

27, 37. 
Alisaunder, son of Philip, 1034, 

1049, 1095, 1148, &c. 
Amon, 661, 727, 805, 
Amyntas, 13. 
Arabes, 498. 
Arisba. See Erubel. 
Aristote (Aristotle). See page 211. 
Arofagi, a corruption of Agrio- 

phagi, i. e. eaters of wild animals, 


Artasarses, 491. 
Assyriens (a mistake /orlllyriens), 

109, 130. 
Assyrie (a mistake for Illyrie), 

Attenes, Athens, 157 ; Attens, 

898 ; Attanus, 90. 
Atteniens, Athenians, 415 ; 

Attenieins, 902, 938. 

Augmi or Augni, 498. 

Barbre, Barbary (a mistake for 

Barbarians, Lat. Barbari), 533, 


Bosorij, 499. 
Byzaunce, Byzantium, 1208 ; 

Byzance, 1222. 

Cappadoce, Cappadocia (a mis- 
take for Chalcidice), 944, 1111. 

Comothonham (a corrupt name 
for Methone). See Methone. 

Constanfcine, 1225. 

Constantinoble, 1223 ; Constan- 
tinople, 1229. 

Egipt, 486, 534, &c. 

Elaine, Helen (mother of Con- 

stantine), 1226. 
Enomanus, 429. 
Epaminondas, 52, 75. 



Erubel, 172 ; Eruba, 240. 
Ethiope, ^Ethiopia, 552. 

Eurydice, 34. 

Greece, 258, &c. 

Jupiter (the planet), 1077. 

Komothonliain (a corrupt spelling 
<?/ Methone). See Methone. 

Lacedemonie, 335, 336, 417, 

444 ; Lacedemoine, 449, 879. 
Lacedemonieins, 351. 
Larissea, 119; Larisse, 131, 161. 
Latine, 458. 

Macedoine, 14. 59, &c. 

Medie, 495. 

Mercurie (the planet), 1077. 

Mesopotamie, 497. 

Methone, 255, 310 ; corruptly 
spelt Comothonham, 255 ; and 
Komothonham, 310. 

Molosor (also Malasor), a corrup- 
tion o/Molossis, 173, 204. 

Nectanabus, 459, 505, &c. 
Olympias, 177, 576, &c. 

Pausanias, 1218, 1246. 

Perce, Persia, 492, 494 ; Perss, 

462, 471. 

Perthe, Parthia, 494. 
Philip, passim. 
Philomelo, 364, 421. 
Phocus, Phocis, 365, 413, 428, 

446, 878 ; Phocos, 336. 
Phosus, j?Z. Phocians, 391. 

Eoome, 103, 1224. 

Seraphin, Serapis, 557, 572. 
Sparte, 1246. 
Syria, 496. 

Tebeniens, Thebans, 877 ; Tebe- 

nieins, 351, 380. 
Tebes, Thebes, 51, 71; Tebs, 

Tessalonie, Thessalonica, 913. 




h 1 1 1984